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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 

Twentieth-Century Photography 



VOLUME 1 




ZMfi 



EDITOR 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 

Twentieth-Century Photography 



BOARD OF ADVISORS 



Deborah Bright 

Faculty, Photography, Art and Architectural History 

Rhode Island School of Design 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Philip Brookman 

Senior Curator of Photography and Media Arts 

The Corcoran Gallery of Art 

Washington, D.C. 

Patty Carroll 

Photographer 
Chicago, Illinois 

Alan Cohen 

Faculty, Art History, Theory and Criticism 
School of The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois 

A.D. Coleman 

Critic and Historian of Photography 
New York, New York 

Linda Connor 

Faculty, Photography 

San Francisco Art Institute 

San Francisco, California 

Charles Desmarais 

Director 

Contemporary Arts Center 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Natasha Egan 

Curator, Museum of Contemporary Photography 

Columbia College 

Chicago, Illinois 

Lisa K. Erf 

Curator of Collections 

Bank One 

Chicago, Illinois 

Marta Gili 

Head, Photography Department 

Serveis Centrals de la Fundacio "la Caixa" 

Barcelona, Spain 



in 



Ellen Handy 

Art History Faculty, Art Department 

City College of New York 

New York, New York 

Mark Haworth-Booth 

Senior Curator of Photographs 

Victoria and Albert Museum 

London, United Kingdom 

Lynn Herbert 

Senior Curator 
Contemporary Arts Museum 
Houston, Texas 

Eikoh Hosoe 
Photographer and Professor 
Tokyo, Japan 

John P. Jacob 
Director 

Photography Curators Resource 
Blue Hill, Maine 

Deborah Klochko 
Director 

Ansel Adams Center for Photography 
San Francisco, California 

Ryszard Kluszczynski 

Curator and Writer 
Warsaw, Poland 

Laura Letinsky 

Faculty, Committee on the Visual Arts 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 

Asko Makela 
Director, Finnish Museum of Photography 
Helsinki, Finland 

Arthur Oilman 

Director and Curator 

Museum of Photographic Arts 

San Diego, California 

Esther G. Parada 

Faculty, Art Department, School of Art and Design 

University of Illinois 

Chicago, Illinois 



IV 



Ulrich Pohlmann 
Director 

Miinchner Stadtmuseum 
Miinchen, Germany 

Charles Dare Scheips 

Archivist 

Condi Nast Publications 

New York, New York 

Charlotte Townsend-Gault 

Faculty, Department of Fine Arts 

University of British Columbia 

Vancouver, Canada 

Gary van Wyk 

Curator 

Axis Gallery 

New York, New York 

Katherine Ware 

Curator of Photographs 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Deborah Willis-Kennedy 

Curator 
Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture 

Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 

Trudy Wilner Stack 

Curator, Historian 
Tucson, Arizona 

Paul Wombell 

Director 

The Photographers' Gallery 

London, United Kingdom 

Tim Wride 

Curator of Photography 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Los Angeles, California 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 

Twentieth-Century Photography 



VOLUME 1 

A-F 

INDEX 



Lynne Warren 

EDITOR 



Q Routledge 

j>^^ Taylor StFrancis Group 

New York London 



Published in 2006 by 

Routledge 

Taylor & Francis Group 

270 Madison Avenue 

New York, NY 10016 



Published in Great Britain by 

Routledge 

Taylor & Francis Group 

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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 
Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group 

Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 
10 987654321 

International Standard Book Number-10: 1-57958-393-8 (Hardcover) 
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-57958-393-4 (Hardcover) 
Library of Congress Card Number 2005046287 

No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known 
or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission 
from the publishers. 

Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation 
without intent to infringe. 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 



Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography / Lynne Warren, editor, 
p. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN 1-57958-393-8 (set : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-415-97665-0 (vol. 1: alk. paper) - ISBN 0-415-97666-9 (vol. 2 : alk. paper) ■ 
ISBN 0-415-97667-7 (vol. 3 : alk. paper) 
Photography, Artistic. I. Title: Encyclopedia of 20th century photography. II. Warren, Lynne. 



TR642.E5 2005 
770'.9'0403-dc22 



2005046287 



T&F 



informa 



Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of T&F Informa pic. 



Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at 
http://www.taylorandfrancis.com 

and the Routledge Web site at 
http ://www.routledge-ny.com 



Contents 



Contributors xi 

Alphabetical List of Entries xv 

Thematic List of Entries xxi 

Glossary xxvii 

Introduction xxxvii 

Entries A to Z 1 

Index II 



IX 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Stuart Alexander 
Jenny Allred Redmann 
Vangelis Athanassopoulos 
Andrew Atkinson 
Lane Barden 
Suvash Barden 
Nancy Barr 
Terry Barrett 
Anne Barthelemy 
Rob Baum 
Lili Bezner 

Momolina Bhattacharyya 
Heather Blaha 
Anne Blecksmith 
Nancy Breslin 
Amanda Brown 
Leslie K. Brown 
Wolfgang Brueckle 
Catherine Burdick 
Katherine Bussard 
Matthew Butson 
R.M. Callender 
Michael Carlebach 
Justin Carville 



Peter Caws 
James Charnock 
Milan Chlumsky 
Vincent Cianni 
Yves Clemmen 
Alan Cohen 
Jill Conner 

Leslie Humm Cormier 
Andy Crank 
Mike Crawford 
Isobel Crombie 
Cristina Cuevas-Wolf 
Thomas Cyril 
Lorraine Anne Davis 
Scott Davis 
Peter Decherney 
Anthony DeGeorge 
Margaret Denny 
Penelope Dixon 
Julia Dolan 
Donald A. Rosenthal 
Petra Dreiser 
Erina Duganne 
Jeffrey Edelstein 



XI 



CONTRIBUTORS 
Diana Edkins 
Jan Estep 
Hannah Feldman 
Jane Fletcher 
Stacey Fox 
Jason Francisco 
Daniel Friedman 
Maki Fukuoka 
John Fuller 
Michel Gaboury 
Monika Kin Gagnon 
William Ganis 
Daniella Geo 
Christian Gerstheimer 
Constance W. Glenn 
Renata Golden 
Richard Gordon 
Sara Greenberger 
Kristen Gresh 
Kristina Grub 
Justin Gustainis 
David Eduard Haberstich 
Sophie Hackett 
Matthias Harder 
Lindsay Harris 
Janice Hart 
Katharina Hausel 
Brigitte Hausmann 
Richard Haw 
Jennifer Headley 
Lisa Henry 



Scarlett Higgins 
Randy Hines 
Katherine Hoffman 
Ah Hossaini 
Kirsten Hoving 
Andrew Howe 
Richard Howells 
Christina Ionescu 
Brandi Iryshe 
Steven Jacobs 
Philippe Jar j at 
Karen Jenkins 
Martyn Jolly 
Birgit Kaufer 
Rachel Keith 
Jean Kempf 
Kay Kenny 
Geraldine Kiefer 
Laura Kleger 
Peter Kloehn 
Lilly Koltun 
Sabine Kriebel 
Yves Laberge 
Kimberly Lamm 
John H. Lawrence 
Susan Laxton 
Bob Lazaroff 
Peter Le Grand 
Danielle F. M. Leenaerts 
Marc Leverette 
Linda Levitt 



Xll 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Tricia R. Louvar 
Sarah Lowe 
Darwin Marable 
Sara L. Marion 
Kelly Maron 
Patrick Mathieu 
Stacey McCarroll 
Jim McDonald 
Sarah McDonald 
Bruce McKaig 
Lambert McLaurin 
Julie Mellby 
Ara Merjian 
Marco Merkli 
Johanna Mizgala 
Dominic Molon 
Stephen Monteiro 
Jean-Luc Monterosso 
Allison M. Moore 
Susan Morgan 
Rebecca Morse 
John Mraz 
Kevin J. Mulhearn 
Alia Myzelev 
Yasufumi Nakamori 
Caryn E. Neumann 
Nathalie Neumann 
Jennifer Olson-Rudenko 
Robert Oventile 
Daniel Palmer 
J. P. Park 



Sara-Jane Parsons 
Martin Patrick 
Lori Pauli 
Nancy Pedri 
John Peffer 
Michele Penhall 
Nuno Pinheiro 
Justin Pittas-Giroux 
Mark Pohlad 
Maren Polte 
Luca Prono 
Laurel Ptak 
Mark Rawlinson 
Shirley Read 
Kevin Reilly 
Melissa Renn 
Yolanda Retter 
Lyle Rexer 
Kate Rhodes 
Edward A. Riedinger 
Leesa Rittelmann 
Claudia Rivers 
Jean Robertson 
Naomi Rosenblum 
Cynthia Elyce Rubin 
Mark Rudnicki 
Esther Ruelfs 
Roberta Russo 
Rolf Sachsse 
Marisa Sanchez 
Manuel Santos 



Xlll 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Roger Sayre 
Rudolf Scheutle 
Elizabeth Schlatter 
Franz-Xaver Schlegel 
Franziska Schmidt 
Jennifer Schneider 
Savannah Schroll 
Danielle Schwartz 
Erin Schwartz 
Rebecca Senf 
Jeffrey Shantz 
Roni Shapira 
Carla Rose Shapiro 
Nancy Shawcross 
Nabeela Sheikh 
Scott Sherer 
M. Kathryn Shields 
Elizabeth Siegel 
Christye Sisson 
George Slade 
Lynn Somers-Davis 
Linda Steer 
John Stomberg 
Ryuji Suzuki 
Johan Swinnen 
A. Krista Sykes 
Blaise Tobia 
Susan Todd-Raque 



Rebecca Tolley-Stokes 
Charlotte Townsend-Gault 
Peter Turner 
Stijn Van De Vyver 
Gary van Wyk 
Miriam Voss 
Scott Walden 
Rachel K. Ward 
Grant Warren 
Lynne Warren 
Shannon Wearing 
Max Weintraub 
Sarah Wheeler 
Elizabeth K. Whiting 
Renate Wickens 
Brian Winkenweder 
Marianne Berger Woods 
Kelly Xintaris 
Nancy Yakimoski 
Shin-Yi Yang 
Janet A. Yates 
Ronald Young 
Stephenie Young 
Raul Zamudio 
Leon Zimlich 
Annalisa Zox- Weaver 
Catherine Zuromkis 



XIV 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 
OF ENTRIES 



Abbott, Berenice 

Abstraction 

Adams, Ansel 

Adams, Eddie 

Adams, Robert 

Aerial Photography 

Africa: An Overview, Photography in 

Africa: Central and West, Photography in 

Africa: East and Indian Ocean Islands, 

Photography in 
Africa: North, Photography in 
Africa: South and Southern, Photography in 
Afterimage 
Agitprop 
Alpert, Max 
An American Place 
Appropriation 
Araki, Nobuyoshi 
Arbus, Diane 
Architectural Photography 
Archives 
Arnold, Eve 
Art Institute of Chicago 
Artists' Books 
Astrophotography 
Atget, Eugene 
Auerbach, Ellen 
Australia, Photography in 
Australian Centre for Photography 



B 



Ballen, Roger 
Baltz, Lewis 
Barr, Jr., Alfred H. 
Barthes, Roland 



Bauhaus 

Bayer, Herbert 

Beaton, Cecil 

Becher, Bernd and Hilla 

Bellmer, Hans 

Berger, John 

Berlinische Galerie 

Bernhard, Ruth 

Beuys, Joseph 

Bibliotheque nationale de France 

Billingham, Richard 

Bischof, Werner 

Black Star 

Blossfeldt, Karl 

Blumenfeld, Erwin 

Body Art 

Boltanski, Christian 

Bourdeau, Robert 

Bourke-White, Margaret 

Bracketing 

Bragaglia, Anton Giulio 

Brandt, Bill 

Brassai 

Bravo, Manuel Alvarez 

Breitenbach, Joseph 

Brownie 

Bruguiere, Francis 

Burgin, Victor 

Burning-In 

Burri, Rene 

Burrows, Larry 

Burson, Nancy 



Cable Release 
Cadieux, Genevieve 
Cahun, Claude 



xv 



ENTRIES A-Z 



Callahan, Harry 

Calle, Sophie 

Camera: 35 mm 

Camera: An Overview 

Camera: Diana 

Camera: Digital 

Camera: Disposable 

Camera: Instant or Polaroid 

Camera Obscura 

Camera: Pinhole 

Camera: Point and Shoot 

Canada, Photography in 

Capa, Robert 

Caponigro, Paul 

Carrillo, Manuel 

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 

Censorship 

Center for Creative Photography 

Central America, Photography in 

Centre National de la Photographie 

Chambi, Martin 

Chargesheimer (Hargesheimer, Karl-Heinz) 

China and Taiwan, Photography in 

Christenberry, William 

Clark, Larry 

Close, Chuck 

Coburn, Alvin Langdon 

Cohen, Lynne 

Coke, Van Deren 

Color Temperature 

Color Theory: Natural and Synthetic 

Composition 

Conceptual Photography 

Conde Nast 

Connor, Linda 

Conservation 

Constructed Reality 

Contact Printing 

Contrast 

Coplans, John 

Corbis/Bettmann 

Corporate Collections 

Creative Camera 

Crewdson, Gregory 

Crime Photography 

Cropping 

Cunningham, Imogen 



D 



Dada 

Dahl- Wolfe, Louise 

Darkroom 

Dater, Judy 

Davidson, Bruce 



de Meyer, Baron Adolph 
Deakin, John 
DeCarava, Roy 
Decisive Moment, The 
Deconstruction 
Delano, Jack 
Depth of Field 
Developing Processes 
diCorcia, Philip-Lorca 
Digital Photography 
Dijkstra, Rineke 
Discursive Spaces 
Documentary Photography 
Dodging 

Doisneau, Robert 
Domon, Ken 
Drtikol, Frantisek 
Duncan, David Douglas 
Dye Transfer 

E 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Edgerton, Harold E. 

Eggleston, William 

Eisenstaedt, Alfred 

Elsken, Ed van der 

Emulsion 

Enlarger 

Erfurth, Hugo 

Erotic Photography 

Erwitt, Elliott 

Ethics and Photography 

Europe: An Overview, Photography in 

Evans, Frederick H. 

Evans, Walker 

Export, Valie (Waltraud Lehner) 

Exposure 



Family Photography 

Fani-Kayode, Rotimi 

Farm Security Administration 

Fashion Photography 

Faucon, Bernard 

Faurer, Louis 

Feininger, Andreas 

Feininger, T. Lux 

Feldmann, Hans-Peter 

Feminist Photography 

Festivals 

Film 

Film: High-Contrast 

Film: Infrared 



xvi 



ENTRIES A-Z 



Filters 

Fine Arts Presses 

Finsler, Hans 

Fischer, Arno 

Fischli, Peter and David Weiss 

Flaherty, Robert Joseph 

Flusser, Vilem 

Formalism 

Fosso, Samuel 

France, Photography in 

Franck, Martine 

Frank, Robert 

Freund, Gisele 

Friends of Photography 

Fukase, Masahisa 

Fukuda, Miran 

Funke, Jaromir 

Furuya, Seiichi 

Fuss, Adam 

Futurism 



Heinecken, Robert 

Hellebrand, Nancy 

Henderson, Nigel 

Henri, Florence 

Hers, Francois 

Hilliard, John 

Hine, Lewis 

Hiro 

History of Photography: Nineteenth-Century 

Foundations 
History of Photography: Twentieth-Century 

Developments 
History of Photography: Twentieth-Century Pioneers 
History of Photography: Interwar Years 
History of Photography: Postwar Era 
History of Photography: the 1980s 
Hoch, Hannah 
Horst, Horst P. 
Hosoe, Eikoh 
Hoyningen-Huene, George 
Hurrell, George 
Hiitte, Axel 



Galleries 

Gelpke, Andre 

Germany and Austria, Photography in 

Gerz, Jochen 

Giacomelli, Mario 

Gibson, Ralph 

Gidal, N. Tim 

Gilbert & George 

Gilpin, Laura 

Gloaguen, Herve 

Gohlke, Frank 

Goldin, Nan 

Gowin, Emmet 

Graham, Dan 

Graham, Paul 

Grossman, Sid 

Group f/64 

Gursky, Andreas 

Gutmann, John 



H 



Haas, Ernst 

Hahn, Betty 

Hajek-Halke, Heinz 

Halsman, Philippe 

Hamaya, Hiroshi 

Hammarskidld, Hans 

Hand Coloring and Hand Toning 

Hartmann, Erich 

Heartfield, John (Helmut Herzfelde) 

Heath, David Martin 



I 



Image Construction: Perspective 

Image Theory: Ideology 

Impressionism 

Industrial Photography 

Infrared Photography 

Instant Photography 

Institute of Design (New Bauhaus) 

Internet and Photography, The 

Interpretation 

Ishimoto, Yasuhiro 

Iturbide, Graciela 

Izis (Israel Bidermanas) 



J. Paul Getty Museum 
Jacobi, Lotte 
Janah, Sunil 
Japan, Photography in 
Jones, Harold 
Jones, Pirkle 
Josephson, Kenneth 

K 

Karsh, Yousuf 
Kasebier, Gertrude 
Kawada, Kikuji 
Keetman, Peter 
Kei'ta, Seydou 



xvn 



ENTRIES A-Z 



Kertesz, Andre 

Kessels, Willy 

Kesting, Edmund 

Khaldei, Yevgeny (Chaldej, Jewgeni) 

Killip, Chris 

Klein, Aart 

Klein, Astrid 

Klein, William 

Klett, Mark 

Korea, Photography in 

Koudelka, Josef 

Kozloff, Max 

Krauss, Rosalind 

Kruger, Barbara 

Krull, Germaine 



Lange, Dorothea 

Lartigue, Jacques Henri 

Latin America: An Overview, Photography in 

Laughlin, Clarence John 

Lebeck, Robert 

Lee, Russell 

Leibovitz, Annie 

Lemagny, Jean Claude 

Lens 

Lerski, Helmar 

Levinthal, David 

Levi-Strauss, Claude 

Levitt, Helen 

Levy, Julien 

Liberman, Alexander 

Library of Congress 

Liebling, Jerome 

Life Magazine 

Light Meter 

Lighting and Lighting Equipment 

Link, O. Winston 

Linked Ring 

List, Herbert 

Long, Richard 

Look 

Luthi, Urs 

Lynes, George Piatt 

Lyon, Danny 

Lyons, Nathan 

M 

Maar, Dora 

Madame d'Ora 

Magnum Photos 

Maison Europeenne de la Photographie 

Man Ray 



Man, Felix H. 

Manipulation 

Mapplethorpe, Robert 

Mark, Mary Ellen 

Masking 

McBean, Angus 

Meatyard, Ralph Eugene 

Meiselas, Susan 

Messager, Annette 

Metzker, Ray K. 

Mexico, Photography in 

Meyerowitz, Joel 

Michals, Duane 

Mikhailov, Boris 

Miller, Lee 

Misrach, Richard 

Model, Lisette 

Modern Photography 

Moderna Museet (Fotografiska Museet) 

Modernism 

Modotti, Tina 

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 

Montage 

Morath, Inge 

Morimura, Yasumasa 

Morris, Wright 

Moses, Stefan 

Mulas, Ugo 

Multiple Exposures and Printing 

Muniz, Vik 

Munkacsi, Martin 

Museum Folkwang 

Museum of Modern Art 

Museums 

Museums: Canada 

Museums: Europe 

Museums: United States 

N 

Namuth, Hans 

National Geographic 

Netherlands, Photography in The 

Newhall, Beaumont 

Newman, Arnold 

Newton, Helmut 

Nixon, Nicolas 

Non-Silver Processes 

Novak, Lorie 

Nude Photography 

O 

Office of War Information 
Olsen, Lennart 



xvm 



ENTRIES A-Z 



Optics 

Outerbridge, Paul Jr. 
Owens, Bill 



Panoramic Photography 

Parr, Martin 

Penn, Irving 

Peress, Gilles 

Periodicals: Historical 

Periodicals: Professional 

Perspective 

Peterhans, Walter 

Pfahl, John 

Photo Agencies 

Photo League 

Photo-Secession 

Photo-Secessionists 

Photogram 

Photographic Theory 

Photographic "Truth" 

Photography and Painting 

Photography and Sculpture 

Pictorialism 

Picture Post 

Pierre et Gilles 

Pin-Up Photography 

Plossu, Bernard 

Plowden, David 

Polaroid Corporation 

Popular Photography 

Porter, Eliot 

Portraiture 

Posterization 

Postmodernism 

Prince, Richard 

Print Processes 

Private Collections 

Professional Organizations 

Propaganda 

Public Art Photography 

R 

Rainer, Arnulf 
Rauschenberg, Robert 
Ray-Jones, Tony 
Renger-Patzsch, Albert 
Representation 
Representation and Gender 
Representation and Race 
Riboud, Marc 
Rice, Leland 
Riefenstahl, Leni 



Riis, Jacob 

Ritts, Herb 

Roh, Franz 

Rosier, Martha 

Rothstein, Arthur 

Royal Photographic Society 

Rubinstein, Eva 

Ruff, Thomas 

Russia and Eastern Europe, Photography in 



Safelight 

Salgado, Sebastiao 

Salomon, Erich 

Sander, August 

Sandwiched Negatives 

Scanning 

Schadeberg, Jiirgen 

Schmidt, Michael 

Schneiders, Toni 

Sekula, Allan 

Semiotics 

Serrano, Andres 

Seymour, David "Chim" 

Shahn, Ben 

Shaikhet, Arkadii 

Sheeler, Charles 

Sherman, Cindy 

Shibata, Toshio 

Shore, Stephen 

Simpson, Lorna 

Singh, Raghubir 

Siskind, Aaron 

Skoglund, Sandy 

Snow, Michael 

Snowdon (Anthony Armstrong- Jones) 

Social Representation 

Socialist Photography 

Solarization 

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 

Sommer, Frederick 

Sontag, Susan 

South America, Photography in 

Spain and Portugal, Photography in 

Spence, Jo 

Starn, Doug and Mike 

Stedelijk Museum 

Steichen, Edward 

Steiner, Andre 

Stettner, Louis 

Stieglitz, Alfred 

Stone, Sasha 

Strand, Paul 

Street Photography 



xix 



ENTRIES A-Z 



Struth, Thomas 




Vernacular Photography 


Stryker, Roy 




Victoria and Albert Museum 


Sudek, Josef 




Virilio, Paul 


Sugimoto, Hiroshi 




Virtual Reality 


Surrealism 




Vishniac, Roman 


Szabo, Stephen 




Visual Anthropology 


Szarkowski, John 






Szilasi, Gabor 




W 


T 




Wall, Jeff 

War Photography 


Tabard, Maurice 




Watanabe, Yoshio 


Teige, Karel 




Webb, Boyd 


Teske, Edmund 




Weber, Bruce 


Tice, George 




Weber, Wolfgang 


Tillmans, Wolfgang 




Wedding Photography 


Time Exposure 




Weegee 


Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography 


Weems, Carrie Mae 


Toning 




Wegman, William 


Tosani, Patrick 




Welpott, Jack 


Toscani, Oliviero 




Weston, Edward 


Traub, Charles 




White, Clarence 


Tseng Kwong Chi 




White, Minor 


Turbeville, Deborah 




Wiener Aktionismus 


Typology 




Willis-Kennedy, Deborah 
Winogrand, Garry 


U 




Witkiewicz (Witkacy), Stanislaw Ignacy 
Witkin, Joel-Peter 


Ubac, Raoul 




Wojnecki, Stefan 


Uelsmann, Jerry 




Woodman, Francesca 


Ulmann, Doris 




Worker Photography 


Umbo (Otto Umbehr) 




Works Progress Administration 


Underwater Photography 






United States: Midwest, Photography 


in the 


X 


United States: South, Photography in 


the 




Uzzle, Burk 




Xerography 


V 




Z 


Van Vechten, Carl 




Zero 61 Group 


VanDerZee, James 




Zwart, Piet 



XX 



THEMATIC LIST 
OF ENTRIES 



Equipment 

Brownie 

Cable Release 
Camera: 35 mm 
Camera: An Overview 
Camera: Diana 
Camera: Digital 
Camera: Disposable 
Camera: Instant or Polaroid 
Camera Obscura 
Camera: Pinhole 
Camera: Point and Shoot 

Developing Processes 

Enlarger 

Film 

Film: High-Contrast 

Film: Infrared 

Filters 

Lens 
Light Meter 

Safelight 



Institutions, Galleries, and Collections 

An American Place 
Art Institute of Chicago 
Australian Centre for Photography 

Bauhaus 
Berlinische Galerie 



Bibliotheque nationale de France 
Black Star 

Center for Creative Photography 
Centre National de la Photographie 
Conde Nast 
Corbis/Bettmann 
Corporate Collections 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Farm Security Administration 
Friends of Photography 

Galleries 

Institute of Design (New Bauhaus) 

J. Paul Getty Museum 

Library of Congress 

Magnum Photos 

Maison Europeenne de la Photographie 

Moderna Museet (Fotografiska Museet) 

Museum Folkwang 

Museum of Modern Art 

Museums 

Museums: Canada 

Museums: Europe 

Museums: United States 

Office of War Information 

Photo Agencies 
Photo League 
Polaroid Corporation 
Private Collections 



xxi 



THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES 

Royal Photographic Society 

Stedelijk Museum 

Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography 

Victoria and Albert Museum 

Works Progress Administration 

Persons 

Abbott, Berenice 
Adams, Ansel 
Adams, Eddie 
Adams, Robert 
Alpert, Max 
Araki, Nobuyoshi 
Arbus, Diane 
Arnold, Eve 
Atget, Eugene 
Auerbach, Ellen 

Ballen, Roger 
Baltz, Lewis 
Barr, Jr., Alfred H. 
Barthes, Roland 
Bayer, Herbert 
Beaton, Cecil 
Becher, Bernd and Hilla 
Bellmer, Hans 
Berger, John 
Bernhard, Ruth 
Beuys, Joseph 
Billingham, Richard 
Bischof, Werner 
Blossfeldt, Karl 
Blumenfeld, Erwin 
Boltanski, Christian 
Bourdeau, Robert 
Bourke-White, Margaret 
Bragaglia, Anton Giulio 
Brandt, Bill 
Brassa'i 

Bravo, Manuel Alvarez 
Breitenbach, Joseph 
Bruguiere, Francis 
Burgin, Victor 
Burri, Rene 
Burrows, Larry 
Burson, Nancy 

Cadieux, Genevieve 
Cahun, Claude 



Callahan, Harry 

Calle, Sophie 

Capa, Robert 

Caponigro, Paul 

Carrillo, Manuel 

Cartier-Bresson, Henri 

Chambi, Martin 

Chargesheimer (Hargesheimer, Karl-Heinz) 

Christenberry, William 

Clark, Larry 

Close, Chuck 

Coburn, Alvin Langdon 

Cohen, Lynne 

Coke, Van Deren 

Connor, Linda 

Coplans, John 

Crewdson, Gregory 

Cunningham, Imogen 

Dahl- Wolfe, Louise 
Dater, Judy 
Davidson, Bruce 
de Meyer, Baron Adolph 
Deakin, John 
DeCarava, Roy 
Delano, Jack 
diCorcia, Philip-Lorca 
Dijkstra, Rineke 
Doisneau, Robert 
Domon, Ken 
Drtikol, Frantisek 
Duncan, David Douglas 

Edgerton, Harold E. 

Eggleston, William 

Eisenstaedt, Alfred 

Elsken, Ed van der 

Erfurth, Hugo 

Erwitt, Elliott 

Evans, Frederick H. 

Evans, Walker 

Export, Valie (Waltraud Lehner) 

Fani-Kayode, Rotimi 
Faucon, Bernard 
Faurer, Louis 
Feininger, Andreas 
Feininger, T. Lux 
Feldmann, Hans-Peter 
Finsler, Hans 
Fischer, Arno 

Fischli, Peter and David Weiss 
Flaherty, Robert Joseph 
Flusser, Vilem 
Fosso, Samuel 



xxii 



THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES 



Franck, Martine 
Frank, Robert 
Freund, Gisele 
Fukase, Masahisa 
Fukuda, Miran 
Funke, Jaromir 
Furuya, Seiichi 
Fuss, Adam 

Gelpke, Andre 
Gerz, Jochen 
Giacomelli, Mario 
Gibson, Ralph 
Gidal, N. Tim 
Gilbert & George 
Gilpin, Laura 
Gloaguen, Herve 
Gohlke, Frank 
Goldin, Nan 
Gowin, Emmet 
Graham, Dan 
Graham, Paul 
Grossman, Sid 
Gursky, Andreas 
Gutmann, John 

Haas, Ernst 

Hahn, Betty 

Hajek-Halke, Heinz 

Halsman, Philippe 

Hamaya, Hiroshi 

Hammarskidld, Hans 

Hartmann, Erich 

Heartfield, John (Helmut Herzfelde) 

Heath, David Martin 

Heinecken, Robert 

Hellebrand, Nancy 

Henderson, Nigel 

Henri, Florence 

Hers, Frangois 

Hilliard, John 

Hine, Lewis 

Hiro 

Hoch, Hannah 

Horst, Horst P. 

Hosoe, Eikoh 

Hoyningen-Huene, George 

Hurrell, George 

Hiitte, Axel 

Ishimoto, Yasuhiro 

Iturbide, Graciela 

Izis (Israel Bidermanas) 

Jacobi, Lotte 



Janah, Sunil 
Jones, Harold 
Jones, Pirkle 
Josephson, Kenneth 

Karsh, Yousuf 

Kasebier, Gertrude 

Kawada, Kikuji 

Keetman, Peter 

Kei'ta, Seydou 

Kertesz, Andre 

Kessels, Willy 

Resting, Edmund 

Khaldei, Yevgeny (Chaldej, Jewgeni) 

Killip, Chris 

Klein, Aart 

Klein, Astrid 

Klein, William 

Klett, Mark 

Koudelka, Josef 

Kozloff, Max 

Krauss, Rosalind 

Kruger, Barbara 

Krull, Germaine 

Lange, Dorothea 
Lartigue, Jacques Henri 
Laughlin, Clarence John 
Lebeck, Robert 
Lee, Russell 
Leibovitz, Annie 
Lemagny, Jean Claude 
Lerski, Helmar 
Levinthal, David 
Levi-Strauss, Claude 
Levitt, Helen 
Levy, Julien 
Liberman, Alexander 
Liebling, Jerome 
Link, O. Winston 
List, Herbert 
Long, Richard 
Liithi, Urs 
Lynes, George Piatt 
Lyon, Danny 
Lyons, Nathan 

Maar, Dora 
Madame d'Ora 
Man Ray 
Man, Felix H. 
Mapplethorpe, Robert 
Mark, Mary Ellen 
McBean, Angus 
Meatyard, Ralph Eugene 



xxni 



THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES 



Meiselas, Susan 
Messager, Annette 
Metzker, Ray K. 
Meyerowitz, Joel 
Michals, Duane 
Mikhailov, Boris 
Miller, Lee 
Misrach, Richard 
Model, Lisette 
Modotti, Tina 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 
Morath, Inge 
Morimura, Yasumasa 
Morris, Wright 
Moses, Stefan 
Mulas, Ugo 
Muniz, Vik 
Munkacsi, Martin 

Namuth, Hans 
Newhall, Beaumont 
Newman, Arnold 
Newton, Helmut 
Nixon, Nicolas 
Novak, Lorie 

Olsen, Lennart 
Outerbridge, Paul Jr. 
Owens, Bill 

Parr, Martin 
Penn, Irving 
Peress, Gilles 
Peterhans, Walter 
Pfahl, John 
Pierre et Gilles 
Plossu, Bernard 
Plowden, David 
Porter, Eliot 
Prince, Richard 

Rainer, Arnulf 
Rauschenberg, Robert 
Ray- Jones, Tony 
Renger-Patzsch, Albert 
Riboud, Marc 
Rice, Leland 
Riefenstahl, Leni 
Riis, Jacob 
Ritts, Herb 
Roh, Franz 
Rosier, Martha 
Rothstein, Arthur 
Rubinstein, Eva 
Ruff, Thomas 



Salgado, Sebastiao 

Salomon, Erich 

Sander, August 

Schadeberg, Jiirgen 

Schmidt, Michael 

Schneiders, Toni 

Sekula, Allan 

Serrano, Andres 

Seymour, David "Grim" 

Shahn, Ben 

Shaikhet, Arkadii 

Sheeler, Charles 

Sherman, Cindy 

Shibata, Toshio 

Shore, Stephen 

Simpson, Lorna 

Singh, Raghubir 

Siskind, Aaron 

Skoglund, Sandy 

Snow, Michael 

Snowdon (Anthony Armstrong- Jones) 

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 

Sommer, Frederick 

Sontag, Susan 

Spence, Jo 

Starn, Doug and Mike 

Steichen, Edward 

Steiner, Andre 

Stettner, Louis 

Stieglitz, Alfred 

Stone, Sasha 

Strand, Paul 

Struth, Thomas 

Stryker, Roy 

Sudek, Josef 

Sugimoto, Hiroshi 

Szabo, Stephen 

Szarkowski, John 

Szilasi, Gabor 

Tabard, Maurice 
Teige, Karel 
Teske, Edmund 
Tice, George 
Tillmans, Wolfgang 
Tosani, Patrick 
Toscani, Oliviero 
Traub, Charles 
Tseng Kwong Chi 
Turbeville, Deborah 

Ubac, Raoul 
Uelsmann, Jerry 
Ulmann, Doris 
Umbo (Otto Umbehr) 



XXIV 



THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES 



Uzzle, Burk 

Van Vechten, Carl 
VanDerZee, James 
Virilio, Paul 
Vishniac, Roman 

Wall, Jeff 

Watanabe, Yoshio 

Webb, Boyd 

Weber, Bruce 

Weber, Wolfgang 

Weegee 

Weems, Carrie Mae 

Wegman, William 

Welpott, Jack 

Weston, Edward 

White, Clarence 

White, Minor 

Willis-Kennedy, Deborah 

Winogrand, Garry 

Witkiewicz (Witkacy), Stanislaw Ignacy 

Witkin, Joel-Peter 

Wojnecki, Stefan 

Woodman, Francesca 

Zero 61 Group 
Zwart, Piet 

Publications and Publishers 

Afterimage 
Creative Camera 

Life Magazine 
Look 

Modern Photography 

National Geographic 

Periodicals: Historical 
Periodicals: Professional 
Picture Post 
Popular Photography 

Regions 

Africa: An Overview, Photography in 
Africa: Central and West, Photography in 
Africa: East and Indian Ocean Islands, 

Photography in 
Africa: North, Photography in 



Africa: South and Southern, Photography in 
Australia, Photography in 

Canada, Photography in 
Central America, Photography in 
China and Taiwan, Photography in 

Europe: An Overview, Photography in 

France, Photography in 

Germany and Austria, Photography in 

Japan, Photography in 

Korea, Photography in 

Latin America: An Overview, Photography in 

Mexico, Photography in 

Netherlands, Photography in The 

Russia and Eastern Europe, Photography in 

South America, Photography in 
Spain and Portugal, Photography in 

United States: Midwest, Photography in the 
United States: South, Photography in the 

Topics and Terms 

Abstraction 

Aerial Photography 

Agitprop 

Appropriation 

Architectural Photography 

Archives 

Artists' Books 

Astrophotography 

Body Art 

Bracketing 

Burning-In 

Censorship 

Color Temperature 

Color Theory: Natural and Synthetic 

Composition 

Conceptual Photography 

Conservation 

Constructed Reality 

Contact Printing 



XXV 



THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES 



Contrast 

Crime Photography 

Cropping 

Dada 

Darkroom 

Decisive Moment, The 

Deconstruction 

Depth of Field 

Digital Photography 

Discursive Spaces 

Documentary Photography 

Dodging 

Dye Transfer 

Emulsion 

Erotic Photography 

Ethics and Photography 

Exposure 

Family Photography 

Fashion Photography 

Feminist Photography 

Festivals 

Fine Arts Presses 

Formalism 

Futurism 

Group f/64 

Hand Coloring and Hand Toning 

History of Photography: Nineteenth-Century 

Foundations 
History of Photography: Twentieth-Century 

Developments 
History of Photography: Twentieth-Century Pioneers 
History of Photography: Interwar Years 
History of Photography: Postwar Era 
History of Photography: the 1980s 

Image Construction: Perspective 
Image Theory: Ideology 
Impressionism 
Industrial Photography 
Infrared Photography 
Instant Photography 
Internet and Photography, The 
Interpretation 

Lighting and Lighting Equipment 
Linked Ring 

Manipulation 

Masking 

Modernism 



Montage 

Multiple Exposures and Printing 

Non-Silver Processes 
Nude Photography 

Optics 

Panoramic Photography 

Perspective 

Photo-Secession 

Photo-Secessionists 

Photogram 

Photographic Theory 

Photographic "Truth" 

Photography and Painting 

Photography and Sculpture 

Pictorialism 

Pin-Up Photography 

Portraiture 

Posterization 

Postmodernism 

Print Processes 

Professional Organizations 

Propaganda 

Public Art Photography 

Representation 
Representation and Gender 
Representation and Race 

Sandwiched Negatives 

Scanning 

Semiotics 

Social Representation 

Socialist Photography 

Solarization 

Street Photography 

Surrealism 

Time Exposure 

Toning 

Typology 

Underwater Photography 

Vernacular Photography 
Virtual Reality 
Visual Anthropology 

War Photography 
Wedding Photography 
Wiener Aktionismus 
Worker Photography 

Xerography 



xxvi 



GLOSSARY 



Editor's note: These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the 
serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts 
photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names ("dye-destruction print" in lieu of "Cibachrome" 
and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the 
increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth 
century processes and obsolete terms are included. 

Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small 
capitals. 

Additive colors The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo- 
graphic reproduction. See entry color theory: natural and synthetic. 

Agfacolor Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert; 
analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor. 

Albumen print Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is 

prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate 
solution. See also Collodion process; Dry plate processes. 

Amberlith An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for 
commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the 
resulting positive film. See also Rubylith. 

Ambrotype An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being 
positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also 
see Ferrotype. 

Anamorphic image An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially 
varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion. 

Aniline A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic 
applications. 

Aniline process A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing 
the need for a negative. Also see Diazo process. 

Aniline printing See Flexography . 

Angle of incidence The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at 
which light hits a surface. 

Angle of view The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens 
to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to 
capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme 
telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15°; normal lens generally fall in the 40 to 100° range; a "fisheye" 
wide-angle is 150 to 200° (or more). 

Anscocolor Trade name of a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company GAF Corporation. 

Anti-halation layer The light absorbing layer in raw stock that prevents reflection of light back into the light- 
sensitive emulsion, preventing unwanted fogging. 

Aristotype Trade name for a variety of non-albumen printing papers which became a general term; largely 
obsolete in the twentieth century. 

Artigue process Variation on the carbon process; largely obsolete in the twentieth century. 



xxvn 



GLOSSARY 

Aspect ratio The ratio between height and width in photographic applications. 

Autochrome One of the first commercially viable color photography techniques using pigments in potato starch 

fixed by means of varnish and coated with a light sensitive emulsion (orthochromatic gelatin bromide) on a 

glass plate. Also known as an additive color process color plate. Used most widely between 1900 and 1930. 
Autotype A carbon process for making prints from negatives; originally a trade name which became the generic 

name for prints made with a variety of carbon processes. 
Bichromate processes A family of processes, not utilizing silver, to make prints on various grounds by coating 

them with a colloid, which can be gum arabic, gelatin, or starch, that has been treated to be light sensitive 

with potassium or ammonium bichromates. Grounds include papers, films, and fabric. Also known as 

gum-bichromate or dichromate processes. See also entry non-silver processes. 
Black-and-white print See Gelatin silver print. 
Bleaching The use of various chemicals, including iodine compounds or potassium ferricyanide, to remove the 

silver from an image. 
Bleach-out process A technique for creating a hand drawing from a black and white print in which a drawing is 

made over a photographic image, which is then bleached completely away. 
Bleed An image that runs to the edge of a print or page; "full-bleed" indicates the image goes to all four edges. 
Blindstamp An embossed mark, generally colorless and usually outside the image, used to identify the publisher, 

printer, photographer's studio or photographer. The stamp may be a symbol, initials, or full name and 

address. Also known as drystamp and chop. 
Blueprint An image created via the cyanotype process that results in blue tones, most often used in architectural 

plans. See Ozalid process and Diazo process. See also entry non-silver processes. 
Bromoil process A variation of the carbro process in which the silver image of a bromide print is converted to a 

carbon image and then prepared with oil-based inks for printing. 
Bromide print A print created on a black and white paper in which the emulsion contains silver bromide and 

silver iodide, resulting in a relatively greater sensitivity to light. See entry non-silver processes. 
Bracketing See entry. 
Burning-in See entry. 
Calotype An early and widely used paper negative process in which the paper was made light sensitive with silver 

iodide, also called Talbotype after its inventor, W.H.F. Talbot. 
Camera obscura See entry. 

Carbon processes Name for the family of photographic processes, originating in bichromate technique, accom- 
plished using particles of carbon or colored pigments that includes the Carbro process. See also entries non- 
silver processes; print processes. 
Carbro process Carbon process of versatility similar to silver processes in that it can be used for enlarged prints, 

with capabilities to manipulate during both development and enlarging (such as burning and doding), 

developed from ozotype and ozo processes; name obtained from a combination of carbon and bromide. 

Standardized as assembly process color print. See also Ozotype and entries non-silver processes; print 

processes. 
Carte-de-visite French for "visiting card"; a mainly mid-nineteenth century phenomenon of small photographs 

mounted on cards that became widely popular to exchange or distribute. 
CCD For charge coupled device, a sensing device found in most digital cameras consisting of a rectangular grid 

of light sensitive elements that generate an electrical current relative to the amount of light sensed and 

replacing film. 
Celluloid A type of plastic of dubious stability and extreme flammability developed in the mid-nineteenth 

century; used toward the end of the nineteenth century for the support for photographic emulsion in film 

manufacture. 
Chloro-bromide print Variation of the gelatin silver print wherein the light sensitive material in the emulsion 

consists of silver chloride and silver bromide; produces a warmer image than the gelatin silver print. See 

also Gelatin silver print. 
Chromogenic development Process in which chemical reactions are used to create colors (dyes) in a light sensitive 

emulsion. See Chromogenic development print and as opposed to Dye destruction process. 
Chromogenic development print Standard generic name for common trade names such as in which a color image is 

obtained by means of silver halide coupled with cyan, magenta, and yellow dyes. This process is the 

opposite of the dye destruction process. See also entry print processes. 



xxvm 



GLOSSARY 

Cibachrome Trade name for prints obtained by means of the dye destruction process originated by the 

British photographic concern Ilford in concert with CIBA AG of Switzerland. Originally 'Cilchrome.' 

Standardized as dye destruction print. Also less commonly: silver dye bleach process print. 
CIE Color System International color system developed by ICI (CIE) using scientific color measurement to 

standardize color names and the color they describe. See also ICI (CIE). 
Circle of confusion The size of the largest open circle which the eye cannot distinguish from a solid dot, used to 

determine sharpness and thus depth of field. See entry depth of field. 
Cliche-verre A method for reproduction of drawings or painting by photographic means in which glass is coated 

with an opaque ground that is scratched away and then used as a photographic negative. Also known as 

Hyalotype. 
Collage Two-dimensional or bas-relief image created by gluing or pasting together various pieces of images and 

materials collected from various sources. See also Montage. 
Collotype Bichromate process for obtaining printed reproductions of photographic imagery invented mid- 
nineteenth century using plates of glass coated with a layer of adhesive gelatin followed by a layer 

of gelatin sensitized with potassium bichromate. Used chiefly for commercial printing applications 

before superseded by offset lithography in early decades of the twentieth century. 

See entry non-silver processes. 
Color Key Trademark of Pantone Corporation for a color identification system used largely in graphic design 

and commercial printing applications. 
Color temperature See entry. 
Composite photographs A photograph created through the combining of two or more individual images to form a 

whole and generally rephotographed to create a seamless final image, as distinguished from montage. 
Contact print See entry contact printing. 
Continuous-tone process Any of a family of processes which create an image in which modulations from 

dark to light are achieved by variations in density of the image-forming substance, most commonly 

silver in black and white photographs and dyes in color photographs, in relation to the amount of 

light exposure received. As opposed to Halftone process. 
Cyanotype A widely used iron-based process deriving from the discovery in 1841-1842 by Sir John Herschel that 

many iron compounds were in fact light sensitive. A relatively simple and versatile process that produces 

white images on a blue ground. Also known as the Ferroprussianate process. 
Daguerreotype A photographic process invented by L.J.M. Daguerre at the beginnings of photography in 1839 

most commonly achieved by a thin film of silver on a copper plate that achieves a grainless, yet relatively 

fragile image. Largely obsolete by 1860s. 
"The Decisive Moment" See entry. 
Densitometry The science of measuring the opacity of silver or dye images in films and prints; when standardized 

these measurements are used to determine a wide range of photographic aspects, including the speed of 

film; the length of exposure and development, contrast, and so on. 
Depth of field See entry. 
Depth of focus The area on either side of an image plane of a lens in which the image remains sharp. See Circle of 

confusion. 
Developing-out paper The term for a family of photographic papers that require developing after exposure. See 

also entry print processes. 
Diazo process A method of obtaining color images through the use of diazonium compounds as the light sensitive 

medium. 
Dichromate processes See Bichromate processes. 

Digital print Any print created through digital means. See also giclee print and Inkjet print. 
Dry mounting Process of using heat-activated adhesives to mount photographs. 
Dry plate processes Chiefly used to indicate a family of nineteenth century processes that were advances on the 

wet collodion process in which the light sensitive medium on glass plates or paper was exposed when dried. 

Also used more expansively to indicate any dry exposure process. See also Albumen print; Wet collodion 

process. 
Dye bleach See Bleach. 
Dye coupler Colorless compounds that when activated react with other agents to form dyes whose color depends 

on the dye coupler molecule. See entries color theory: natural and synthetic; developing processes. 



xxix 



GLOSSARY 

Dye destruction process Generic name for process that is used by products with such common trade names as 

Cibachrome in which a color image is obtained by means of bleaching away unnecessary dyes from the 

emulsion. As opposed to processes that use chromogenic development to create dyes in the emulsion. 
Dye destruction print Print made with dye destruction process. Standardized generic equivalent for Cibachrome. 
Dye diffusion transfer process color print Print in which the emulsion is composed of multiple layers, including a 

final backing layer, that together create both the negative and final positive print. Standardized generic 

equivalent for the Polaroid print, a trademark of the Polaroid Corporation and other systems that create 

so-called "instant" photographs. See entry instant photography. 
Duratrans Trademark of Kodak Company for a large-scale durable transparency generally mounted in lightboxes. 
Dye transfer See entry. 

Ektachrome Trade name of Kodak Company for a film that produces a positive or transparency (slide). 
Emulsion A suspension of light-sensitive materials, generally silver halide crystals, in a support material, 

generally gelatin. 
Etch-bleach process A technique for converting high-contrast images, such as obtained with lith films, to line-art. 

Also known as and see Bleach-out process. 
False color image A monochromatic image in which various gradations of tone or densities are assigned arbitrary 

colors and presented as a color photograph. Generally used in scientific, especially astronomy, applica- 
tions but also used as an artistic effect. 
Ferrotype The generic name of the direct positive process on a metal ground known as Tintype. See Ambrotype. 
Ferrotyping A process for obtaining a glossy or glazed surface on a photographic print by means of drying the 

print as in contact with a highly polished surface. 
Finlaycolor process A method of full-color imaging by means of screens of specifically spaced elements as 

opposed to the random, mosaic screen used in the Autochrome process. Used primarily with panchromatic 

film to create a negative capable of being printed in color. 
Film speed The capacity of any given film to record light within a specified timeframe, measured in units known 

as ASA (after the standardization organization American Standards Association) before 1980 and ISO 

after 1980. See entry film. 
Fish-eye lens An extremely wide-angle lens, generally capturing between 140 and 200° (or more) of the angle of view. 
Flexichrome process A method of hand coloring in which film is developed so that the exposed gelatin is 

hardened, allowing the unexposed portions to be washed away. Silver is then removed through bleaching; 

the remaining hardened emulsion dyed gray to be visible for hand-toning or coloring. 
Flexography A process of printing an image using inks onto a nonabsorbent or uneven surface by preparing a 

negative relief from a photography which is then used to cast a rubber mold that will conform to an 

irregular surface or can be prepared with inks that will bind to ceramic, plastic or other nonabsorbent 

surfaces. Also called aniline printing. 
Fluorography The recording of images rendered onto a screen in which the screen (as opposed to the object; this is 

known as fluorescent photography) is illuminated with X-rays. 
Focal length A method of determining the basic optical character of a lens by measuring the distance along the 

optical axis from the rear nodal point (the center or highest point of the lens) to a plane when the camera is 

set at "infinity" on which an object remains in sharp focus. Also see angle of view. 
Footcandle A method of measuring the intensity of light. A one candlepower light source emits 12.6 lumens. The 

amount of illumination is thus measured by the number of lumens falling on a square unit of a specified 

area such as per square foot or meter. See lumen. 
Flare Unwanted light that scatters within the lens and can result in loss of contrast in exposed images. 
Flash A device for creating a high-intensity light of short duration. 
Framing A method used at the time a photograph is taken by which the camera distance and angle of view is used 

to mark off the edges of the photographic composition. Also the placing of the finished photograph in a 

frame for final presentation. 
Fresson process A method of color printing invented at the turn of the twentieth century in France by Theodore- 
Henri Fresson that produces an image that is characteristically diffused and subtle, reminiscent of the 

"pointillism" of Impressionist painting. 
Fresnel lens A condenser characterized by a series of concentric rings, each equivalent to a designated section of 

the curved surface of the lens that maximizes the light output of the lens. Originated by A.J. Fresnel in the 

early nineteenth century for use in lighthouses; used in photographic applications such as in camera 

viewing systems and rear-projection systems. 



xxx 



GLOSSARY 

/-stop, /-number The aperture settings on a camera. See entries camera: overview and lens. 

Fuji-color Trade name of a color negative film manufactured by the Fuji Corporation, Japan. 

Gaslight paper A developing-out paper of relatively low light sensitivity used for contact printing in the late 

nineteenth century. So-called as it was light safe under weak gaslight illumination. 
Gelatin silver print Any photographic print achieved using a paper in which silver or its compounds are used as 

the light sensitive material in a gelatin support, most commonly silver halide crystals but also silver 

chloride and silver bromide. Also known as black and white print and silver gelatin print. See also Chloro- 

bromide print; Emulsion and also entry print processes. 
Ghosting Any incident of a double-image, but most often used to describe accidental occurrences, such as that 

which may occur when an electronic flash is used in an exposure with adequate ambient light or to describe 

the ghostly images that appear in long-exposures typical of early photographic processes where a human 

would move through the exposure leaving a blur or partial image. 
Giclee print A term derived from the French "to spray" adopted in 1990 by Nash Editions to describe fine-art 

prints produced by digital spray technologies. See also Digital print and Iris print. 
Glazing See Ferrotyping. 
Gold toning The application of a bath of gold chloride where each silver particle in a gelatin silver print is coated 

with a layer of gold, rendering a warm tone and increasing the life of the image, as gold is resistant to 

tarnishing (oxidation). 
Grain A description of the measurable, visible characteristics of the light sensitive medium of an emulsion. In 

unexposed materials, this measures, in silver processes, the undeveloped silver halide crystals; in a devel- 
oped image, the bits of metallic silver themselves, expressed in a subjective scale of "fine" grain to "coarse" 

grain. See Granularity. 
Granularity The measurement of the number of grains per unit of a specified area in an developed image. See Grain. 
Gray card A standard to determine exposure and used to evaluate color balance in a transparency or print 

achieved through a gray-coated card that reflects visible wavelengths equally and reflects approximately 1 8 

to 20% of the ambient light that strikes it, these percentages reflecting an averaging of the typical 

distribution of light and dark in a typical photographic scene. 
Gray scale Description of the shades of gray or more accurately, range of tones from black to white in a 

photographic print. 
Guide number A reference number used to calculate exposure when using flash that is not synched to the camera's 

light meter (automatic). Film speed, /-stop setting, flash unit light output, and the distance between the 

flash and the subject are the four variables used to calculate this number. 
Gum-bichromate See Bichromate processes. 
Gum ozotype process See Ozotype process. 

Gum print A print made through one of the many Bichromate processes. 
Halation An effect wherein excess or unwanted exposure is caused by the reflecting of light off the film base back 

into the emulsion. 
Halftone A photographic image obtained by means of a halftone process. 
Halftone process Any of a family of processes which create an image by means of tiny dots or lines not visible to 

the unaided eye. As opposed to continuous-tone process. 
Hand coloring See entry hand coloring and hand toning. 
Hardener A chemical or compound that by reducing the ability of a gelatin medium to absorb water during the 

developing and/or processing of film or photographic papers allows for a denser and therefore more 

durable surface on the final product. 
Heliography Term used initially by the pioneer of photography Nicephore Niepce to describe the process in 

which he was able to make the first permanent photographic images. From the Greek helios (sun) and 

graphien (writing). 
Heliogravure Alternative French term for photogravure, a mid-nineteenth century photoengraving process made 

on Nicephore Niepce's discoveries. See Photogravure. 
Heliotype A collotype process widely used in commercial printing at the end of the nineteenth century. 
High contrast films and papers Photographic products which feature a limited range of gray tones or no gray 

tones at all. Often known as lith films and papers. 
High speed photography Photography undertaken in acknowledgment that there are many physical processes 

that take place that the unaided human eye cannot resolve, which in its basic definition is photographs 

made with extremely short exposure times. In general terms, though always evolving, this means photo- 



xxxi 



GLOSSARY 

graphy with exposure times shorter than about 1/1000 of a second that almost always require special 
techniques, especially in light sources. For some purposes, the definition is shutter speeds beyond what is 
available on general use 35-mm cameras, commonly 1/4000 of a second, up to trillionths of a second. 
Pioneered in the nineteenth century by Eadweard Muybridge, to demonstrate the galloping of a horse; in 
the twentieth century, Harold Edgerton, an inventor of high-speed flash techniques, is considered the 
"father of high speed photography." See entry harold e. edgerton. 

Hologram See Holography. 

Holography A technique for making photographs known as holograms which give the illusion of three dimen- 
sions through embedding images in the photographic matrix that change in parallax and perspective as the 
angle from which the image is viewed changes. Holographs are made through the recording of "coherent" 
light — light which is emitted and follows a single wave pattern known commonly as lasers (as opposed to 
"incoherent" light — ordinary light which is of varying wavelengths with random phase relations). Holo- 
grams were described theoretically in 1947 by Dennis Gabor and became more common as advances in the 
laser technology needed to realize them were made in the late decades of the twentieth century. 

Hyalograph A photograph created by means of etching an image from a negative into glass. 

Hyalotype A method of creating positive transparencies used in the mid-nineteenth century primarily for lantern 
slides. See Cliche-verre. 

Hydrotype A bichromate process in which the master image is transferred to a ground of moistened paper, 
allowing the creation of multiple copies. 

Hypo Common terminology for hyposulfite of soda, a nineteenth century designation for sodium thiosulfate, 
used during the developing process for films and papers to fix the image. See also entries darkroom; 

DEVELOPING PROCESSES, FILM. 

Hypo eliminator Solution used in the processing of film or paper to neutralize the hypo. See also entries 

darkroom; developing processes, film. 
ICI (CIE) International Commission on Illumination based in France; in French, Commission International de 

l'Eclairage, an organization that sets photographic standards, most notably a system for scientific color 

measurement in use worldwide to standardize color names and the color they describe. See also CIE Color 

System. 
Imperial print A designation of nineteenth century photography indicating a mount for a photograph measuring 

7x10 inches that could accommodate a contact print from the most common photographic plate then 

in use. 
Incident light The light falling on any surface, in its various combinations of reflected, absorbed, or transmitted 

light. See entry light meters. 
Infinity setting The lens focus setting marked ? indicating the setting for photographing in focus objects at the 

greatest distance from the camera. 
Infrared photography See entry. 
Intaglio processes The term for a family of processes in which the image is formed by means of incisions below the 

surface of the material that is being used as a ground (often metal plates). Most commonly used in 

photoetching or photoengraving, both in commercial and fine arts applications. 
ISO International Standards Organization, which sets a wide variety of standards in various fields; in 

photography, the designation of film speeds. 
Iris print A digital print created using the printing equipment, inks, and papers developed by Iris Graphics of 

Bedford, Massachusetts but also used as a generic term for inkjet print created for fine arts applications. 

See also Digital print and Giclee print. 
Ivorytype A photographic print transferred to materials manipulated to mimic ivory, popular in the mid- 
nineteenth century. 
Kallitype A printing process using iron compounds developed at the end of the nineteenth century suitable for 

printing on paper and fabrics. A simple form of the kallitype is the Vandyke print. 
Keystoning The linear distortion in which one end of a rectangle is larger than the other, usually as a result of the 

camera, when taking a photograph, not being parallel to the subject. 
Kodachrome Trade name of Kodak Company for a film using a subtractive process (dye destruction) color film. 
Kirlian photography A form of electrophotography named for the Russian couple who first identified it in which 

film in a metal container is placed in direct contact with the object or subject protected by insulating 

material. A current is passed through the film, and the pattern of energy as affected by the object or subject 

is recorded and developed. 



xxxn 



GLOSSARY 

Kodacolor Trade name of Kodak Company films. 

Kodalith Trade name of Kodak Company's high-contrast films and papers. 

Law of reciprocity See Reciprocity . 

Lens hood Simple shielding device attached to front of lens to prevent flare. 

Light box A device for viewing negatives or transparencies by internal illumination through a translucent 

material or a device for the display of photographic transparencies, especially popular in advertising and 

late-century fine art photography. 
Line art In graphic arts and commercial printing applications, a term for a negative or positive image consisting of 

only two tones and featuring no modulation, as in a continuous tone image. See also Lith films and papers. 
Lith films and papers High-contrast photographic materials most generally used in photomechanical reproduc- 
tion, especially commercial graphic arts applications, prior to onset of digital technologies. See also High 

contrast films and papers. 
Loupe Manual instrument used for viewing contact sheets, slides, or magnifying sections of full sized prints. 
Lumen Unit for the measurement of the radiant energy emitted by a light source. 
Lux See Lumen. 
Microfiche A method by which sheet film is exposed by means of microphotography to create miniaturized 

images; widely used in the second half of the twentieth century by libraries and other institutions for 

records storage; made largely obsolete by the digital revolution. 
Moire A pattern created when superimposed line art or dot patterns interact and interfere with one another. 

Indication of poor registration in mechanical reproduction processes that layer multiple images; also used 

as a special effect by means of screens or filters. 
Montage An assemblage of photographic images; generally distinguished from collage in both the restriction to 

photographic images (as opposed to drawn or three-dimensional elements) as well as the presentation of 

the final image as a unified whole, often by rephotographing. See entries montage; manipulation. 
Munsell system Standard system in the United States for specifying color in pigments and other opaque colorants. 
Negative Any photographic film or print wherein the range of tonalities or color is reversed or the opposite of 

that of the subject or view photographed. 
Negative print A photograph in which the opposite tones or colors from the subject of exposure is presented as a 

final work, usually for artistic effect. 
Noble print Prints made with any of the family of bromoil processes, often featuring hand coloring. 
Notch code An identity method used by film manufacturers by means of v-shaped notches incised into the right- 
hand corner side edge of sheet films. 
Offset A photomechanical reproduction created when an image is transferred to a plate photographically, 

transferred in reverse to a roller, and then printed positively on paper or canvas; most commonly used in 

commercial printing applications. Also known as offset lithography. 
Offset print Print created using offset process. 
Orotone process A decorative process consisting of the photographic image being printed first onto glass plates, 

the silver then toned to a rich brown-gold tone. The glass is backed with a dusting of fine gold pigment. 
Orthochromatic Designation for photographic emulsion that is sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, green and several 

yellow wavelengths but does not record red, allowing the use of a red safelight during the developing 

process. Also known simply as ortho. 
Ostwald system Method of specifying color based on subjective (as opposed to scientific or mathematical) 

criteria. Often displayed as a cone or other form in which variations of hue affected by additions of white, 

black, and complementary colors are arranged in logical progressions. 
Ozalid process A commercial diazo process developed in the early twentieth century to copy plans and drawings; 

commonly known as blacklines or brownlines. See also Diazo process. 
Ozobrome process An improvement on the Ozotype process using a bromide print instead of the gelatin- 
bichromate sheet. 
Ozotype process A carbon process developed at the turn of the twentieth century using a gelatin sheet 

sensitized with bichromate exposed by contact printing with a negative that is then flattened 

against a prepared carbon-pigmented tissue that hardens or tans the exposed emulsion. A variation 

on this process using a gum arabic emulsion is known as the Gum ozotype process. 
Palladiotype Variation of the platinum print wherein the light-sensitive element of the emulsion is a compound of 

palladium, developed in the 1910s due to the prohibitive cost of this process due to the rarity of platinum. 

See entry non-silver processes. 



xxxm 



GLOSSARY 

Palladium print More common term for the Palladiotype. 

Panchromatic Designating an emulsion for which the light sensitivity is essentially equal for all visible light 
wavelengths. 

Parallax The discrepancies in the field of view or coverage resulting from two differing viewpoints. 

Paraglyphe A print resulting from a technique which achieves the illusion of low-relief or bas-relief by using a 
negative image to mask the same image's positive in creating an image which is a synthesis of the two. 

Pinatype A bichromate process in which the master image is transferred to a ground of soft gelatin, allowing the 
creation of multiple copies. 

Pixel The smallest discrete component of an image or picture on a television screen, computer monitor, or other 
electronic display, usually manifesting as a colored dot. In digital photographic processes, a unit of 
measurement to determine resolution (clarity of detail) of an image. 

Photogram See entry. 

Photomontage See Montage. 

Photogalvanography An early bichromate process used in commercial printing to create printing plates from 
photographs. 

Photoglyphy An early bichromate process used to create printing plates from photographs, patented in 1852 by 
photographic innovator W.H.F. Talbot. 

Photogravure A photomechanical process adapting the traditional etching process that revolutionized commer- 
cial printing of reproductions in its ability to reproduce the appearance of the continuous tones found in 
photographs, an advance on photoglyphy. A sheet of bichromate gelatin tissue is adhered, using heat, 
against a resin-dusted copper plate and contact-printed with a positive transparency, the exposed gelatin 
hardening and protecting the plate lying beneath it. The unhardened gelatin is then washed away and the 
plate is processed in an acid bath, the unprotected copper being etched away at various depths. The plate is 
then inked; the etched areas holding ink to create the dark tones; the protected areas holding no ink and 
creating the highlights and used to transfer a positive image to paper. 

Photolithography Using photographic methods to create the image in the traditional printmaking technique of 
lithography. 

Photomicrography The recording by photographic means of highly magnified images seen through microscopes, 
most commonly for scientific and medical purposes, but also in fine arts photography. 

Photoserigraphy Using photographic methods to create the image in the traditional printmaking technique of 
silkscreen or serigraphy. Also known as photosilkscreen. 

Photostat A registered trademark for a commercial photocopying process using high-contrast that came into 
common use referring to a duplicate of an original. 

Platinotype Patent name for prints created using papers light-sensitized through the use of platinum compounds 
marketed in the late nineteenth century. 

Platinum print Generic term for any photographic paper using platinum and its compounds combined with 

iron salts as the light-sensitive material and developed in potassium oxalate, notable for its broad range of 
subtle, silvery-gray tones and for its relative permanency due to the stability of platinum. 

Polaroid print See Dye diffusion transfer process color print. 

Polaroid transfer A technique in which a Polaroid 669 print is soaked in hot water until the top emulsion layer 
lifts off its backing, allowing it to be transferred to a broad range of surfaces, including nonabsorbent 
surfaces such as glass. Also known as Polaroid emulsion lift. 

Positive Any photographic film or print wherein the range of tonalities or color duplicates those of the subject or 
view photographed. 

Posterization See entry. 

Primuline process A diazo process developed at the end of the nineteenth century using the dye Primuline yellow. 

Printing-out papers The term given to a family of photographic papers that require no developing after exposure, 
in which the emulsion of the negative is placed in direct contact with that of the print material, exposing it 
to light until an image is formed. Also known as photolithic papers. See also entry print processes. 

Radiography X-ray photography used primarily in medical applications. 

Resin-Coated paper Photographic papers coated with resin to prevent absorption of developing bath into fibers, 
thus reducing washing time. Also known as RC Paper, a trademark of the Kodak Company. See also entry 

PRINT PROCESSES. 

Reciprocity Term used to indicate the responses of film or paper to an exposure time plus amount of light (most 
often through controlling aperture setting), thus a long exposure with a small aperture opening will result 



xxxiv 



GLOSSARY 

in a similar exposure as a short exposure time with a larger aperture opening. Also known as Law of 

Reciprocity. 
Reciprocity failure An effect in which a film's sensitivity to light does not respond under conditions that should 

achieve mathematical reciprocity, such as in long exposures, or changes from the first exposure to the last 

exposure in a multiple image and overexposure, underexposure, or color shifts may result in the film. Also 

known as reciprocity effect. 
Recto/verso In describing a photographic print, recto is the image side, verso the back or mount. 
Resolution In photochemical processes, the size of the silver or other light sensitive elements in the emulsion; in 

digital technologies, the amount of detail or clarity offered relative to the number of pixels per square inch 

of an electronic image. 
Retouching The manual manipulation of a photographic print or negative with brushes, airbrushes, pencils, inks, 

bleaching agents and so on to change details such as removing blemishes or filling in wrinkles in a portrait 

subject, or to correct defects in the exposure, such as dust spots. 
Rubylith A red acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for 

commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the 

resulting positive film. See also Amberlith. 
Sabatier effect See entry solarization. 
Salted paper print Prints created by means of ordinary writing paper that has been light-sensitized with alternate 

washes of a solution of common table salt and a bath of silver nitrate; invented by W.H.F. Talbot in 1834 

and characterized by a matte finish and a soft image resolution. 
Scanner Device used in digital photography to electronically convert a visual (analog) image into digital data. See 

entry scanning. 
Selenium print A print that has been toned with selenium which creates a warm tone and increases longevity, 

a misnomer in that the print is generally a gelatin silver print and the selenium is used only as an 

enhancement. 
Sequencing The placing of photographs to create a narrative, visual message, or pictorial effect; a practice 

developed especially through scientific photography at the end of the nineteenth century by figures such as 

Eadweard Muybridge or E.J. Marey, and photojournalism and the photo-essay that emerged in the 1930s. 

Photographs can be those that exist in sequence as photographed with their inherent narrative, or can be 

disparate images that through such placement create a narrative, a practice especially explored by fine arts 

photographers in the postwar decades. 
Silver-dye bleach process See Cibachrome; Dye destruction print. 
Silver print Variation of gelatin silver print, not preferred usage. 
Slide See Transparency . 
Solarization See entry. 

Stroboscope Rapidly firing flash used in high speed photography. 
Solio paper A printing-out paper utilizing a gelatin-silver chloride emulsion for amateur use produced by Kodak 

in the late nineteenth century and used well into the twentieth century. 
Spotting Method of retouching, most commonly used to describe the repair of imperfections such as dust spots, 

scratches to the film's emulsion, and so on by means of specially prepared dyes applied with a brush or pen 

that are matched to common paper tonalties. 
Stereoscope A device for viewing photographs either hand-prepared or made with a stereographic camera that 

creates the illusion of three dimensions. Also stereograph. 
Superimposure A combination of images, usually one atop another, in which aspects from the images are 

combined into a new image. Images can be superimposed in the camera through various exposure 

techniques, or created in the darkroom with multiple negatives. See entries multiple exposures and 

printing and sandwiched negatives. 
Synchronization The relationship of timing between the action of the camera shutter and the activation of the 

flash. 
Talbotype A short-lived name for W.H.F. Talbot's calotype process. 
Test strip A simple method of judging proper exposure by means of creating a sample image on a strip of 

photographic paper by masking and then allowing progressively longer exposures. See entry 

DARKROOM. 

Thermal imaging Imaging methods that capture radiant energy (heat) as a visual image, used in surveillance, 
medical imaging, and other industrial applications. Also known at Thermography. 



xxxv 



GLOSSARY 

Time-lapse photography The exposing of a series of images at regular intervals in still or motion picture 

photography or the multiple exposing of a single image in still photography, most often used to create 
illusions in motion pictures ("stop action") or record a progressive motion or action, such as a rising sun. 

Tinting See Toning. 

Tomography A technique in radiography (X-ray) to obtain clear imaging by means of rotating the X-ray emitting 
tube in a specified manner. 

Tone-line process Alternative name for Etch-bleach process and see Bleach-out process. 

Toning See entry. 

Transparency A positive photographic image on a transparent or translucent support, such as glass or film 
intended for viewing by a transmitted light source, such as a projector or a light box. 

Trichrome carbro process An early form of the modern dye-transfer method in which layers of subtractive color 
images in carbon pigments are assembled in registration to create a color image, developed in the mid- 
nineteenth century. Also known as three-color carbro process. 

Tripod Common form of support for a camera to allow for steady focusing and shooting, especially 

during long exposures; generally featuring three adjustable or telescoping legs that allow for set up 
on varying terrain. 

T-stop A lens calibration similar to /-stop system that takes into account the variance between lens of differing 
designs in the amount of light transmitted to the film with particular applications in motion picture 
photography. 

Ultraviolet photography Photography which captures light in the blue-violet end of the spectrum, not visible to 
the human eye, especially useful in evidence photography, and technical and industrial applications. 

Uniform system (U.S.) Early calibration system for exposure settings on a camera, predating the /-stop system. 

Unique print A photograph so printed or altered that only one original exists. 

Van Dyke process A print process utilizing iron compounds which is the most basic form of the kallitype. Also 
known as brownprint. 

Variant Used to describe photographs of a subject or view taken at approximately the same time that feature 
slight variations in either what appears as subject matter or the orientation or framing of the subject 
matter. Also prints of the same subject featuring varying exposures, cropping, or toning. 

Varnishing Coating prints or negatives with varnishes or shellacs both to provide protection and achieve an even 
appearance. 

Velox Trademark of the Kodak Company for a developing-out contact paper. 

Vignetting An effect by which the central image is emphasized in a photographic print usually in a roughly 
circular or oval form. When unintended, vignetting is caused by an incorrect match between lens and 
camera format or improper lighting or exposure; when intended by masking the image during exposure or 
projecting image through a mask in the enlarging process. 

Waxed paper negative A variant of the calotype negative. 

Wash-off relief process See entry dye transfer. 

Wet collodion process An early photographic process in which glass plates were made light sensitive utilizing a 
solution of nitrocellulose (gun cotton) in ethyl alcohol and ethyl ether. Exposure was made before the plate 
solution dried. Also known as the wet plate process. 

Woodburytype A bichromate process developed in the mid-nineteenth century that achieves a true continuous 
tone and exceptionally faithful reproduction to the original through the creation of a relief image from a 
mold or series of molds. 

Xerography See entry. 

Zone focusing A method by which the /-stop can be selected based on predetermination of where the action or 
view to be photographed may occur. 

Zone system Exposure and developing system developed by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer in the 1930s for black 
and white photography intended to allow the photographer to previsualize and predetermine exposure 
settings to achieve richest blacks and fullest range from black to white in any individual photograph, and 
match this to proper development techniques. Zones, which are conceptual rather than actual view areas, 
are numbered through IX or in a later refinement, through XI, Roman numerals being used to avoid 
confusion with /-stop numbers. Zone 0, for example, is represented by the maximum black tone obtainable 
in the individual print, with Zone I being the first discernible gray tone, and so on. 



xxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



Creating, in one useful, comprehensive publication, an encyclopedia of the history and practice of photo- 
graphy in the twentieth century is a daunting task. In any endeavor, the doing of it often best teaches how 
it should be done; and not only does the doing perfect the process, it refines the understanding of the 
subject of the endeavor and focuses the content to be more authoritative. Such is the case, certainly, with 
the current project. 

The ambition of this project was to provide a useful resource of the entire scope of photography in the 
twentieth century. It was neither to be a definitive technical manual nor a compendium limited to the field's 
aesthetic achievements, but something more. The aim was to create an encyclopedia that would serve as a 
resource and a tool for a wide readership of students, researchers, and anyone interested in a scholarly 
discussion of photography history. 

In this we believe it succeeds. The encyclopedia introduces the reader to the history of technical issues that 
have changed over a hundred-year period. It explains the contributions of photographers and situates their 
contribution within the history of photography. It defines the concepts, terms, and themes that have evolved 
over a century. It describes the role of institutions and publications in the shaping of that history. 
Importantly, the encyclopedia also explains the development of the medium in specific countries and regions 
around the world — offering a global understanding and a more local perspective of photography history. 

This is the main purpose of the encyclopedia, to define the broad outlines and fill in the intimate details of 
twentieth-century photography. The user will find the large and small of twentieth-century photography. 
The project gathers information on the most often cited names, terms, concepts, processes, and countries, 
and it also gives ample attention to those most overlooked. Significantly, it provides the historical and 
theoretical contexts for understanding each entry so that the expanse of photography history in both its 
distinct and its partial developments is maintained throughout. 

As a resource, the encyclopedia supplies the reader with tools for finding information. Extensive cross- 
referencing allows the reader insight into the various directions a topic or individual entry may lead: 
historical, theoretical, or technical. A glossary of terms directs the reader to definitions, describes 
processes as they were standardized at the end of the century, and gives technical information on 
photographic terminology, equipment, and accessories. In addition to an alphabetical listing of articles, 
the articles are also listed by subject to help orient the reader. Subjects are straightforward: equipment; 
institutions, galleries, and collections; persons; publications and publishers; regions; topics and terms. 
Each article is signed by the contributing scholar; readers can find a list of contributors in the front matter 
of volume one. Scholarly references are included at the end of each article so that the interested individual 
may further explore the topic in more detailed publications. Over 200 illustrations and glossy inserts in 
each volume will aid the reader's understanding of the articles, but the illustrations are not intended to be 
the strength of the encyclopedia. This is a work of scholarship, a book intended to be read rather than 
viewed — we point the readers to resources that contain the thousands of photographs that constitute 
twentieth-century photography. Finally, the analytical index serves as a critical tool that systematically 
guides the reader through the contents of the three volumes. The index directs the reader to discussions 
of sought for information but also allows the reader to explore the contents and discover related items 
of interest. 

While it is hoped that the professional will find the publication as useful as someone approaching 
photography for the first time, the publication was not intended to take the place of the many fine 
monographs, textbooks, exhibition catalogues, and websites published for the professional audience that 



xxxvn 



INTRODUCTION 

have proliferated in the field at the end of the century. It might be considered a port of entry to the world of 
twentieth-century photography and photography scholarship. 

When this project was conceived, the twentieth century was in its final decade, yet it was not then clear 
that the arbitrary demarcation of the century as regards photography would be an actual marker as well. 
The astonishingly rapid rise of digital technologies during the 1990s distinguishes the shape of the medium in 
the twentieth century in a real way, just as the introduction in 1 898 of the mass-use Brownie camera and all 
its attendant technologies forever wrenched the medium from its nineteenth-century essence as the domain 
of the dedicated enthusiast, whether professional or amateur. The democratization of the medium certainly 
seemed to be the main story being told at mid-century, and it may indeed, at further remove, be the 
overarching feature of the twentieth century. For ironically the digital revolution offers at the same time 
more and less access — more if one has electricity, a digital camera, and a computer, less if one does not, and 
many, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, certainly do not. Yet whatever the digital revolution may 
hold, it seems clear that the obsolescence of the standard photo-chemical processes and the widespread 
access to the medium they undoubtedly provided will define photography in the new century. Already, in 
2005, photo-chemical films and papers have been discontinued or are no longer distributed in the United 
States; traditional processing labs are vanishing, and items that stocked the traditional darkroom are 
becoming collectibles, if not landfill. 

The encyclopedia had the benefit of the knowledge provided by the distinguished Advisory Board. These 
individuals freely provided their expertise and advise. The process of selecting the topics and photographers, 
like anything else, reflects a degree of subjectivity. Yet this subjectivity was tempered by the broad range of 
experience represented by the Board. Topics were selected to provide snapshots of the entirety of the field 
utilizing established genres — "fashion photography" or "documentary photography," or obvious entities — 
"camera" or "Museum of Modern Art." Entries on individuals were more winnowed out than selected. The 
towering figures are obvious: they fill bookshelves and auction catalogues. But other, lesser known figures of 
regional importance or photographic innovators were also deemed important to record, and their selection 
rested on judgment, and to some extent, intuition. The attempt was also to broaden the scope from the 
United States and Europe, with its long history of photography, to an international one, both in topic 
discussions and selection of photographers. It goes without saying that many, many other serious, important 
practitioners of photography and photographic topics and institutions could have been included, yet for the 
purposes of this publication, we limited the number of entries to 525. 

Finally, as tempting as it might have been for the many fine art historians, critics, and writers who 
authored these essays (and I thank them deeply for their efforts) to come up with original interpretations of 
photographers' contributions or innovative theoretical stances, the encyclopedia was not intended as an 
opportunity for scholarship in the form of new interpretations of established figures or revisionary accounts 
of historical movements. 



Conventions and Features 

The encyclopedia is arranged alphabetically; spellings of names reflect the most common usage at the end of 
the century and attempt to use proper diacritical marks in languages which require them. The use of monikers 
as opposed to given names (i.e. "Weegee" as opposed to Arthur Fellig, or "Madame D'Ora" as opposed to 
Dora Kallmus) is also based on most common usage. Such "noms-de-photographie" are arranged in the 
appropriate alphabetical order, with given names included in the entry. 

In reference materials, names of institutions are generally given as the full, proper name at the time of the 
citation. Thus, prior to 1972, it is the George Eastman House; from 1972 onward, the International Museum 
of Photography and Film, George Eastman House. For the most part, institution names are given in the 
original language to alleviate confusion about proper translation and ease further research, thus rather than 
the National Library of France, Bibliotheque nationale de France, and so on. 

All entries feature bibliographies or further reading lists. Topics on individuals feature a Capsule Biogra- 
phy for quick reference and a list of Selected Works. Photographers also receive a listing of selected 
Individual and Group Exhibitions, with as complete information as is available detailing those exhibitions. 
Websites are occasionally given for governmental agencies, established institutions — especially museums — as 
well as for some foundations or individual archives. Private websites were generally avoided both to avoid 
endorsement and the fact that many such websites fail to be maintained over the course of time. 



xxxvm 



INTRODUCTION 



Although I am a curator of contemporary art, my first love was for photography. I studied it in school and 
practiced it as a student, taught by photographers who themselves turned out to be "towering figures." As a 
curator I have organized a number of photography exhibitions, and overseen the collecting of contemporary 
photography. Yet I am hardly the foremost expert in the field, and thus was truly honored to have been 
asked to edit this important publication. I hope that my efforts have been equal to expectations. 

Lynne Warren 
Chicago, Illinois 



xxxix 



A 



BERENICE ABBOTT 



American 

Berenice Abbott's accomplishments in the world of 
photography are wide-ranging and unique. As a 
photographer, Abbott made important contribut- 
ions to the art of portraiture, visual documentary, 
and science photography. As an archivist, she 
maintained and promoted the work of Eugene 
Atget for nearly 40 years. Equally, she was an 
educator, inventor, and an important photographic 
theorist. She maintained that "the vision of the 
twentieth century has been created by photography 
[...] the picture has almost replaced the word as a 
means of communication" (Abbott 1951, 42). Like- 
wise, she believed in the ability of the photograph 
to record the modern world, supplying novel ways 
of seeing and new truths. 

Abbott spent her youth in Columbus and 
Cleveland before enrolling at Ohio State Univer- 
sity in 1917. After only a year at the college, 
she grew restless and moved to New York. 
While there, she shared a Greenwich Village ap- 
artment with Djuna Barnes, Malcolm Cowley, 
and Kenneth Burke and worked at the Province- 
town Playhouse. Despite what must have been an 
invigorating experience, Abbott grew disenchant- 



ed with America and in 1921 bought a one-way 
ticket to France. 

During her first two years in Paris, Abbott stud- 
ied sculpture and drawing, yet failed to maintain 
a steady income. In 1923, she was introduced to 
the American-born Dada artist Man Ray who 
was looking for a photographic assistant. Abbott 
volunteered and was accepted on the spot. Un- 
der Man Ray's tutelage, Abbott learned about 
the darkroom, but by her own admission, nothing 
about the practicalities of photographic techniques. 
While vacationing in Amsterdam in 1924, she took 
her first photographs and her devotion to the med- 
ium followed quickly. She began to photograph 
Paris and gained a sizable reputation. Soon the 
two photographers suffered an acrimonious split 
after arts patron Peggy Guggenheim bypassed 
Man Ray and requested a portrait session with 
Abbott. Although the relationship ended badly, 
Abbott would later state that Man Ray "changed 
my whole life; he was the only person I ever worked 
for [...] He was a good friend and a fine photogra- 
pher" (O'Neal 1982, 10). 

In 1926, Abbott held her first solo exhibition, 
established her own studio, and flourished. She 
worked for Vogue magazine, and her clients 



ABBOTT, BERENICE 



included artists and writers Jean Cocteau, Max 
Ernst, Andre Gide, James Joyce, Claude McKay, 
and Edna St. Vincent Millay. "To be 'done' by [...] 
Berenice Abbott," Sylvia Beach once remarked, 
"meant you rated as someone" (O'Neal 1982, 12). 
Turning her back on the accepted standards of 
portrait photography, Abbott sought to drama- 
tize, not flatter or romanticize her subjects. As 
she stated: 

A portrait can have the most spectacular lighting effect 
and can be perfect technically, but it fails as a document 
(which every photograph should be) or as a work of art if 
it lacks the essential qualities of expression, gesture and 
attitude peculiar to the sitter [...] Personally I strive for a 
psychological value, a simple classicism in portraits. 

(O'Neal 1982, 13) 

In 1929, Abbott returned to New York for a 
brief visit only to find her former home irrevo- 
cably altered. She was fascinated by the city's rapid 
transformation and decided against returning to 
Europe. She settled her affairs in Paris and em- 
barked upon one of the most ambitious photo- 
graphic projects of the twentieth century: to 
document in a comprehensive and precise manner, 
the face of modern, changing New York. As she 
stated in 1932 she sought to dramatize the contrasts 
of "the old and the new and the bold foreshadow- 
ing of the future." Keenly aware of the scope and 
essential significance of the nascent modernity and 
urbanization of the city, Abbott desired to "crystal- 
lize" its transition in "permanent form" (O'Neal 
1982, 16). 

Abbott's first New York photographs appeared 
in Architectural Record in May 1930, but during 
the five years that followed she was unable to 
procure funding from any of the private and 
institutional sources she approached. Throughout 
this period, Abbott supported herself working 
for such magazines as Fortune and Vanity Fair. 
In 1934, the New School for Social Research of- 
fered her a job teaching photography. She ac- 
cepted a one-year contract little knowing that 
the position would supply her main source of 
income for many of the next 24 years. This year 
also witnessed the first major exhibition of Ab- 
bott's New York photography. Mounted at the 
Museum of the City of New York, the show helped 
raise the profile of Abbott's New York project 
and greatly contributed towards a successful fund- 
ing application. 

In 1935, Abbott applied for funding to the Fed- 
eral Arts Project (FAP). In part, her proposal read: 

To photograph NYC means to seek to catch in the sensi- 
tive and delicate photographic emulsion the spirit of the 



metropolis, while remaining true to its essential fact, its 
hurrying tempo, its congested streets, the past jostling 
the present. The concern is not with an architectural 
rendering of detail, the buildings of 1935 overshadow- 
ing everything else, but with a synthesis which shows 
the skyscraper in relation to the less colossal edifices 
which preceded it [...] it is important that they should 
be photographed today, not tomorrow; for tomorrow 
may see many of these exciting and important memen- 
tos of eighteenth and nineteenth century New York 
swept away to make room for new colossi. 

(Abbott 1973, 158) 

In September 1935, her project — recently entitled 
Changing New York — was accepted by the FAP. 
Abbott was ranked project supervisor and was 
awarded funding and a small staff. Consequently, 
Changing New York became an immediate success. 
The photographs were published in U.S. Camera, 
Popular Photography, and the Coronet, the New 
York Times and Life both did extensive features. 
In December 1937, the Museum of the City of 
New York held another hugely successful exhibit; 
yet by December 1938, Abbott had taken her last 
project photograph and was demoted to assistant 
project supervisor. By August 1939, she had no 
staff at all. After proposing to document the 1939 
World's Fair, she was told she could remain on the 
FAP payroll only as a staff photographer. Choos- 
ing independence over employment, Abbott quit 
the FAP. 

In late 1939, Abbott wrote a short memo to 
herself, the essence of which would occupy her 
photographic career for most of the next 20 years. 
Essentially she believed that "we live in a world 
made by science" and that photography could 
mediate between (as a "friendly interpreter") sci- 
ence and the layperson in order to articulate and 
explain how knowledge controls and functions in 
everyday life (Van Haaften 1989, 58). 

Subsequently, Abbott began to experiment with 
scientific photography and in 1944 she became 
photo-editor of Science Illustrated. Although she 
quit the magazine two years later, Abbott contin- 
ued to photograph scientific phenomena and the 
1948 textbook American High School Biology 
included many of her illustrations. Her science 
photography inspired her to develop new photo- 
graphic equipment, lighting methods, and tech- 
niques. In 1947, she incorporated The House of 
Photography to develop and promote her photo- 
graphic inventions. Often in financial trouble, the 
company lasted until 1958, during which time 
Abbott established four patents. 

Abbott continued her science photography in the 
1950s, but her reputation, along with her finances, 



ABBOTT, BERENICE 



languished until 1957, when the launch of the Rus- 
sian Sputnik sparked a national obsession with 
science. Abbott, once again in vogue, was hired 
by the Physical Science Study Committee of Ed- 
ucational Services (PSSCES) to produce images for 
a new high school textbook. Her science photo- 
graphs appeared in national and international 
magazines, and exhibits of her scientific work 
were shown in exhibitions around the country. In 
1960, Abbott appeared on television in a program 
called The Camera Looks at Science, and the 
Smithsonian Institution acquired her entire sci- 
entific archive. After completing the seminal text- 
book, Physics (1960), Abbott left the PSSCES. She 
collaborated with Evans G. Valens on a further 
three scientific books in the 1960s. 

Although Abbott's photography is often 
grouped into three distinct periods — portraits, 
New York, and science photography — she was 
equally fascinated by the landscape of America. 
Under the direction of Henry Russell Hitchcock, 
Abbott traveled America in 1933 recording the 
buildings of pre-Civil War America and the work 
of architect Henry Hobson Richardson. In 1935 
she traveled to St. Louis with her friend Elizabeth 
McCausland, before heading into the Deep South. 
The resultant photographs anticipate much of the 
work conducted by Roy Stryker at the Resettle- 
ment Administration, although Abbott herself 
found it extremely difficult to intrude into the 
lives of people burdened with such poverty. In 
the 1940s, Abbott briefly worked for Stryker at 
Standard Oil, but had to withdraw due to poor 
health. In 1943, Abbott documented the work of 
the Red Rock Logging Company of California 
and in 1948 released her second New York book, 
Greenwich Village: Today & Yesterday. In the 
early 1950s, the photographer conceived a plan 
to document life along the Route 1 highway. 
Although she traveled from Kent, Maine to Key 
West, Florida twice in 1953, and took nearly 400 
photographs, the project failed to find a publisher 
and remains Abbott's most obscure work. By the 
1960s, however, Abbott's reputation was in the 
ascendancy and in 1966 she was given carte 
blanche to produce a photo-guide to the state of 
Maine, her recently adopted home. Shunning the 
standard guidebook images of the state, Abbott 
pointed her camera inshore and focused on the 
people and industries that made up everyday life 
in the state. 

Abbott often stated that she had always had to 
balance two careers: her own and that of Eugene 
Atget. Abbott was introduced to Atget's photo- 
graphy in 1925 and subsequently befriended the 



aging photographer. As she later noted, "Atget's 
photographs somehow spelt photography for me 
[...] their impact was immediate and tremendous. 
There was a sudden flash of recognition — the 
shock of realism unadorned" (Abbott 1964, 1). 
After Atget's death in 1927, Abbott acquired 
his complete archive and began to promote his 
work. On her return to America, Abbott lobbied 
to have the French photographer's work shown 
alongside her own and, for 40 years, acted as cu- 
rator and agent for the Atget file, before finally 
selling the collection to the Museum of Modern 
Art in 1968. Moreover she supported the work 
of numerous other photographers. She endorsed 
the work of Mathew Brady, William Jackson, 
Dorothea Lange, Helen Levitt, Lisette Model, 
Nadar, and Timothy O'Sullivan. In 1939, she 
helped raise the profile of Lewis Hine by orga- 
nizing an exhibit of his work at New York's 
Riverside Museum. 

Throughout her life, Abbott wrote about the 
nature and practice of photography. Much of her 
thinking is clarified through her long-standing 
objection to the work and influence of Alfred 
Steiglitz. Abbott met Steiglitz in 1929 and found 
him pretentious and condescending. In contrast to 
Steiglitz as a modernist, Abbott believed there 
was "poetry in our crazy gadgets, our tools, our 
architecture" and that photography should fulfill 
"civic responsibilities": "the photograph may be 
presented as finely and artistically as possible, 
but to merit serious consideration, it must be 
directly connected with the world we live in" 
(O'Neal 1982, 14, and Abbott 1951, 47). Unlike 
Stieglitz and his followers of the important "291" 
Gallery, Abbott saw no connection between paint- 
ing and photography: 

If a medium is representational by nature of the realistic 
image formed by the lens, I see no reason why we 
should stand on our heads to distort that function. On 
the contrary, we should take hold of that very quality, 
make use of it, and explore it to the fullest. 

(Abbott, "It Has to Walk Alone" 1 951 , p. 6) 

She repudiated the manipulation of images char- 
acteristic of avant-gardism and championed realist, 
that is, documentary content. Photography, she 
believed, should orient itself towards documentary 
expression: it should strive towards the real and 
historical, not the artificial; it should record not 
imagine. Abbott's photography exemplified her 
philosophy. For almost 70 years, Abbott sought 
to capture the changing nature of everyday life. 
Through it, she forged an aesthetic of modernist 
realism that reflected the American scene, the me- 



ABBOTT, BERENICE 



dium of photography, and the essence of the twen- 
tieth century. 

Richard Haw 

See also: Atget, Eugene; Architectural Photography; 
Man Ray; Works Progress Administration 



Biography 

Born in Springfield, Ohio, 17 July 1898. Attended Ohio 
State University, 1917-1918; moved to Paris to study 
sculpture, 1921. Worked as photographic assistant to 
Man Ray, 1923-1926; established own portrait studio 
in Paris and held first solo exhibition, 1926; began to 
document New York City independently, 1929-1935; 
traveled with Henry Russell Hitchcock to record pre- 
Civil War architecture and the work of Henry Hobson 
Richardson, 1933; began to teach photography at 
New York's New School for Social Research, 1934; 
traveled the South with Elizabeth McCausland, 1935; 
received funding from the Federal Arts Project and 
worked on the Changing New York project, 1935- 
1939; began science photography, 1940; documented 
the Red Rock Logging Company in California, 1943; 
worked as photo editor on Science Illustrated, 1944- 
1946. Published Greenwich Village: Yesterday & Today 
(1949), Magnet (1964), Motion (1965), A Portrait of 
Maine (1968), The Attractive Universe (1969), and The 
Red River Photographs (1979). Incorporated the House 
of Photography, and established four photographic 
patents, 1947-1958; began to photograph Route 1 pro- 
ject, 1953; retired from teaching at the New School for 
Social Research, 1958; worked for the Physical Science 
Study Committee of Educational Services, 1958-1961. 
Honorary doctorate from the University of Maine, 
1971; honorary doctorate from Smith College, 1973; 
received the Association of International Photo Art 
Dealers' award for Outstanding Contribution to the 
Field of Photography, 1981; honorary doctorate from 
Ohio State University, 1986; awarded the First Interna- 
tional Erice Prize for Photography, 1987; inducted as 
an Officer in the Legion of Arts and Letters by the 
French government, 1988. Died in Monson, Maine, 9 
December 1991. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1926 Portraits Photographiques; Au Sacre du Printemps; 
Paris, France 

1932 Berenice Abbott: Portraits; Julien Levy Gallery; New 
York, New York 

1934 Photographs for Henry-Russell Hitchcock's Urban Ver- 
nacular of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties; Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven, Connecticut, and traveling 

1934 Photographs of New York City; Museum of the City of 
New York; New York, New York 

1937 Changing New York — 125 Photographs; Museum of 
the City of New York; New York, New York 

1947 Galerie de l'Epoque; Paris, France 

1950 Akron Art Institute; Akron, Ohio 

1951 Art Institute of Chicago; Chicago, Illinois 

1953 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; San Fran- 
cisco, California 



1959 Science Photographs; New School for Social Research; 
New York, New York 

1960 Science Photographs; Smithsonian Institution; 
Washington D.C. and traveling 

1970 Berenice Abbott: Photographs; Museum of Modern 

Art; New York, New York 
1973 Witkin Gallery; New York, New York, and traveling 

1976 Berenice Abbott; Marlborough Gallery; New York, 
New York 

1977 Treat Gallery; Lewiston, Maine 

1979 Berenice Abbott: The Red River Photographs; Fine 
Arts Work Center; Provincetown, Massachusetts 

1980 Berenice Abbott: Documentary Photographs of the 
1930s; The New Gallery of Contemporary Art; Cleve- 
land, Ohio 

1982 Berenice Abbott: The 20s and 30s; Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; Washington, D.C, and traveling 

1989 Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision; New 
York Public Library; New York, New York 

1996 Berenice Abbott: Portraits, New York Views and 
Science Photographs; International Center of Photogra- 
phy; New York, New York 

1997 Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, the Complete 
WPA Project; The Museum of the City of New York; 
New York, New York 



Group Exhibitions 

1928 Film und Foto; Deutsche Werkbund; Stuttgart, Ger- 
many 

1928 Avant-Garde; Salon des Independants; Paris, France 

1932 Murals and Photomurals; Museum of Modern Art; 
New York, Brooklyn Museum; Brooklyn, New York 

1932 Philadelphia International Salon of Photography; Ayer 
Galleries; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Albright Art Gal- 
lery; Buffalo, New York 

1940 Pageant of Photography; Golden Gate Exposition; San 
Francisco, California 

1969 Women, Cameras and Images III; Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; Washington, D.C. 



Selected Works 

Eugene Atget, Paris, France, 1927 

Julien Levy, 1927 

James Joyce, c. 1928 

New York at Night, 1934 

Newstand, 32nd Street and Third Avenue, Nov. 19, 1935 

Daily News Building: 42nd Street between Second and Third 
Avenues, Nov. 21, 1935 

Canyon: 46th Street and Lexington Avenue, Looking West, 1936 

McGraw Hill Building: From 42nd Street and Ninth Avenue 
looking east, May 25, 1936 

Gasoline Station; Tremont Avenue and Dock Street, July 2, 
1936 

Herald Square, 34th and Broadway, July 16, 1936 

Rockefeller Center , from 444 Madison Avenue, 1937 

Financial district rooftops: II; Looking southwest from roof 
of 60 Wall Tower, June 9, 1938 

Jacob Heymann Butcher Shop, 345 Sixth Avenue, Manhat- 
tan, 1938 

Repair Shop, Christopher Street, c. 1946 

The Pendulum, c. 1960 

Beams of Light Through Glass, c. 1960 



ABBOTT, BERENICE 



Further Reading 

Abbott, Berenice. "Eugene Atget." Creative Art 5 (1929). 

Abbott, Berenice. "Photographer as Artist." Art Front 2 
(1936). 

Abbott, Berenice. Changing New York. Text by Elizabeth 
McCausland. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1939; Reprinted 
as New York in the Thirties as Photographed by Berenice 
Abbott. New York: Dover, 1973. 

Abbott, Berenice. A Guide to Better Photography. New 
York: Crown, 1941, Revised in 1953 as A New Guide to 
Better Photography. 

Abbott, Berenice. "Photography at the Crossroads." Uni- 
versal Photo Almanac (1951). 

Abbott, Berenice. "It Has to Walk Alone." Infinity 7 (1951). 

Abbott, Berenice. The World of Atget. New York: Horizon 
Press, 1964. 

Berman, Avis. "The Unflinching Eye of Berenice Abbott." 
Art News 80 (1981). 



. "The Pulse of Reality — Berenice Abbott." Archi- 
tectural Digest April (1985). 

McCausland, Elizabeth. "The Photography of Berenice 
Abbott." Trend 3 (1935). 

. "Berenice Abbott — Realist." Photo Arts 2 (1948). 

McEuen, Melissa A. Seeing America: Women Photogra- 
phers Between the Wars. Lexington: University Press of 
Kentucky, 2000. 

O'Neal, Hank. Berenice Abbott: American Photographer. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. 

Raeburn, lohn. "Culture Morphology and Cultural His- 
tory in Berenice Abbott's Changing New York." Pros- 
pects 9 (1984). 

Steinbach, Alice C. "Berenice Abbott's Point of View." Art 
in America November/December (1976). 

Sundell, Michael. "Berenice Abbott's Work in the 1930s." 
Prospects 5 (1980). 

Van Haaften, lulia. Berenice Abbott. New York: Aperture, 
1988. 




Berenice Abbott, November 19, 1935, Photography Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach 
Division of Art, Prints and Photographs. 

[© Berenice Abbott/ Commerce Graphics Ltd., NYC. The New York Public Library) Art 
Resource, New York] 



ABBOTT, BERENICE 



. Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision. 

New York: New York Public Library, 1989. 

"Berenice Abbott, American Photographer: A Bio- 



Bibliography." Bookman Weekly (30 January 1995). 



Yochelson, Bonnie. Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, 
the Complete WPA Project. New York: The New Press 
and The Museum of the City of New York, 1997. 



ABSTRACTION 



Discussions of abstraction in photography may 
seem to be a paradox as one is accustomed to its 
function of mechanical reproduction and of its de- 
scriptive representation. Yet, the fact that a photo- 
graph is difficult to recognize or hardly legible is 
not incompatible with its technical definition — a 
luminous print on a photosensitive surface. What- 
ever its nature is, the photographic image always 
remains an image or representation of something, 
even if the photographer uses various processes to 
make the viewer forget what the image is a repre- 
sentation of. Since its discovery in 1839, photogra- 
phy has served many documentary uses, producing 
pictures based upon the representational codes of 
human vision (verism). Nevertheless, from the 
early twentieth century, many photographers have 
sought to transcend this use by experimenting and 
developing an abstract practice of photography. 



Origins of Abstraction 

The history of photography often converges with 
that of Modernism in the late nineteenth and 
early twentieth centuries, chronologically as well 
as intellectually. The photograph's history was 
marked in particular by the idea of the specificity 
and growing autonomy of the medium — the med- 
ium's internal logic, principles, and evolution. 
The earliest abstract paintings emerged around 
1910 by Vasily Kandinsky, Kasimir Malevich 
and others; historians observed almost at the 
same time the emergence of similar preoccupations 
among photographers. As early as the beginning 
of photography from the "photogenic drawings" 
of William Henry Fox Talbot in the 1830s to the 
studies of motion by Thomas Eakins and Etienne- 
Jules Marey (what he termed "chronophotogra- 
phy") in the 1880s, one finds images that could be 
described as abstract, although they serve scientific 



and technical purposes over aesthetic goals. It 
is only by 1908 that the germ of the formalist, 
stylized processes indicative of modernity emerged 
in Great Britain with Malcolm Arbuthnot's The 
Doorstep or The Wheel; these works revealed his 
interest in Japanese art with emphases on composi- 
tion, structure, asymmetry, line, distribution of 
light and shade. After Arbuthnot, the appearance 
of deliberately abstract photography occurs in the 
mid-1910s in America with Paul Stand's Porch 
Shadows or The Bowls in 1915, pictures in which 
he played with forms and masses, composition and 
close frame. Already three years earlier, a similar 
work was realized by Alvin Langdon Coburn with 
his series New York From Its Pinnacles, and in 
particular, The Octopus, in which a bird's eye 
view flattened perspective and generated two- 
dimensional pattern. Strand would wait until his 
meeting with Ezra Pound and the Vorticism move- 
ment, inspired by the complexities of industrializa- 
tion and urbanity, to realize between 1916 and 1917 
his well-known series Vortographs. These works 
revealed his interest for cubist diffraction of 
space, and Italian futurism's obsession with dyna- 
mism and movement. 



Evolution 

The tendency towards abstraction in form of the 
aforementioned photographers illustrates what fol- 
lowed and lingered throughout the twentieth cen- 
tury, that is, the coexistence of two parallel views 
among American and European modernist photo- 
graphers. These views included on the one hand, 
the inheritance of "pure" or "Straight" photo- 
graphic aesthetic launched by American photogra- 
phers such as Alfred Stieglitz, Aaron Siskind, and 
others; and on the other hand, an experimental 
aesthetic directly derived from the European 



ABSTRACTION 



avant-gardism of Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Alexander 
Rodchenko, and others. 

Straight Photography sought to seize an objec- 
tive reality made of everyday objects that usually 
escape the human eye. Without any manipulation 
and by emphasizing purely photographic processes 
such as framing, lighting, focus, scale, or viewpoint, 
the resulting images exploited the pure formalism 
of flattened and two-dimensional patterns, geome- 
try, and design. This trend was well illustrated in 
America with Bernard Shea Home, Max Weber 
and their students of Clarence H. White School of 
Photography in the 1910s, in Charles Sheeler's 
House Of Doylestown, Staircase (1917), in Stie- 
glitz's series Equivalents in 1923-1931, and in Sis- 
kind's later work of the 1930s and 1940s. A related 
strain of the Americanists' Straight Photography 
materialized with the New Vision (Neue Sehen) in 
Germany and Russia whose prominent representa- 
tives were Moholy-Nagy {From the Radio Tower Ber- 
lin, 1928) and Rodschenko {On The Pavement, 1928). 

Even more experimental or aesthetically radical 
than the work of the aforementioned Straight pho- 
tographers was another strain of abstraction that 
considered photography as an ideal means of plas- 
tic expression to build and create new visual codes. 
Using a diversity of practices such as the photo- 
gram, manipulation of light, movement and chem- 
istry, European photographers realized a range of 
recurrent features that became associated with mod- 
ernist abstraction. Because the photogram was pro- 
duced without a camera, the artist could create 
images from shadows and silhouettes of objects 
that were placed between the light source and 
light-sensitive paper or film, thus bypassing the 
mechanical or technical apparatus in favor of ima- 
gination and even surrealism. 

At the origins of numerous abstract manipula- 
tions, the photogram became one of the most 
enduring techniques of the century, finding practi- 
tioners in Christian Schad as early as 1918, Man 
Ray in 1921, and Moholy-Nagy in 1922. Exempli- 
fying Dadaist and Constructivist preoccupations, 
photogram processes allowed the exploration of 
photography's profound nature by exploiting the 
play of texture, pattern, transparency, and the dua- 
lity of positive-negative relationships. The process 
permitted many possibilities such as experimenta- 
tion with dematerialization, the interpenetration of 
forms, distortion and lack of perspective. Various 
artists such as Theodore Roszak, Georg Zimin, 
Piet Zwart, and Willy Zielke made photograms in 
the 1930s; Bronislaw Schlabs, Julien Coulommier, 
Andrzej Pawlowski, Beksinki and Kurt Wendlandt 
in the 1940s and 1950s; Lina Kolarova, Rene 



Machler, and Andreas Mulas in the 1970s; Tomy 
Ceballos, Kare Magnole, Andreas Muller-Pohle, 
and Floris M. Neusiiss have utilized the process in 
the 1980s. 

Equally important among abstract practices, the 
use of light remains a fundamental principle with 
the function not only to reveal and make visible, 
but also to be exploited as a real material. In this 
respect, several trajectories can be traced, including 
the pictures of lighted surfaces or volumes in Fran- 
cis Bruguiere's Light Abstractions (1919) and Jar- 
omir Funke's Light Abstraction, Rectangles in the 
1920s. Between the 1930s and the 1950s photogra- 
phers such as Moholy-Nagy with his Light Modu- 
lator "machines," Barbara Morgan seized upon 
luminous flow, whether fixed or in motion, to pro- 
duce calligraphic expression. More recently in 
France, Thomas Reaume in the 1980s and Bernard 
Lanteri in the 1990s have realized luminous and 
fluid forms that defy the fixed nature of the photo- 
graphic image. 

Movement and blurredness represent another 
aspect of abstraction in photography. This ten- 
dency is illustrated by the works of Italian futurists 
such as the brothers Arturo and Antonin Braga- 
glia's photodynamism and aerial photography by 
Fedele Azari and Filippo Masoero, in addition to 
the kineticism of German photographers Oskar 
Schlemmer, Peter Keetman and Otto Steinert in 
the 1940s-1950s. Generally, these works fit an aes- 
thetic of speed and movement linked to the expres- 
sions of the artistic avant-garde of the time. But it 
is only by the 1950s that an aesthetic of blurred- 
ness, movement, and random quality peculiar to 
photography found expression. As such, it seemed 
that American William Klein's work was as much 
a beginning and a major reference for contempo- 
rary photographers such as Gerard Dalla-Santa, 
Frederic Gallier, Herve Rabot, Patrick Toth, and 
Muller-Pohle who during the 1980s viewed move- 
ment not only as a transcription of the urban 
world's brutal dynamism but also as a mine of 
pure form, revealing the visual and tactile qualities 
of photography (for example, grain). 

Finally, choosing to relinquish the optical as- 
pect of the medium, another group of photogra- 
phers preferred to explore the medium's physical 
chemistry. Relying on darkroom experimentation 
and camera-less imagery, photographers explored 
the abstract qualities possible in chemical experi- 
mentation, leading to the specific forms of Ed- 
mund Resting and Chargesheimer in the 1940s, 
and Stryj Piasecki or Pierre Cordier in the 1950s. 
Sigmar Polke during the 1970s and Riwan Tro- 
meur during the 1980s have produced a peculiar 



ABSTRACTION 




Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Double portrait. 

[Victoria & Albert Museum, London) Art Resource, New York] 



ADAMS, ANSEL 



formal vocabulary by altering the very photo- 
graphic chemical process. 

Anne Barthelemy 

See also: Bragaglia, Antonin; Bruguiere, Francis; 
Chargesheimer; Dada; Funke, Jaromir; Modernism; 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Photogram; Siskind, Aaron; 
Stieglitz, Alfred; Strand, Paul; Zwart, Piet 

Further Reading 

Barrow, T. Hagen, C. Neusiiss, F.M. Experimental Vision. 
The Evolution of the Photogram Since 1919. Denver: 
Denver Art Museum, 1994. 

De Sana, J. (dir.) Abstraction in Contemporary Photogra- 
phy. Clinton, NY: Emerson Gallery and Richmond, VA: 
Anderson Gallery, 1989. 



Grundberg, Andy. Photography and Art Interaction Since 
1945. New York: Abbeville Press, Los Angeles County 
Museum, 1987. 

Lyons, Nathan, ed. Photographers on Photography: A Crit- 
ical Anthology. Rochester, NY: 1966. 

Phillips, C, ed. Photography In the Modern Era: European 
Documents And Critical Writings. 1913-1940. New 
York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Aperture, 
1989. 

Szarkowski, John, Photography Until Now. New York: 
Museum of Modern Art, 1989. 

Tucker, J.S. Light Abstraction. St Louis: University of Mis- 
souri, 1980. 

Yates, S., dir. Proto Modern Photography. Rochester, New 
York: George Eastman House, 5 December 1992-7 Feb- 
ruary, 1993. 



ANSEL ADAMS 



American 

Throughout his life, Ansel Adams made monumen- 
tal contributions as a photographer, teacher, lectur- 
er, conservationist, and writer. He is best known as 
an undisputed master of straight natural landscape 
photography. His photographic studies of the 
American western landscape have gained extra- 
ordinary prestige and popularity, partly because 
he achieved an unsurpassed technical perfection 
by approaching the medium in a scientifically pre- 
cise way and insisting on absolute control of the 
photographic process. According to Adams, an 
initial and most important constituent of this pro- 
cess is the photographer's visualization of the final 
product, which involves an intuitive search for 
meaning, shape, form, texture, and the projection 
of the image-format on the subject. The image 
forms in the photographer's mind before the shutter 
opens. Put in Adams's own words: 

The camera makes an image-record of the object before 
it. It records the subject in terms of the optical properties 
of the lens, and the chemical and physical properties of 
the negative and print. The control of that record lies in 
the selection by the photographer and in his understand- 
ing of the photographic process at his command. The 
photographer visualizes his conception of the subject as 
presented in the final print. He achieves the expression 



of his visualization through his technique — aesthetic, 
intellectual, and mechanical. 

(Adams 1985, 78) 

Born in San Francisco in 1902, Adams was inter- 
ested at an early age in music and was trained 
to become a concert pianist. At the age of 14, 
on a family vacation in the Yosemite Valley, he 
took his first photographs — an experience that 
would inspire him for the rest of his life. Back in 
San Francisco, parallel to his education in music, 
Adams studied photography with a photofinisher. 
He returned to Yosemite regularly to dedicate him- 
self to photography, exploration, and climbing. In 
1920, he formed an association with the Sierra 
Club (a conservation organization), and in 1928, 
the year he married Virginia Best, began to work 
there as an official photographer. His first photo- 
graphs were strongly influenced by the prevalent 
pictorialist style, visible in his 1921 Lodgepole 
Pines, a characteristic soft-focus, romantic image. 
This style would turn quickly into a more "honest" 
representation of nature. In 1927, Adams's first 
portfolio was published, Parmelian Prints of the 
High Sierras. After meeting Paul Strand in 1930 
and being deeply influenced by his straight 
approach to the subject, Adams took the decision 
to devote his life to photography. By working as a 



ADAMS, ANSEL 



commercial photographer, he found a solution that 
would allow him to support his family and at the 
same time enable him to pursue the development of 
his own artistic photographic work. 

Although first offered only occasional photo- 
graphic jobs by private persons and California 
area companies, Adams gained gradually a repu- 
tation and was soon offered jobs across the count- 
ry by major companies such as the American 
Telegraph and Telephone Company, Life magazine, 
the American Trust Company, and Eastman Kodak 
(later in his career). 

Adams's first individual exhibition was held in 
1931 at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C., and a year later, his work was exhibited at 
the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Fran- 
cisco. In that same year, 1932, he founded the 
Group f/64 together with Willard Van Dyke, Ed- 
ward Weston, Imogen Cunningham, Sonia Nos- 
kowiak, John Paul Edwards, and Henry Swift. 
The name f/64 refers to the smallest aperture of 
the camera lens, a setting that produces the largest 
field depth and consequently sharply focused and 
finely detailed images. 

The group promoted straight, pure modernistic 
photography, in contrast to the prevalent sentimen- 
tal turn-of-the-century pictorialist style. Soft-focus 
and emotionalism was replaced by emphasis on 
crystalline sharp form and texture. Frequently, the 
photographic subjects were chosen deliberately sim- 
ple, often seen in close-up and creating sometimes 
abstract designs, as for example in Burnt Stump and 
New Grass, 1935; Rose and Driftwood, 1932, Frozen 
Lake and Cliffs, Surf Sequence (a sequence of five 
images), 1932; or Wood Flame, Tree Detail. The 
prints were produced on glossy gelatin silver papers 
mounted on white board. Filters and only basic 
printing techniques, such as burning and dodging, 
were considered acceptable. In fact, Adams used 
filters often in order to accentuate the structure of 
clouds against the sky, or in general to darken a blue 
sky to appear almost completely black on the prints, 
as for instance in Monolith, the Face of Half Dome or 
High Country Crags and Moon, Sunrise, c. 1935. 

Despite the clear rules of the Group f/64, 
Adams did not eschew a certain degree of experi- 
mentation, and used a variety of miniature and 
large-format cameras. After meeting Alfred Stie- 
glitz in 1933, he opened the Ansel Adams Gallery 
in San Francisco. He published several articles in 
Camera Craft in 1934 and a year later, his first 
book, Making a Photograph, which was received 
with enthusiasm and assured him a worldwide 
reputation as a photographer. In many of his 
publications, Adams promoted the approach of 



the Group f/64 with passion. The most convin- 
cing, tangible, and by the broad public best under- 
stood and admired arguments in favor of this 
approach, however, were undoubtedly Adams's 
photographic studies of the west coast. They 
stand as testimony for the power and beauty of 
straight photography. The sharp images of majes- 
tic mountainous landscapes, untouched by man- 
kind, convey a sense of awe and instill respect and 
a desire for conservation of nature, an aspect that 
was most important to Adams throughout his life. 
Famous examples are Adams's Tenya Lake, 
Mount Conness, c. 1946; Winter Sunrise, 1944; or 
Moon and Half Dome, 1960. Adams developed a 
strong intuition for the exact moment in time 
where the constellation of sun and clouds, shadow 
and light would combine to the desired dramatic 
interplay between strongly textured and planer, 
flatter elements of the image. Anticipation plays 
a decisive role in capturing the right moment: 
"Anticipation is one of the most perplexing cap- 
abilities of the mind: projection into future time. 
Impressive with a single moving object, it is over- 
whelming when several such objects are considered 
together and in relation to the environment" 
(Adams 1985, 78). Examples showing the effect of 
successfully capturing the right moment are 
Adams's Clearing Winter Storm (1944), or Mount 
Williamson (1944). However, the best example is his 
most well-known photograph, Moonrise, Hernan- 
dez, New Mexico, 1941, where, as is often the case, 
capturing the right moment was a matter of seconds: 

After the first exposure I quickly reversed the 8x10 film 
holder to make a duplicate negative, for I instinctively 
knew I had visualized one of those very important 
images that seem prone to accident or physical defect, 
but as I pulled out the slide the sunlight left the crosses 
and the magical moment was gone forever. 

(Ansel Adams, 273) 

By 1936, Adams had earned such a reputation 
and impressed Stieglitz so much that an important 
one-man exhibition of his work was held at An 
American Place, New York. Adams moved into 
the Yosemite Valley, taking trips through the 
Southwest with Edward Weston, Georgia O'Ke- 
effe, and David McAlpin. The resulting photo- 
graphs were published in 1938 in Sierra Nevada: 
The John Muir Trail. He met Nancy and Beaumont 
Newhall in New York in 1939, where in the follow- 
ing year, he assisted, together with McAlpin, in the 
creation of the Department of Photography at the 
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). 

In an effort to control the photographic process 
and to be able to record the visual impressions of a 



10 



ADAMS, ANSEL 



specific quantity and quality of light, Adams, with 
the help of Fred Archer, developed the Zone System 
in the late 1930s. This tool provides the photogra- 
pher with a practical, yet scientifically grounded 
method implementing the conceptual basis of 
Group f/64. It helps to realize the vision by control- 
ling exposure, development, and printing, and thus 
enabling the photographer to project the wanted 
detail, scale, texture, and tone onto the final 
image. The Zone System is still used today by pro- 
fessional photographers. Each of the 11 zones, ran- 
ging from (pure black) to X (pure white) 
corresponds to a specific ratio between a subject's 
brightness as measured with a light meter to its 
density in the negative and hence to its tone in 
the final print. The Zone System became very pop- 
ular thanks to Adams's publications and work- 
shops, and soon became the most important form 
of printmaking. 

At the beginning of World War II, Adams went 
to Washington, D.C., working as a photomuralist 
for the Department of the Interior. Photographs of 
a war-time essay for the cause of interned Japa- 
nese-Americans were exhibited at MoMA in 1944 
under the title Born Free and Equal. During the 
next two years, Adams taught photography at 
the museum and in 1946 he co-founded one of 
the first departments of photography at the Cali- 
fornia School of Fine Arts, later known as the 
San Francisco Art Institute. In the same year, 
he obtained a Guggenheim Fellowship to photo- 
graph national park locations and monuments. 
The Fellowship was renewed in 1948, and five pro- 
ductive years of important and creative photo- 
graphic work followed. 

Portfolio 1: In Memory of Alfred Stieglitz was 
published in 1948 and in the same year, Adams 
started publishing technical volumes in the Basic 
Photo Series. In 1950, Portfolio 2: The National 
Parks and Monuments was issued. In 1953, he col- 
laborated with Dorothea Lange on a photographic 
essay on the Mormons in Utah for Life magazine 
and started a photography workshop in Yosemite 
in 1955. His Portfolio 3: Yosemite Valley was pub- 
lished by the Sierra Club in 1960. 

Adams moved to Carmel, California in 1962, 
where he played an important role in the foun- 
dation of the Friends of Photography, of which 
he became president. A year later, the de Young 
Museum exhibited a retrospective show of his work 
from 1923-1963 and in 1966, Adams was elected a 
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. By the late 1960s, Adams had given up 
active photography and dedicated his time to re- 
vising the Basic Photo Series, publishing several 



books containing his life's work, as well as pre- 
paring prints for numerous exhibitions. Two years 
before his death, Adams defined his person- 
al photographic credo in a catalogue for his exhi- 
bition The Unknown Ansel Adams at The Friends 
of Photography: 

A great photograph is one that fully expresses what one 
feels, in the deepest sense, about what is being photo- 
graphed, and is, thereby, a true manifestation of what 
one feels about life in its entirety. This visual expression 
of feeling should be set forth in terms of a simple devo- 
tion to the medium. It should be a statement of the 
greatest clarity and perfection possible under the condi- 
tions of its creation and production. 

My approach to photography is based on my belief in 
the vigor and values of the world of nature, in aspects of 
grandeur and minutiae all about us. I believe in people, 
in the simpler aspects of human life, in the relation of 
man to nature. I believe man must be free, both in spirit 
and society, that he must build strength into himself, 
affirming the enormous beauty of the world and acquir- 
ing the confidence to see and to express his vision. And 
I believe in photography as one means of expressing 
this affirmation and of achieving an ultimate happiness 
and faith. 

(Ansel Adams, 235) 

Adams died in 1984 in Carmel. Major collections 
of his work are found in the following institutions: 
Center for Creative Photography, University of 
Arizona, Tucson (archives); San Francisco Mu- 
seum of Modern Art; the M.H. de Young Memo- 
rial Museum, San Francisco; Bancroft Library, 
University of California, Berkeley; MoMA New 
York; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Bib- 
liotheque Nationale, Paris. 

There are several films dealing with Adams and 
his work: Ansel Adams, Photographer, directed by 
David Myers in 1957; Yosemite, Valley of Light, 
directed by Tom Thomas in 1957; Photography: 
The Incisive Art, five television films directed by 
Robert Katz in 1959. 

Marco Merkli 

See also: Bibliotheque nationale de France; Center 
for Creative Photography; Cunningham, Imogen; 
Friends of Photography; Group f/64; Modernism; 
Museum of Modern Art; Newhall, Beaumont; Stie- 
glitz, Alfred; Strand, Paul; Victoria and Albert 
Museum; Weston, Edward 



Biography 

Born in San Francisco, California, 20 February 1902. Tutored 
first privately at home, studies piano at San Francisco 
Conservatory 1914-1927 and photography with photofin- 



11 



ADAMS, ANSEL 



isher Frank Dittman, San Francisco, 1916-1917. Began 
career as photographer in 1927; worked as commercial 
photographer 1930-1960; co-founded the Group f.64, San 
Francisco 1932; co-founded the Photography Department, 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1940; instructor, with 
Edward Weston, U.S. Camera photographic forum, Yose- 
mite Valley, 1940; instructor in Photography, Art Center 
School, Los Angeles, 1941; photography consultant, Office 
of War Information, Los Angeles, 1942-1944; instructor in 
photography MoMA, New York, 1945; founder and 
instructor, Department of Photography, California School 
of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 1946; Guggenheim Fellow- 
ships 1946 (renewed 1948), 1958; founder and instructor, 
Ansel Adams Annual Photography Workshops, Yosemite 
Valley, 1955-1984; member of the board of directors, 
1934-1971, and honorary vice-president, 1978-1984, Sierra 
Club, San Francisco; founder and chairman, Friends of 
Photography, Carmel, 1967; Conservation Service 
Award, United States Department of the Interior, 1968; 
Progress Medal, Photographic Society of America, 1969; 
Chubb Fellowship, Yale University, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, 1970; participates in creation of the Center for 
Creative Photography, University of Arizona at Tucson, 
1970; United States Presidential Medal of Freedom, 
1980; Hasselblad Prize, 1981; Died in Carmel, California, 
23 April 1984. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1928 Sierra Club, San Francisco, California 

1931 Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

1932 M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, 
California 

1934 Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York 
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 
1936 An American Place, New York, New York 

1938 University of California, Berkeley, California 

1939 San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia 

1944 Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 
1946 Santa Barbara Museum, Santa Barbara, California 

1950 Pasadena Art Institute, Pasadena, California 

1951 Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1952 International Museum of Photography, Rochester, 
New York; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

1956 Photokina, Cologne, Germany 
1956 Limelight Gallery, New York, New York 
1961 American Federation of Arts, Carmel, California 
1963 The Eloquent Light,M.H.de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, California (retrospective) 

1972 Recollected Moments, San Francisco Museum of Mo- 
dern Art, San Francisco, California, and traveling to 
Europe and South America 

Witkin Gallery, New York, New York 
San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia 

1973 Friends of Photography, Carmel, California 

1974 Photographs by Ansel Adams, Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, New York and traveling 

1967 Center for Creative Photography, University of Ari- 
zona, Tucson, Arizona, Victoria and Albert Museum, 
London, England 
1977 Fotografiska Museet, Stockholm, Sweden 
1980 Ansel Adams: Photographs of the American West, or- 
ganized by The Friends of Photography for the USICA 



and circulated through 1983 in India, the Middle East, 
and Africa 

1981 Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, Virginia 

1982 Ansel Adams at An American Place, San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, 
and traveling 

1983 Ansel Adams: Photographs, The Friends of Photogra- 
phy, and traveling to Shanghai, Beijing, Hong Kong, 
and Tokyo 

1987 Ansel Adams: One with Beauty, M.H. de Young Mem- 
orial Museum, San Francisco, California 

1997 Ansel Adams, A Legacy: Masterworks from The 
Friends of Photography Collection, and traveling in Uni- 
ted States and Japan 

2002 Ansel Adams at 100, San Francisco Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, San Francisco, California, and traveling 



Group Exhibitions 

1932 Group f 1 64, M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San 

Francisco 
1937 Photography 1839-1937, Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, New York 
1944 Art in Progress, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 

New York 
1951 Contemporary Photography, Contemporary Arts 

Museum, Houston, Texas 
1959 Photography at Mid-Century, George Eastman House, 

Rochester, New York 
1963 The Photographer and the American Landscape, 

Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 
1978 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 

1960, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, 

and toured the United States, 1978-1980 
1980 The Imaginary Photo Museum, Kunsthalle, Cologne, 

Germany 
1985 American Images, Barbican Art Gallery, London, 

England and toured Britain 
1987 Photography and Art 1946-1986, Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 



Selected Works 

Photographs 

Lodgepole Pines, Lyell Fork of the Merced River, Yosemite 
National Park, 1921 

Monolith, the Face of Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, 
1927 

Rose and Driftwood, San Francisco, 1932 

Frozen Lake and Cliffs, Sierra Nevada, Sequoia National 
Park, California, 1932 

Burnt Stump and New Grass, Sierra Nevada, California, 
1935 

High Country Crags and Moon, Sunrise, Kings Canyon 
National Park, California, c. 1935 

North Dome, Basket Dome, Mount Hoffman, Yosemite, c. 
1935 

Surf Sequence, San Mateo County Coast, California, 1940 

Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, 1941 

Winter Sunrise, The Sierra Nevada, from Lone Pine, Cali- 
fornia, 1944 

Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, 1944 

Mount Williamson, Sierra Nevada, from Manzanar, Cali- 
fornia, 1944 



12 



ADAMS, ANSEL 



Tenya Lake, Mount Conness, Yosemite National Park, 

around 1946 
Moon and Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, 1960 
Wood Flame, Tree Detail, Yosemite National Park, around 

1960 
Aspens, Northern New Mexico, 1976 



Books of Photographs 

Taos Pueblo. Text by Mary Austin. San Francisco: 1930. 

Sierra Nevada: The John Muir Trail. Berkeley, CA: 1938. 

Michael and Anne in Yosemite Valley. Text by Virginia 
Adams. New York and London: 1941. 

Born Free and Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese-Amer- 
icans at Manzanar Relocation Center. New York: 1944. 

My Camera in the National Parks. Boston: 1950. 

The Islands of Hawaii. Text by Edward Joesting. Honolulu: 
1958. 

Yosemite Valley. Nancy Newhall, ed. San Francisco: 1959. 



These We Inherit: The Parklands of America. San Francisco: 
1963. 

Fiat Lux: The University of California. Text by Nancy New- 
hall. New York: 1967. 

Ansel Adams: Images 1923-1974. Text by Wallace Stegner. 
Boston: 1974. 

Photographs of the Southwest. Text by Lawrence Clark 
Powell. Boston: 1976. 

The Portfolios of Ansel Adams. Introduction by John Szar- 
kowski. Boston and London: 1977. 

Ansel Adams: An Autobiography. With Mary Street Alinder. 
Boston: 1985. 



Technical Books 

Making a Photograph. New York and London: 1935. 
Basic Photo Series: Camera and Lens. New York: 1948 

and 1970; The Negative. New York: 1948; The Print. 

New York: 1950; Natural Light Photography. New 




Ansel Adams, Aspens, Northern New Mexico, Print No. 6 from Portfolio VII, 1976, New 
Mexico, 1958, Gelatin-silver print, 17 Vt x 22 5 /s", Gift of the photographer in honor of David 
H. McAlpin. 
[Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/ Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY] 



13 



ADAMS, ANSEL 

York: 1952; Artificial Light Photography. New York: 

1956. 
Polaroid Land Photography. Boston: 1979. 
The Camera. Boston: 1980. 



Further Reading 

Alinder, James. Ansel Adams: 50 Years of Portraits. Car- 
mel, CA: 1979. 



Doty, Robert, ed. Photography in America. New York and 

London: 1974. 
Gray, Andrea. Ansel Adams: An American Place. Tucson, 

AZ: 1984. 
Newhall, Nancy. The Eloquent Light. San Francisco: 1963. 
Szarkowski, John. Looking at Photographs. New York: 

1973. 



EDDIE ADAMS 



American 

A prolific photojournalist, the self-taught Eddie 
Adams has photographed over 1 3 wars in the course 
of a career that has spanned more than 40 years. 
Although it is specifically these war-related photo- 
graphs that have earned him international renown 
as well as hundreds of awards including a 1969 
Pulitzer Prize, Adams's oeuvre also includes por- 
traits of numerous American presidents, foreign 
leaders of state including Pope John Paul II and 
Fidel Castro, celebrities such as Louis Armstrong 
and Clint Eastwood, and anonymous figures aro- 
und the world. Adams's photos have regularly 
appeared in such newspapers and magazines as 
Time, Newsweek, Life, Paris Match, Vogue, Vanity 
Fair, The New York Times, and Stern, and he 
has also done commercial, fashion, and advertis- 
ing photography for numerous corporate and pri- 
vate clients. 

Adams is probably best-known through his Pu- 
litzer Prize winning photograph he took in Febru- 
ary 1968, while stationed in Saigon as a member of 
the Associated Press. The image depicts the Amer- 
ican-educated and trained Brig. General Nguyen 
Ngoc Loan (then South Vietnam's National Chief 
of Police) in the act of executing a Viet Cong pri- 
soner who had just been apprehended for murder- 
ing several of Nguyen Ngog Loan's men. Graphic 
and violent, this photograph was published on the 
front page of the New York Times and, along with 
the NBC film of the same event, is credited with 
having provoked the civilian outrage that lead to 
massive demonstrations against the Vietnam War 



and quite possibly to President Johnson's decision 
not to seek reelection. Since then, the image (along 
with Nick Ut's photograph of a naked girl fleeing 
her napalmed village) has been reproduced so fre- 
quently that it has come to serve as synecdoche for 
the entire Vietnam War, and stands as Adams's 
most significant photograph. 

The image of the Viet Cong prisoner's execution 
has also played an important role in the decades- 
long debate regarding the risks and values of war 
photography. Without images like this one, some 
have argued, the horrors of war would remain 
invisible to the public far away from the fighting 
and might therefore be taken less seriously. Yet 
others contest that contemporary war depends on 
the very possibility of photographic exposure and 
that egregious acts of violence are committed as a 
result of this publicity. For instance, it has been 
argued that Nguyen Ngoc Loan was only inter- 
ested in publicly assassinating the Viet Cong pris- 
oner because there were AP press corps there to 
capture the image. For him, the photographic evi- 
dence of the execution was meant to teach the Viet 
Cong what would happen to their forces if caught. 
In this sense, the image represents a staged event as 
much as it represents a document of truth, thereby 
putting into question the unmitigated truth-value 
of photography. 

Adams is also well known for his photographic 
essay of South Vietnamese refugees entitled The 
Boat of No Smiles. It is often suggested that Con- 
gress circulated copies of this series of touching 
photographs in order to raise support for an amen- 
dment to current immigration law that would 



14 



ADAMS, EDDIE 



allow President Carter to allow 200,000 South 
Vietnamese refugees the right to come to the Uni- 
ted States. 

Born in Pennsylvania, Adams enlisted in the 
U. S. Marine Corps during the Korean War. Self- 
taught in photography, he began working as a 
photojournalist for the Associated Press in 1961. 
Assignments in the 1960s and 1970s took him to 
Vietnam, Cambodia, Africa, and other interna- 
tional hot spots. In the 1980s and 1990s he has 
served as a special correspondent for Parade maga- 
zine, shooting numerous covers for that publica- 
tion. Beginning in 2000, Adams embarked upon a 
project to travel the world photographing im- 
portant advocates of human rights. In 2002, he 
published these photos, along with interviews con- 
ducted by Kerry Kennedy Cuomo in a Random 
House book entitled Truth to Power: Human Rights 
Defenders Changing Our World. 

Adams's contribution to twentieth century pho- 
tography also includes his work at Barnstorm: the 
Eddie Adams Workshop, a tuition-free training 
camp he started in Jefferson, New York in 1988. 
Intended for ambitious student photographers 
interested in a hands-on opportunity to work with 
leaders in their field, the workshop has become 
very prestigious and is notoriously difficult to get 
into. Its importance in training a new generation of 
photojournalists will be seen as the twenty-first 
century unfolds. 



Hannah Feldman 



See also: War Photography 



Biography 

Born in Pennsylvania. Enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps 
during Korean War; began working as a photojour- 
nalist for the Associated Press in 1961 and as a Special 
Correspondent for the AP in 1976. Has also worked for 
Time, the Philadelphia Bulletin, and as a Special Corre- 
spondent for Parade; has published photographs in 
dozens of other international publications including 
Vogue, Life, and Paris Match. Established Barnstorm: 
The Eddie Adams Workshop in 1988. Published first 
collection of photographs: Truth to Power: Human 
Rights Defenders Changing Our World with Kerry Ken- 
nedy Cuomo in 2002. Pulitzer Prize, 1969. National 
Press Photographer Association's (NPPA) Magazine 



Photographer of the Year, University of Missouri, 
1975. Joseph Sprague Award, 1976. Recipient of hun- 
dreds of other awards including the Sigma Delta Chi 
Distinguished Service Award (three times) and the 
George Polk Memorial Award. 



Selected Works 

Saigon, Vietnam, 1968 

Coal Miner with Burro, 1970s 

Boat of No Smiles, 1977 

Fidel Castro, 1980s 

Beirut, 1991 

Ahuhacar Sultan of Mozambique, 2001 

Truth to Power, 2002 



Further Reading 

Browning, Michael. "War Photos that Changed History." 
Palm Beach Post (12 May 2004). 

NikonNet Lens Behind the Lens. "Eddie Adams: Connect- 
ing to the Collective Soul." http://homel.nikonnet.com/ 
nikoncentre/photojournalism/photojournalism-adam. 
html. (Accessed July 17, 2005). 

Pauser, Eric, dir. 466 Ly To Thai Street. Ikon Films, Swe- 
den, date unknown. 

Sontag, Susan. Regarding the Pain of Others, New York: 
Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2003. 




Eddie Adams, Vietcong Arrested, 1968/print 1988, gelatin 
silver print, 19.0 x 23.8 cm, Gift of The Associated Press. 
[Photograph courtesy of George Eastman House, © The 
Associated Press, Eddie Adams] 



15 



ADAMS, ROBERT 



ROBERT ADAMS 



American 

Photographer Robert Adams has documented the 
changing American West since the late 1960s. His 
black and white photographs, along with his sig- 
nificant writings, have explored the complex rela- 
tionship of humankind to the natural environment. 
Adams's photographs emphasize the tension that 
lies between human expansion and nature. His 
seemingly stark, documentary-style images capture 
the need for home, the inescapable destruction of 
the land in western expansion, and the resiliency of 
nature. These photographs record suburban hous- 
ing tracks, desolate prairie highways, mountain 
overlooks, highway exchanges, beaches, and people 
shopping. Adams seeks out the ordinary and often 
overlooked, allowing the viewer to question their 
own place and behavior within society and their 
natural surroundings. 

Adams has always had an interest and love of 
the land. Some of his earliest and fondest memories 
are of hiking with his family in the woods. In the 
1940s, Adams began to suffer from asthma. This 
propelled his family to move first to Madison, Wis- 
consin, and then to Colorado, for his health. While 
growing up in Colorado in the 1950s, Adams con- 
tinued to be very active in the outdoors, becoming 
an Eagle Scout, guide and camp counselor, and 
working for the U.S. Forest Service. The many 
natural areas Adams explored as a young man 
would later become the areas he would see so dras- 
tically changed and be compelled to document in 
his photography. 

At age 19 and before going to college, Adams's 
concern for societal issues led him to consider be- 
coming a minister, as his great-grandfather had 
been in the Midwest. Although he did not pursue 
the ministry, his social concerns would be born out 
through his photography. Adams went on to study 
English at the University of Redlands in California, 
graduating in 1959 and later, pursued his Ph.D. in 
English from the University of Southern Califor- 
nia, which he completed in 1965. In 1962, Adams 
returned to Colorado to teach English at Colorado 
College in Colorado Springs. He was troubled by 
the changes that had occurred during his absence. 
"I came back to Colorado to discover that it had 



become like California... The places where I had 
worked, hunted, climbed and run rivers were all 
being destroyed, and for me the desperate question 
was, how do I survive?" (Di Grappa 1980). 

During his time in Colorado Springs, Adams 
began to find that through photography he could 
"say what he wanted to say — which approximated 
what I felt" (Brooke 1998, 100). With little formal 
training in photography, Adams would in the late 
1960s begin to capture the rapidly changing Amer- 
ican West and the people who inhabit it. He wrote 
of his work in an essay "In the American West is 
Hope Possible": 

So, when I have the strength to be honest, I do not hope 
to experience again the space I loved as a child. The loss 
is the single hardest fact for me to acknowledge in the 
American decline. How we depended on space, without 
realizing it — space which made easier a civility with 
each other, and which made plainer the beauty of light 
and thus the world. 

(Adams 1989, 159) 

Adams taught at Colorado College until 1970, 
when he turned to photography full-time. Important 
to his early career, Adams met John Szarkowski, 
director of the department of photography at the 
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), in 1969. Szar- 
kowski subsequently bought four of Adams's prints 
and supported Adams and his new approach to 
documenting the Western landscape. Adams was 
included in exhibitions at MoMA in 1970, 1971, 
and 1973 and throughout his later career. In 1975, 
he was one of several photographers featured in 
the important exhibition New Topographies: Photo- 
graphs of a Man-Altered Landscape at the Inter- 
national Museum of Photography at George 
Eastman House, Rochester, New York. Through 
this exhibit, he became associated with the "new 
topographic" photographers, including Lewis Baltz, 
Joe Deal, Frank Gohlke, and Stephen Shore. These 
photographers all acknowledged the human exis- 
tence in nature through their work, in contrast with 
other "western" photographers such as Ansel Adams 
(no relation), Imogen Cunningham, and Edward and 
Brett Weston of Group f/64, whose photographs 
often reflected a mythical and pristine natural land- 
scape. Robert Adams and others were utilizing the 



16 



ADAMS, ROBERT 



photographic medium to begin defining a new area 
of social critique. 

Adams's inspirations are many. In his writings or 
in the accompanying text to his work, he regularly 
quotes poets and writers, including Henry David 
Thoreau, Edward Abbey, and others. He also cites 
and discusses painting, sculpture, and architecture 
as influential to his work. In particular, the Ger- 
man architect Rudolph Schwarz, known for his 
church designs, has influenced Adams. Beyond 
the documentary and social context, Adams's pho- 
tographs have also been critiqued on a formal or 
aesthetic level. Most notably, his work has been 
compared to the paintings of American painter 
Edward Hopper, through his similar use of stark 
light, lone figures, and a building or element within 
the broader landscape. 

Adams published his first book, White Churches 
of the Plains, in 1970 and proceeded to successfully 
publish over 20 books over the following 30 years. 
Included are The New West: Landscapes Along the 
Colorado Front Range (1974), an important early 
work; From the Missouri West (1980), Adams's 
personal survey of western expansion; Summer 
Nights (1985), which captured the contrasting 
beauty and solitude of the inhabited suburban 
landscape; To Make it Home: Photographs of the 
American West (1989); published to coincide with 
his major retrospective exhibit at the Philadelphia 
Museum of Art; and West from the Columbia 
(1995), which captures the landscape of the Oregon 
Coast where Adams and his wife vacationed for 
years and now live. 

Adams's oeuvre extends beyond obvious irony 
and does not suggest an easy answer to the existen- 
tial questions it poses. The viewer must come to 
grips with his or her own position in relation to the 
future and in relation to landscape and civilization. 
In sorting out these conflicts, the photographer 
has written, 

Most of my hopes are for the amelioration of problems — 
a more conservative pattern of land use, a reduction in 
air pollution, a more prudent consumption of water, a 
lessening of animal abuse, a more respectful architec- 
ture. When I think about the possibility, however, of a 
landscape enriched by specific places to which we have 
responded imaginatively and with deference, I find 
myself thinking that we might be permitted to call it 
improved. 



(Adams 1989, 163) 



Jim McDonald 



See also: Adams, Ansel; Baltz, Lewis; Gohlke, 
Frank; History of Photography: 1980s; Szarkowski, 
John 



Biography 

Born in Orange, New Jersey, 8 May 1937. Attended Uni- 
versity of Colorado, 1955; studied English, University of 
Redlands, California, B.A., 1959; studied English, Uni- 
versity of Southern California, Ph.D., 1965. Self-edu- 
cated in photography. Assistant Professor at Colorado 
College, Colorado Springs, 1962-1970; editorial assis- 
tant at The Colorado Associated University Press, 
Boulder, 1972. John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Foundation Fellowship, 1973; National Endowment 
for the Arts Photographer's Fellowship, 1973; Award 
of Merit, American Association of State and Local His- 
tory, 1975; National Endowment for the Arts Photogra- 
pher's Fellowship, 1978; Colorado Governor's Award in 
the Arts, 1979; John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Foundation Fellowship, 1980; Peer Award from The 
Friends of Photography, 1983; Charles Pratt Memorial 
Award, 1987; John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur 
Foundation Fellow, 1994; Spectrum International Prize 
for Photography, 1995. Living in Astoria, Oregon. 



Selected Individual Exhibitions 

1971 Robert Adams; Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 

Colorado Springs, Colorado 
1976 Robert Adams; St. John's College, Santa Fe, New 

Mexico 

1978 Prairie; Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado 

1979 Prairie; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New 
York, and traveling 

1980 From the Missouri West; Castelli Graphics, New York, 
New York 

1981 The New West: Photographs by Robert Adams; Phila- 
delphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

1984 Our Lives & Our Children: Photographs Taken Near 
the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant; Moravian Col- 
lege, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 

1986 Summer Nights; Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colo- 
rado, and traveling 

1989 To Make it Home: Photographs of the American West 
1965-1986, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania 

1991 Robert Adams; Photo Gallery International, Tokyo, 
Japan 

1992 Robert Adams; Centre d'Art Contemporain, Brussels, 
Belgium 

1993 At the End of the Colombia River; Denver Art Mu- 
seum, Denver, Colorado 

1994 Listening to the River; Sprengel Museum, Hanover, 
Germany, and traveling 

1995 West from the Columbia; Fraenkel Gallery, San Fran- 
cisco, California 

1996 Our Lives and Our Children; Musee d'Arte Moderne de 
St. Etienne, St. Etienne, France 

1998 To the Mouth of the Columbia; Princeton University, 
Princeton, New Jersey 

2000 California; Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco, Califor- 
nia 

2001 Robert Adams: Places — People; National Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Oslo, Norway 

Reinventing the West: The Photographs of Ansel Adams and 
Robert Adams; Addison Gallery of American Art, And- 
over, Massachusetts 

Sunlight, Solitude, Democracy, Home. ..Photographs by 



17 



ADAMS, ROBERT 



Robert Adams; Douglas F. Cooley Memorial Art Gal- 
lery, Reed College, Portland, Oregon 
2002 Robert Adams: Topography of Consequence ; Northwest 
Museum of Arts and Culture, Spokane, Washington 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1970 New Acquisitions; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

1971 Photographs by Robert Adams and Emmet Gowin; 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1973 Landscape I City scape: A Selection of Twentieth-Cen- 
tury American Photographers; Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York, New York 

1975 New Topographies: Photographs of a Man-Altered 
Landscape; International Center for Photography at 
George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

1977 Contemporary American Photographic Works; Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas 

1978 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 
1960; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

Amerikanische Landschaftsphotographie 1860-1978; 
Neue Sammlung, Munich, Germany 

1979 Photographic Als Kunst 1879-1979/ Kunst Als Photogra- 
phic 1949-1979; Tiroler Landmuseum, Innsbruck, Austria 

American Images: New Work by Twenty Contempor- 
ary Photographers; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

1981 American Landscapes; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

Biennial Exhibition; Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, New York 

New Landscapes, Part II; The Friends of Photogra- 
phy, Carmel, California 

1982 20th Century Photographs from the Museum of Modern 
Art; The Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan 

1983 An Open Land: Photographs of the Midwest, 1852- 
1982; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

Personal Choices; Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don, England 

1984 Three Americans; Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
New York 

1985 Albert Renger-Patzschj Robert Adams; Kunstverein 
Munchen, Munich, Germany 

1986 Artists in Mid-Career; San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, San Francisco, California 

Ansel Adams and American Landscape Photography; 
Australian National Gallery, Canberra, Australia 

1987 Nuovo Paesaggio Americano j Dialectical Landscapes; 
Museo Fortuny, Venice, Italy 

Road and Roadside: American Photographs, 1930- 
1986; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1988 Another Objectivity; Institute of Contemporary Arts, 
London, England 

1989 Photography Until Now; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: 150 Years of Photo- 
graphy; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

Photography Now; Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don, England 

Une Autre Objectivite; Centre National des Arts Plas- 
tiques, Paris, France 

Decade by Decade; Center for Creative Photography, 
Tucson, Arizona 



The Art of Photography: 1839-1989; Museum of Fine 
Arts, Houston, Texas 

1990 The Indomitable Spirit; International Center of Photo- 
graphy at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

Passages de ITmage; Musee National d'Art Moderne, 
Paris, France 

1991 Pleasures and Terrors of Domestic Comfort; Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, New York 

Visionsj Revisions; Denver Art Museum, Denver, Col- 
orado 

1992 Robert Adams, Wim Wenders: Photographs of the 
American West; Amerika Haus, Berlin, Germany 

A History of Oregon Photography; Portland Art 
Museum, Portland, Oregon 

1993 Critical Landscapes; Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of 
Photography, Tokyo, Japan 

1996 Crossing the Frontier: Photographs of the Developing 
West, 1849 to the Present; San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, San Francisco, California 

Perpetual Mirage: Photographic Narratives of the 
Desert West; Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, New York 

1997 Documenta X; Kassel, Germany 

The View from Denver; Denver Art Museum, Denver, 
Colorado 

1998 Measure of Nature; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 
Illinois 

Sea Change: The Seascape in Contemporary Photogra- 
phy; Center for Creative Photography, Tucson, Arizona 
Waterproof; Belem Cultural Center, Lisbon, Portugal 

1999 The American Century Art and Culture, 1900-2000; 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New 
York 

2000 How You Look At It; Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 
Germany 

2001 Settings and Players; White Cube, London, England 

2002 American Century of Photography: The Hallmark 
Photographic Collection; Denver Art Museum, Denver, 
Colorado 



Selected Works 

Alameda Avenue, Denver, 1970-1972 

Colorado, 1970 

Quarried Mesa Top, Pueblo County, Colorado, 1978 

Redlands, Looking Toward Los Angeles Across San Timoteo 

Canyon, San Bernardino , California, 1978 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1979 

Dead Palms, Partially Uprooted, Ontario, California, 1983 
Untitled, Berthoud, Colorado, late 1970s 
Fort Collins, Colorado, 1980 
Longmont, Colorado, 1980 
Southwest from the South Jetty, Clatsop County, Oregon, 

1990 



Further Reading 

Adams, Robert. White Churches of the Plains: Examples 
from Colorado. Introduction by Thomas Hornsby Ferril, 
Boulder, Colorado: Colorado Associated University 
Press, 1970. 

Adams, Robert. The New West: Landscapes Along the Col- 
orado Front Range. Foreword by John Szarkowski. Boul- 
der, CO: Colorado Associated University Press, 1974. 



18 



ADAMS, ROBERT 



Adams, Robert. From the Missouri West. New York: Aper- 
ture, 1980. 

Adams, Robert. Beauty in Photography: Essays in Defense 
of Traditional Values. New York: Aperture, 1981. 

Adams, Robert. Our Lives & Our Children: Photographs 
Taken Near the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant. 
New York: Aperture, 1983. 

Adams, Robert. "Introduction." In Daniel Wolf, American 
Space: Meaning in Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photo- 
graphy. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 
1983. 

Adams, Robert. Summer Nights. New York: Aperture, 
1985. 



Adams, Robert. To Make It Home: Photographs of the 
American West, 1965-1986. New York: Aperture, 1989. 

Adams, Robert. Why People Photograph: Selected Essays 
and Reviews. New York: Aperture, 1994. 

Adams, Robert. West from the Columbia. New York: Aper- 
ture, 1995. 

Adams, Robert, Lewis Baltz, Bernd and Hilla Becher, Joe 
Deal, Frank Gohlke, Nicholas Nixon, John Schott, Ste- 
phen Shore, Henry Wessel, Jr. New Topographies: Pho- 
tographs of a Man-Altered Landscape. Rochester, NY: 
International Center for Photography, 1975. 

Brooke, Elizabeth Heilman. "Land Lover." ARTNEWS 
(February 1998). 



1 I J 



FRANZIA 
BROTHE" 



afil 
ofel 



LAMEM 

CAR WASH 




Robert Adams, Alameda Avenue, Denver, 1970-72, The New West, p. 73. 
[Courtesy Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco] 



19 



ADAMS, ROBERT 



Castleberry, May. Perpetual Mirage: Photographic Narra- 
tives of the Desert West. New York: Whitney Museum of 
American Art, 1996. 

Di Grappa, Carol, ed. Landscape Theory. Lustrum Press, 
New York, 1980. 

Fillin-yeh, Susan and Leo Rubinfien. Sunlight, Solitude, 
Democracy , Home... Photographs by Robert Adams. Seat- 
tle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2002. 



Phillips, Sandra S. Crossing the Frontier: Photographs of the 
Developing West, 1849 to the Present. San Francisco, 
CA: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1996. 

Ratcliff, Carter. Route 66 Revisited: The New Landscape 
Photography. Art in America, January/February, 1976. 

Weinberg, Adam D. Reinventing the West: The Photographs 
of Ansel Adams and Robert Adams. Andover, MA: Addi- 
son Gallery of American Art, 2001. 



AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



The technology of aerial photography stems from 
nineteenth century devices — the photographic cam- 
era and air travel — but it was conceived in social 
and technological forces that began at the dawn of 
Western civilization. It is thus central to the devel- 
opment of photography, even though it is rarely 
treated as a subject of commentary. 

Aerial photographs offer a geometrically de- 
termined view of objects within a given area. The 
origins of this view lie in the third millennium BCE, 
when Sumerian priests ruled city-states through 
estate management and a religion based on sky 
gods. As conceived at the time, urban deities sur- 
veyed their domains from the sky, conveying legiti- 
macy onto the priests, who realized the aerial view 
with surveying. Since then surveying has been 
essential to governance, and from it has come geo- 
metry and a cascade of geometric disciplines, nota- 
bly perspectival drawing and classical optics, that 
led to the development of photography. 

The uses of aerial surveys have changed little 
since the days of Sumer. Every day the infrastruc- 
ture and citizens of advanced nations are photo- 
graphed dozens of times by a vast network of 
cameras based on satellites, aircraft, buildings and 
poles. These cameras are creating real-time maps of 
their subjects at scales ranging from the intimate to 
the global, and, as the first survey maps of Sumer, 
these automated mapmakers aid in governance of 
society and the control of resources. 

The relation between photographs and maps 
may not be immediately obvious because most 
photographs are vertically stratified, that is they 
reveal the horizontal detail of their subject. How- 
ever, when the picture plane of a camera is held 
parallel to the surface of the earth, as in aerial 
photography, the inherently map-like nature of 



photography is intuitively obvious. Photographs 
and maps both reveal the spatial aspects of the 
environment, that is, the arrangement of objects 
on a plane in relation to one another. In both aerial 
photography and cartography, the vantage can 
offer some level of vertical stratification, the so- 
called chorographic view, or it can represent ob- 
jects in their proper geometric form. Our visual 
intuition on the relationship between maps and 
cameras is backed by the historical development 
of the camera and the techniques of perspectival 
drawing that it automated. 

Aerial photography began in the mid- 1800s, 
some thirty years after the advent of photography. 
In 1858 the pioneering Parisian Nadar took a cam- 
era on a series of balloon ascents, and in 1 864 he 
published a book about the experience, Les Mem- 
oires du Gednt. On the other side of the Atlantic, J. 
W. Black and Sam King ascended 1,200 feet in a 
balloon to take a photograph of Boston in 1860. It 
was war, however, that stimulated the development 
of aerial photography. Nadar refused his services 
to Napoleon III in 1859, but commanded the Paris 
balloon corps during the siege of the early 1870s. 
By then the American Civil War had established a 
number of wartime precedents. As the war broke 
out in 1861 a civilian balloonist inadvertently flew 
over Confederate states. His report convinced the 
Union government to support the creation of the 
U.S. Balloon Corps, which operated until 1863. 
During that time photographers stationed in teth- 
ered balloons created large-scale maps of battle- 
fields that were overlaid with grids to determine 
troop movements. 

In the twentieth century, the prospects of aerial 
photography improved as did aircraft, cameras, 
and telemetry. Balloon reconnaissance continued 



20 



AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



in World War I, but by World War II lighter-than- 
air craft were replaced by airplanes. Development 
intensified during the Cold War. In the 1950s high- 
performance spy planes cruised the stratosphere, 
but, with the Soviet downing of an American U-2 
in 1960, officials on both sides of the conflict rea- 
lized that orbiting satellites were the safest option. 
The Soviet Union orbited the first surveillance 
satellite, but it was rapidly followed by the Corona 
program of the United States. The first generations 
of spy satellites ejected bulky containers of film 
into the atmosphere, but these were replaced by 
high resolution video signals. 

To this day military and intelligence bureaus 
have been the prime innovators of aerial photogra- 
phy. Every aspect of the medium is subject to con- 
stant improvement. Airplanes and spacecraft have 
been improved, lenses have staggering resolution 
and digital technology has replaced analog signals. 
Aerial photography is of such importance that its 
full capabilities at any given time are a state secret. 
Surveillance programs were kept hidden for many 
years, and there is a lag of decades between the 
collection of military photographs and their release 
for other uses. 

The dominance of the United States at the end 
of the twentieth century cannot be overstated. The 
satellites of Russia, France and a few other space- 
going nations offer little competition to the ex- 
tensive surveillance network maintained by the 
United States. During the Cold War aerial imagery 
mostly served strategic purposes, but the U.S. mi- 
litary is now creating systems that offer live ima- 
gery of battlefields from satellite and aircraft, 
notably the Predator drone used in Serbia, Afgha- 
nistan, and Iraq in the last decade of the twentieth 
century. Building on Civil War technologies, com- 
puters overlay battlefield images with an informa- 
tion grid that provides a tactical advantage to 
combat soldiers. 

Aerial photography has also found ample civilian 
application. Commercial applications include ar- 
chitecture, construction, urban planning and other 
development schemes, the travel industry, advertis- 
ing applications of various sorts, publishing, es- 
pecially in such popular magazines as National 
Geographic, and agriculture. The Aerial Photo- 
graphy Field Office, Farm Service Agency is the 
primary source of aerial imagery for the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, holding over 10 million 
images from 1955 to the early 2000s in an archive 
accessible at www.apfo.usda.gov/. 

In the scientific realm, multispectral cameras 
have become essential tools for geographers, ocea- 
nographers, ecologists and even archeologists. For 



instance, an aerial archive of Middle Eastern arche- 
ological sites was established in 1978 under the 
patronage of Crown Prince Hassan bin Talal of 
Jordan, which consists of over 8,000 photographs 
and several hundred maps. Aerial photography's 
application in ecological and conservation efforts 
has been particularly front and center. Satellite 
imagery can precisely track large-scale changes 
in forests, deserts, oceans and other physical phe- 
nomena. Some artists have joined scientists in 
the skies, creating portfolios of merit, including 
the lush, colorful work of French photojournalist 
Yann Arthus-Bertrand with his massive "Earth 
from Above" series. Shown to huge crowds in 
venues around the world, Arthus-Bertrand's aerial 
photography has proven to be a useful tool for 
ecological awareness. He has instigated a world- 
wide organization to raise awareness of ecologi- 
cal concerns, including a professional organization, 
Altitude, which features international aerial photo- 
graphers on its website. Often the reverse can hap- 
pen, with photographs taken by those who would 
identify themselves primarily as scientists taking 
on considerable aesthetic value, such as Bradford 
Washburn's pioneering aerial views of Alaska's 
mountains and glaciers, including such starkly 
beautiful images as Miles Glacier — Dead Ice at 
NW Edge, 1938. 

Aerial photography has become ubiquitous in 
the daily government of urban societies, joining 
cartography and surveillance as an essential tool 
of governance. Citizens of industrial nations can be 
surreptitiously photographed dozens of times a day 
in low aerial view by government and corporate 
cameras. Virtually every square meter of land in 
industrial nations has also been photographed in 
cartographic perspective from aircraft and satellites 
at a variety of scales. This visual information has 
been incorporated into Geographic Information 
Systems (GIS) that composite photographs with 
maps, political boundaries, property titles and 
other data. In most developed countries, private 
photographers also offer aerial services, often 
shooting homes or landscapes on commission for 
a range of clients, often as "portraits" of an indi- 
vidual's or family's property. 

Many university libraries collect aerial pho- 
tographs for historical and research purposes. 
Notable collections include the University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley; the Fairchild Aerial Photography 
Collection at Whittier College, Whittier, California, 
featuring historical views of that state; the Aerial 
Photography Collection at the University of Ore- 
gon Library, featuring some 525,000 aerial photo- 
graphs of Oregon from 1925 onward; University of 



21 



AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



Waterloo Library, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; and 
the Aerial Archive of the Institute for Prehistory 
and Protohistory of the University of Vienna. 

Aerial photography is an important genre 
within fine-arts photography as well. From the 
austere black and white photography of Hiroshi 
Hamaya, whose striking photographs of the Hi- 
malayan mountains and deserts and wild places 
around the world gave new views to nature in 
the 1960s to Emmet Gowin's documentation of 
post-eruption Mount St. Helens in Washington 
State in 1980-1986 and more recent examinations 
of the changes wrought by atomic blast sites and 
mining of his "Changing the Earth" series, con- 
temporary photographers have created memorable 
aerial images. 

Many nature photographers utilize aerial photo- 
graphy as one of the available vantage points to 
capture their subjects. Notable in this regard are 
Indian photographer Subhankar Banerjee with his 
photographs of the Artie National Wildlife Refuge 
at the turn of the century. Most modern aerial 
photography is accomplished through the use of 
airplanes or helicopters using gyroscopically stabi- 
lized cameras, but a significant number of profes- 
sionals and amateurs use radio-controlled drones 
or even kites. 

Kite aerial photography was in fact pioneered by 
Chicago self-taught photographer and business- 
man George R. Lawrence in 1906 to capture extra- 
ordinary wide-angle views of the devastation in the 
aftermath of the San Francisco earthquake. In an 
era before flight and when the volatile gases used in 
balloons could be extremely dangerous, thus limit- 
ing aerial photography, Lawrence's large-scale 
views caused an international sensation. Aerial 
photographer Robert Cameron had devoted his 
practice to aerial documentations of the major 
cities and scenic or historic sites of the world in a 
series of popular books such as Above London of 
1980 or Above Yosemite of 1983. 

Aerial photography can also be practiced from 
vantage points offered by skyscrapers; Margaret 
Bourke-White's pioneering efforts of the 1930s 
being notable examples; Oscar Graubner's 1931 
photo of her perched atop an ornament of the 
Chrysler Building at work with her camera is an 
icon of twentieth century photography. Bourke- 



White was also a pioneer of capturing the skyscape 
from an aerial perspective, creating such striking, 
almost abstract images as B-36 at High Altitude, 
Flying over Wichita, Kansas, 1951. New York City 
in fact has been photographed 'from above' by 
numerous photographers, from the well known 
such as Bourke-White to the lesser known, such 
as the Hungarian photographer Gyorgy Lorinczy 
who documented the city in the late 1960s. 

At the turn of the twenty-first century, much 
aerial photography was being accomplished thro- 
ugh use of digital technology and remote sensing or 
"the science and art of obtaining information about 
an object, area, or phenomenon through the analy- 
sis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact 
with the object, area, or phenomenon under inves- 
tigation" (Lillesand and Kiefer, Remote Sensing and 
Image Interpretation) had become a field within the 
discipline. As the human eye becomes increasingly 
removed from direct observation of the physical 
world, whether in aerial or other photography, the 
range of images captured and the ability to interpret 
them will become increasingly complex. 

Ali Hossaini 

See also: Bourke-White, Margaret; Gowin, Emmet; 
Hamaya, Hiroshi; National Geographic; Propa- 
ganda; War Photography 



Further Reading 

Antenucci, John, Kay Brown, Peter Croswell and Michael 
Kevany. Geographic Information Systems: An Introduc- 
tion to the Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Rhein- 
hold, 1991. 

Evans, Charles. "Air War Over Virginia." Civil War Times 
Oct. (1996): 1-7. 

Hossaini, Ali. Archaeology of the Photograph. Ann Arbor, 
MI: UMI Microforms, 1994. 

Lillesand, Thomas M. and Ralph W. Kiefer, Remote Sen- 
sing and Image Interpretation, 3rd ed., New York: John 
Wiley and Sons, 1994. 

MacDonald, D. Air Photography. Journal of the Optical 
Society of America XLIII (4) (1953): 290-298. 

Muehrcke, Philip C. and Juliana O. Muehrcke. Map Use: 
Reading, Analysis, Interpretation. Madison, WI: J. P. 
Publications, 1992. 

Peebles, Curtis. The Corona Project: America's First Spy 
Satellites. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. 

Ray, Sidney F. The Lens and All Its Jobs. New York: Focal 
Press, 1977. 



22 



AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AFRICA: AN 

OVERVIEW 



Twentieth century photography in Africa encom- 
passes a wide variety of genres and practices. 
Months after its public invention in 1839, photo- 
graphy was introduced to Egypt, spreading quickly 
to coastal cities across Africa and more slowly to 
rural areas and the interior. The first half of the 
twentieth century saw studio photography prac- 
ticed by Africans across the continent, although 
the prohibition against images made photography 
less popular in Islamic North Africa. At the same 
time, Europeans documented modern colonialist 
life in Africa, and European and American ethno- 
graphers traveled the continent in order to photo- 
graph, classify, and codify "tribal" Africans. These 
images, along with landscape photography and 
animal and plant exotica, comprise the genres of 
photography practiced mostly by Westerners for 
publications like National Geographic and other 
journals. By the 1950s and especially after the inde- 
pendence of most nations in the 1960s, African 
photojournalism flourished along with studio por- 
traiture. Some African cultures, like the Yoruba 
and the Bini, incorporated photography into cen- 
turies-old political or religious rituals. In recent 
decades, photography as a contemporary art prac- 
tice has also become popular, and photographers 
with international art world reputations have 
emerged from Morocco to South Africa, although 
many African photographers now work from 
Paris, London, and New York. 

Because of the variety of practices that have 
developed at different times in various regions, 
many scholars today refer to "photographies" in 
Africa, emphasizing photography's multiple his- 
tories. "Africa" itself here constitutes a geographic 
definition only, and should not be understood as 
indicative of a monolithic cultural identity. Aside 
from the violent oppression of European colonial- 
ism and subsequent independence of most nations 
during the 1960s, which colors the history of all 
countries except Ethiopia and Liberia, it is difficult 
to generalize about continent-wide similarities in 
cultures, politics, histories, traditions, and the 
influences of modernity, including photography. 
While some characteristics of photography in 



Africa certainly bear similarities to photography 
everywhere, other aspects may appear recognizably 
West African, Egyptian, or Yoruban, but rarely if 
ever "African," in that the phrase implies a consis- 
tent trait or style that occurs across the continent. 

The history of photography in Africa is a bur- 
geoning field, with further research, writing, and 
critical evaluation still needed in many areas, 
although much new information has come to light 
in the past 15 years. Two of South Africa's best 
known photographers, David Goldblatt and Peter 
Magubane, published books documenting apart- 
heid as early as the 1970s and 1980s. However, 
the surge of art world interest in African photo- 
graphy and subsequent publications on the topic 
can be dated closer to the mid-1990s. Several years 
after the 1991 exhibit Africa Explores at the 
Museum of African Art in New York anonymously 
exhibited Malian photographer Seydou Keita's 
striking black-and-white studio portraits. Ke'ita 
and his compatriot Malick Sidibe were subse- 
quently "discovered" by Andre Magnin, who 
wrote their monographs. Further solo and group 
exhibitions, as well as books, journal articles, and 
catalogues, have since provided valuable new infor- 
mation about individual African photographers as 
well as common photographic practices in many 
parts of Africa. In Bamako, Mali, the first biennale 
exhibiting African photography, Rencontres de la 
Photographic Africaine, was organized in 1994 by 
the editor of Revue Noire, Simon Njami. Revue 
Noire has since published the work of a number of 
African photographers. 

Nigerian curator Okwui Enwezor has also been 
instrumental in bringing African photography and 
art to a wider public. With Salah Hassan and Olu 
Oguibe, he founded Nka: A Journal of Contempor- 
ary African Art out of Cornell University in 1994. 
Enwezor co-curated the landmark exhibition at the 
Guggenheim in New York in 1996, In/ sight: Afri- 
can Photographers, 1940 to the Present, which 
showcased studio photographers, contemporary 
artists, and the journalist photography of Drum, a 
popular South African magazine. The exhibition 
The Short Century (2001-2002), also curated by 



23 



AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Enwezor, and its accompanying catalogue, were 
especially important in bringing awareness of Afri- 
can photography, art, and political history to a wider 
public. Thanks to these and other efforts, significant 
research has been published pertaining to photogra- 
phers and practices in West Africa, and a wide variety 
of sources can be found on different genres of photo- 
graphy in South Africa, including recent photo- 
graphic festivals. A smattering of research also 
covers East Africa, Central Africa, and the islands 
of the Indian Ocean. Although traditionally consid- 
ered separate from sub-Saharan Africa in African art 
and anthropology, some research exists on North 
Africa as well. 

At the same time that photography by Africans is 
coming to widespread public attention in the West, 
revisionist histories that critically examine photo- 
graphs taken by Europeans and Americans of Afri- 
cans for anthropological and ethnographic purposes 
are cropping up as exhibitions and books. Such texts 
use post-colonial and feminist methodologies to 
analyze and re-situate these photographs, many of 
which are still in circulation, in the discourses of 
African art, history, and anthropology, within an 
understanding of European racism and the 
hierarchical classificatory systems it generated. 

By 1900 colonial rule was strongly established in 
most African nations, and this vast attempt to 
reorganize and control African societies and land 
for European profit was often documented and 
celebrated by the colonizers through photographs 
that today appear horrifying in their casual accep- 
tance of European brutalities. Sometimes these 
photographs fostered nascent European anti-colo- 
nialism and reform movements through their dis- 
semination to sympathetic activists. For example, 
photographs that documented the abuses perpe- 
trated by King Leopold II of Belgium in Congo 
Free State (now Democratic Republic of the Congo 
[DRC]) led to widespread condemnation of his 
behavior in Europe and the United States. As a 
result, in 1908 the Belgian Parliament annexed 
Congo Free State, ending the worst of the atroci- 
ties. This early example of the use of photojourn- 
alism in the fight against colonialism recurred in 
many countries during the independence struggles 
of the 1960s, and as late as the 1990s in South 
Africa, whose rule of apartheid ended in 1994. 

The racist political system of apartheid contrib- 
uted to South Africa's unique position in the his- 
tory of African photography. Photographs by 
white South Africans followed the general trend 
of European photography, but with less interest 
in radical artistic innovation. Portrait photography 
became popular among all races, as elsewhere in 



Africa. However, it is the photography of Drum, a 
popular magazine pitched to black South African 
life, which has become particularly well-known 
today for its quality photojournalism as well as its 
promotion of black self-representation. 

Originally aimed toward a European conception 
of a "tribal" audience, Drum was published in 1951 
as The African Drum, but failed after three issues. 
After a change in ownership and attitude, Drum 
quickly became a hugely popular magazine depict- 
ing the lifestyles, newsworthy events, and social 
concerns of black South Africans. Drum'?, celebra- 
tory appreciation of township life and investigative 
reports into socio-political situations provided 
black South Africans with visual representations 
of their lives; under the regime of apartheid, 
Drum's presence was profoundly political. Al- 
though Drum was unable to overtly protest con- 
ditions in South Africa, the magazine's journalists 
and photographers pushed the constraints of cen- 
sorship when possible. For example, Drum serially 
published Alan Paton's novel, Cry the Beloved 
Country (1948), which describes the clash between 
a black minister and a racist white farmer. However, 
Drum's owner Jim Bailey refused to publish British 
photo-journalist Ian Berry's shots of the 1960 Shar- 
peville massacre; when Berry sent the prints to Lon- 
don instead, international outrage erupted. 

Drum also contributed to the evolution of a 
Pan-African sensibility, as offices were eventually 
opened across sub-Saharan Africa. The first office 
was opened in Nigeria in 1953 and the second in 
Ghana a year later. An East African office was 
established in 1957, and the last office opened in 
Central Africa in 1966. Drum reported on politi- 
cal events outside of South Africa, documenting 
Nigeria's independence, for example, and the 
initial meetings of the alliance of the West Afri- 
can Federation. 

Aside from photojournalism, many countries 
established governmental photo agencies either 
during colonialism or after independence. Congo- 
presse in DRC was one such colonialist organ. 
Agencies in Madagascar, Angola, and Guinea 
were introduced under colonialism and changed 
names and structures after independence. Other 
post-colonial agencies based on former colonialist 
organizations include AMAP in Mali and ONI- 
CEP in Nigeria. The archives for some of these 
official agencies are not publicly available; for 
example, Seydou Keita's work for the government 
of Mali has not been released. The types of photo- 
graphy these organizations practiced varied; 
although most were political, Madagascar's SGM 
used photography for military and geographic pur- 



24 



AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



poses before colonialism, and its post-colonial 
incarnation, FTM, services tourism. 

Although generally agency photographers were 
allowed and indeed expected to document the poli- 
tical process and government activities in a way 
that had been illegal before independence, they 
worked in the service and within the boundaries 
of the new states' ideologies. Photographic image 
production, with its accompanying authority in 
appearing to present "reality," became a way for 
the new governments to assert their authenticity, 
but often at the expense of truth. In many coun- 
tries, the public eventually came to doubt the vera- 
city of official photography, which was often 
censored by corrupt post-colonial governments. 

From the turn of the century until the 1960s, 
however, commercial black-and-white studio por- 
traiture constituted the most popular and wide- 
spread type of photography in sub-Saharan 
Africa. Although studio photography was intro- 
duced by Europeans, Africans began to open their 
own studios for African clientele as early as the 
1880s in some areas. At first only available to the 
wealthy, who were usually civil servants working 
for the colonial governments, photography became 
affordable to the growing middle classes in many 
parts of Africa by the 1930s. Many photographers 
learned their trade working in an older photogra- 
pher's studio, although sometimes soldiers who 
had fought in Europe during the world wars 
returned home with cameras and newly learned 
photographic techniques. The need for identity 
photos contributed to the proliferation of photo- 
graphers not only in cities but in rural areas. 

Through studio portraits, Africans were able to 
participate in their own image creation, a practice 
that acted as a valuable social and cultural resis- 
tance to colonialism. The portrait photograph, a 
collaboration between photographer and subject in 
the creation of the subject's own self-image, was a 
particularly apt genre for this re-imaging of photo- 
graphy from an African point of view. Photo- 
graphic portraiture was seen as modern and 
embraced for its modernity. Portraits were taken 
to commemorate special and celebratory occasions, 
in which the sitters usually posed in their best 
clothing. Photographs were hung in living rooms, 
set in photo albums that were shown to guests, or 
sent back by urban migrants to their rural families. 
Such photographs were usually made directly from 
contact prints using box cameras without an 
enlarger, and so were quite small. Usually a photo- 
grapher who took over another's studio "inher- 
ited" the former owner's negatives as well. 
Recognizable traits developed in certain areas that 



appear to show regional photographic practices, 
like the patterned backdrop or portraits of two 
sitters in matching clothing in West Africa. 

Studio photography remained popular after inde- 
pendence, but the introduction of color labs starting 
from the late 1960s through the 1980s drastically 
reduced the number of studios and their ability to 
survive economically. The new technology appears to 
have contributed to the decline of the studio photo- 
grapher and the increased prominence of the itiner- 
ant photographer, thus initiating a new aesthetic. 
Usually young men hoping to make a living without 
previous training in a studio, the itinerant photogra- 
phers have been criticized by the older black-and- 
white studio photographers as lacking in quality. 

Few women African photographers have been 
recognized to date, but Stephen Sprague records 
women working as studio photographers in Nigeria 
in the 1970s, and Heike Behrend has documented 
women practicing photography recently in Mom- 
basa, Kenya. Several women also worked for Gui- 
nea's Syli-Photo in the 1960s. Currently, Jo 
Ractliffe and Penny Siopsis of South Africa, Zarina 
Bhimji of Uganda, and Lamia Naji of Morocco are 
working internationally as contemporary art photo- 
graphers. Other male contemporary art photogra- 
phers with international reputations today include 
Zwelethu Mthethwa and Santu Mofokeng of South 
Africa, Samuel Fosso of Central African Republic, 
Philip Kwame Apagya of Ghana, and Tahoumi 
Ennadre of Morocco. 

Allison Moore 

See also: Ballen, Roger; Fosso, Samuel; National 
Geographic; Photography in Africa: Central and 
West; Photography in Africa: East Africa and Indian 
Ocean Islands; Photography in Africa: North; Pho- 
tography in Africa: South and Southern; Portraiture 



Further Reading 

Behrend, Heike, and Jean-Francois Werner, eds. "Photo- 
graphies and Modernities in Africa." Visual Anthropol- 
ogy, v. 14, no. 3, (2001). 

Bell, Clare, Okwui Enwezor, Danielle Tilkin, Octavio Zaya, 
and Olu Oguibe. In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to 
the Present. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Mu- 
seum, 1996. 

Coombes, Anni. Reinventing Africa. New Haven: Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1994. 

Enwezor, Okwui, ed. The Short Century: Independence and 
Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994. Munich: 
Prestel, 2001. 

Fall, N'gone, and Pascal Martin Saint Leon, eds. Anthology 
of African and Indian Ocean Photography. Paris, France: 
Editions Revue Noire, 1999. 

Geary, Christraud. In and Out of Focus: Images from Cen- 
tral Africa, 1885-1960. Washington, D.C.: National 



25 



AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution & Phi- 
lip Wilson, Publishers, 2002. 

Grundlingh, Kathleen, ed. Lines of Sight: Perspectives on 
South African Photography. Cape Town, South Africa: 
South African National Gallery, 2001. 

Lamuniere, Michelle. You Look Beautiful Like That: The 
Portrait Photographs of Seydou Kei'ta and Malick Sidibe. 
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, and 
New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 200 1 . 

Noorderlicht Photo Festival. Africa Inside. Groningen, The 
Netherlands: Aurora Borealis, 2000. 



Sprague, Stephen F. "Yoruba Photography: How the 
Yoruba See Themselves." In Photography's Other His- 
tories. Christopher Pinney and Nicolas Peterson, eds. 
Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003: 
240-260. 

University of Cape Town. Encounters with Photography: 
Photographing People in Southern Africa, 1860-1999. Ron- 
debosch, South Africa: University of Cape Town, 2000. 

Wendl, Tobias, and Heike Behrend, eds. Snap Me One! 
Studiofotografen in Afrika. Munich, Germany: Prestel, 
1998. 






EUP.SSSE 



i £* ■■ 






1 





Samuel Fosso, Self Portrait (Maillot, la vie c'est la liberte), 1977, gelatin-silver print. 
[Courtesy of Jack Shainman Gallery, New York] 



26 



AFRICA: CENTRAL AND WEST, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AFRICA: CENTRAL 

AND WEST 



West African portrait photography has garnered 
much Western attention, spurred by the interna- 
tional fame of Malian Seydou Kei'ta. Scholars' 
gazes have also fixed on West and Central Africa's 
rich history of anthropological photography. Forms 
of state-sponsored photography and contemporary 
art practice have likewise elicited interest. 

The medium of photography reached Western 
Africa's coastal towns soon after its invention, 
and African practitioners were active by the 
1860s. The end of the nineteenth century saw the 
spread of commercial studios from coastal to 
inland centers. Varying policies by colonial autho- 
rities either fostered or impeded the development of 
indigenous photographers, yielding uneven pro- 
gress. In the beginning of the twentieth century, 
studios participated in the international postcard 
market, supplying images to European publishers 
and distributing work regionally to Westerners 
(but rarely to Africans). Several photographers 
and publishers may be considered as exemplary of 
those participating from West and Central Africa 
in this global trade in images. The most important 
local producer was Frenchman Edmond Fortier, 
active in Senegal. Fortier's grand project is 
described by David Prochaska in his African Arts 
article "Fantasia of the Phototheque: French Post- 
card Views of Colonial Senegal" (1991) as a series 
of photographic documents, conceptually "filed" 
as colonial knowledge. Indigenous African studio 
and postcard photographers active at the beginning 
of the century include several Sierra Leone Creoles, 
whose work has been discussed by Vera Viditz- 
Ward in her article "Studio Photography in Free- 
town" in Anthology of African and Indian Ocean 
Photography (1999), and Togo's Alex Acolatse, 
whose career has been sketched by Phillipe David 
in the Anthology of African and Indian Ocean 
Photography article "Photographer-publishers in 
Togo" (1999). The thorny question of whether 
African photographers articulated a different 
vision than their European counterparts is consid- 
ered by Christraud Geary in Delivering Views: Dis- 
tant Cultures in Early Postcards (1998), where she 
offers a nuanced answer, acknowledging both the 



power of Western conventions and the possibility 
of a particularly African vision. 

Following World War Two, a boom in indigen- 
ous portrait studios responded to the needs of a 
growing African middle class. In the 1940s, Mama 
and Salla Casset operated studios in Dakar, Sene- 
gal, and Seydou Ke'ita began work in Bamako, 
Mali. Typically, Keita's sitters availed themselves 
of costumes and studio props to project a fashion- 
able, modern appearance. (The fascinating migra- 
tion of Keita's work from its Malian context into 
the canon of Western art photography is explored 
by Elizabeth Bigham's African Arts article, "Issues 
of Authorship in the Portrait Photographs of Sey- 
dou Keita" [1999].) The next generation of portrai- 
tists active after national independence, exemplified 
by Mali's Malick Sidibe and Niger's Philippe 
Koudjina, eschewed the studio formality of Keita's 
work, frequently bringing the camera out-of-doors 
to photograph the leisure of a burgeoning youth 
culture. Samuel Fosso, a studio operator in the 
Central African Republic, has wrought personal 
statements from studio conventions since the 
1970s in a series of theatrical self-portraits. In the 
1980s, color photography arrived and studio photo- 
graphers began to fade from the scene. An excep- 
tion is Phillip Kwame Apagya who has worked in 
Shama, Ghana since 1982, relying on elaborate 
painted backdrops to create imaginative environ- 
ments for his sitters. 

Valuable anthropological studies of portrait 
photography are now being produced by Western 
scholars. The integration of photography into Yor- 
uban cultural formations in Nigeria is the subject 
of Stephen Sprague's groundbreaking article in 
African Arts, "Yoruba Photography: How the 
Yoruba See Themselves" (1978). Taking the work 
of Cote d'lvoire-based Cornelius Yao Azaglo 
Augustt as an example, Jean-Francois Werner's 
article "Photography and Individualization in 
Contemporary Africa: An Ivoirian Case-study" in 
Visual Anthropology (2001) argues from the ubiqui- 
tous identity portrait that photography's centrality 
in African visuality is derived from association with 
modern state power. In his article "Self and Acces- 



27 



AFRICA: CENTRAL AND WEST, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



sory in Gambian Studio Photography" in Visual 
Anthropology Review (2000-2001), Liam Buckley, 
by contrast, discerns common ground in Gambian 
practice between portrait-making and tailoring — 
both are forms of surface adornment. 

The use of photographs as anthropological and 
ethnographic documents is another focus of con- 
temporary study. Colonial ethnography was inevi- 
tably associated with colonial power, and its 
photography reveals the uneven relations of 
power at the heart of this endeavor. On the other 
hand, Western expeditions often maintained a 
stock of pictures with which to impress the 
"natives," unwittingly providing indigenous people 
with a means of scrutinizing the West even as they 
are observed. Among the contemporary scholarly 
works analyzing ethnographic photography are 
two that treat important expeditions to the Congo 
before World War One: the efforts of expedition 
leader Emil Torday and photographer M. W. Hil- 
ton Simpson are considered by Jan Vansina in 
"Photographs of the Sankuru and Kasai River 
Basin Expedition Undertaken by Emil Torday 
(1876-1931) and M. W. Hilton Simpson (1881- 
1936)" (1992), while Herbert Lang's work is dis- 
cussed by Enid Schildkrout in "The Spectacle 
of Africa Through the Lens of Herbert Lang: Bel- 
gian Congo Photographs, 1909-1915" (1991). The 
oeuvre of Casimir Zagourski, a Pole active in the 
Belgian Congo between the wars, whose photo- 
graphy was collected in series entitled L'Afrique 
Qui Disparait, shows how postcards and albums 
served as important means of distributing ethno- 
graphic images. 

Government-sponsored colonial photography 
projects were often structured through binary oppo- 
sitions between "civilized" (Europeans or Wester- 
nized Africans) and "savage" ("unenlightened" 
segments of the population). Christraud Geary's In 
and out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 1885- 
1960 (2002) recounts the long history of colonial 
image production in the Congo. Circulated in Eu- 
rope as postcards and through illustrated period- 
icals like L' Illustration Congolaise (1924-1940), 
photographs were visual propaganda of "the pro- 
tection and moral development of the natives" only 
fitfully contested by reformers, whose photographs 
laid bare the brutality of the colonial regime. 

Politically aware African self-representation in 
the colonial period occurred in images of and by 
King Njoya of Bamun, Cameroon. Christraud 
Geary's Images from Bamum: German Colonial 
Photography at the Court of King Njoya, Came- 
roon, West Africa, 1902-1915 (1988) attributes to 
Njoya an aesthetic and political agenda that he 



wished to express through portraiture. Earlier 
exceptions aside, the years immediately following 
national independence in the 1950s and 1960s saw 
the greatest flowering of the photographic promo- 
tion of African political programs. Official press 
agencies like Syli-Photo in Guinea, Congopresse in 
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and 
ANIM in Mali, crafted the public personae of 
the charismatic leaders of the era. Among the 
many photographers engaged in this effort was 
Keita, who toiled for the Malian government 
from 1962 to 1971. The moment of national inde- 
pendence also saw the efflorescence of indepen- 
dent mass-media, particularly in the form of 
South Africa-based Drum magazine, which pub- 
lished editions in Ghana and Nigeria. 

Contemporary artists using photography, often 
based in Western Africa's diaspora communities in 
the West, include the late Rotimi Fani-Kayode, 
who explored, in collaboration with British photo- 
grapher Alex Hirst, the connection between the 
body and an identity, which in his case was Black, 
African, and homosexual. In the 1990s, photogra- 
phy's conjunction of personal experience and his- 
torical imagination has been interrogated by 
Nigerian-born Ike Ude and Ghana-born Godfried 
Donker, among others. 

Kevin Mulhearn 

See also: Documentary Photography; Fani-Kayode, 
Rotimi; Fosso, Samuel; Keita, Seydou; Photography 
in Africa: An Overview; Portraiture 



Further Reading 

Bigham, Elizabeth. "Issues of Authorship in the Portrait 
Photographs of Seydou Keita." African Arts 32 (Spring 
1999); 56-57, 94-96. 

Buckley, Liam. "Self and Accessory in Gambian Studio 
Photography." Visual Anthropology Review 16 (Fall/ 
Winter 2000-2001); 71-91. 

David, Phillipe. "Photographer-publishers in Togo." In 
Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography. 
Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 1999; 42^17. 

Enwezor, Okwui. "A Critical Presence: Drum Magazine in 
Context." In/sight. New York: Solomon R. Guggen- 
heim, 1996. 

Flash Afrique: Photography from West Africa. Vienna: 
Kunsthalle Wein, 2001. 

Geary, Christraud. Images from Bamum: German Colonial 
Photography at the Court of King Njoya, Cameroon, 
West Africa, 1902-1915. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 
Institute Press, 1988. 

. "Missionary Photography: Public and Private 

Readings." African Arts 24 (Fall 1991); 48-59, 98-100. 

. "Different Visions? Postcards from Africa by Eur- 
opean and African Photographers and Sponsors." In 
Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards. 



28 



AFRICA: CENTRAL AND WEST, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1998; 
147-177. 

In and Out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 



1885-1960. New York: Phillip Wilson Publishers, 2002. 

Koudjina, Phillipe. "Phillipe's Nights in Niamey." In 
Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography. 
Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 1999; 174-177. 

Lamore, Jean. "Samuel Fosso." Nka 13-14 (Spring/Sum- 
mer 2001); 34-39. 



Lamuniere, Michelle. You Look Beautiful Like That: The 
Portrait Photographs of Seydou Kei'ta and Malick Sidihe. 
Cambridge, MA: Yale University Press, 2001. 

Prochaska, David. "Fantasia of the Phototheque: French 
Postcard Views of Colonial Senegal." African Arts 24 
(October 1991); 40-47, 98. 

Schildkrout, Enid. "The Spectacle of Africa Through the 
Lens of Herbert Lang: Belgian Congo Photographs, 
1909-1915." African Arts 24 (Fall 1991); 70-85, 100. 







I 



Samuel Fosso, Self Portrait, 1977 gelatin silver print. 
[Courtesy of Jack Shainman Gallery, New York] 



29 



AFRICA: CENTRAL AND WEST, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Sprague, Stephen. "Yoruba Photography: How the Yoruba 
See Themselves." African Arts 12 (Fall 1978); 52-59, 107. 

Vansina, Jan. "Photographs of the Sankuru and Kasai 
River Basin Expedition Undertaken by Emil Torday 
(1876-1931) and M. W. Hilton Simpson (1881-1936)." 
In Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920. New 
Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992; 193-205. 



Viditz-Ward, Vera. "Studio Photography in Freetown." In 
Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography. 
Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 1999; 34-41. 

Werner, Jean-Francois. "Photography and Individualiza- 
tion in Contemporary Africa: An Ivoirian Case-study." 
Visual Anthropology 14 (2001); 251-268. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AFRICA: EAST AND 
INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS 



Throughout the twentieth century, the East Afri- 
can photographic images in widest circulation in 
the West were those related to safaris and disasters. 
Within the region, portrait photography flourished 
and became integrated into political life and 
society. While less known and studied than work 
from elsewhere in Africa, the region's photographic 
practices (including those of adjoining Indian 
Ocean islands) embody a long history and several 
rich traditions. 

With its exotic animal life, East Africa was and 
is regarded as a natural wonder. As early as the 
1850s, Westerners were using photography to 
scientifically document animals and create meme- 
ntos of big-game hunts in the present-day nations 
of Kenya, Tanzania, and Sudan. The telephoto 
lens and other technical developments of the 
1880s and 1890s made possible the prospect of 
"hunting" with the camera rather than the gun. 
Pioneering camera adventurer A. Radclyffe Dug- 
more wrote in 1910 of the challenge of such hunts: 
"shooting animals is so much easier than photo- 
graphing them that there is no possible compar- 
ison" (226). Typical of works published before 
1914, including those by C.G. Shillings and 
Edward North Buxton, Dugmore's book features 
140 photographs, mostly of wild animals. The 
accompanying text narrates the capture of the 
photos and offers practical information on arrang- 
ing and equipping a trip to British East Africa. 
James Ryan's Picturing Empire: Photography and 
the Visualization of the British Empire (1997) dis- 
cusses the ideological underpinnings of these early 
wildlife photo books and places them in the con- 
text of the visual construction of British imperial- 



ism. Photosafaris remain popular and, despite 
technological advances, archetypes established by 
photographers a century ago remain current. 

The prominence of East African images in the 
world news media is, by and large, a development 
of the last quarter of the twentieth century even 
though Ethiopian Emper or Haile Sellassie's coro- 
nation in 1930 was covered by European illustrated 
periodicals, and Alfred Eisenstaedt photographed 
Italy's 1935 invasion of the country. Images of 
Ethiopia's devastating 1984 famine created one of 
the century's most significant media events, and 
the most important documentation was a video 
produced by South African reporter Michael 
Buerk and Kenya-based cameraman Mohammed 
Amin. Amin, who co-founded Nairobi's Camera- 
pix agency in 1969, was one of the region's most 
active and celebrated photojournalists until his 
death in 1996. In general, the development of indi- 
genous photojournalism has been limited, though 
Sebastien Porte's article "The Press in Kenya" 
(Porte 1999) highlights the against-the-odds dyna- 
mism of Kenya's indigenous press photography. 
Usually, crisis-driven coverage of East African 
events in the Western media is undertaken by photo- 
graphers from outside the region: for example, the 
1993 famine in Sudan was photographed by South 
African Kevin Carter and the 1994 Rwandan geno- 
cide by Frenchman Gilles Peress. Susan Moeller's 
article provocatively frames the vital question of 
whether such coverage in the Western press of East 
Africa's disasters serves to educate the public or 
simply inures its viewers to suffering (Moeller 1999). 

Photography's political role in the region spans 
colonial and postcolonial eras. In turn of the century 



30 



AFRICA: EAST AND INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Mauritius, portrait photographers were engaged 
to produce identity photographs of Asian and Afri- 
can immigrants, demonstrating English colonial 
rulers' use of photography for social control. Per- 
haps the most infamous interaction between colo- 
nial authority and photographic representation 
occurred in Rwanda and Burundi, under German 
and later Belgian control. Photographs were used 
to underscore European anthropological theories 
about racially-based distinctions between indigen- 
ous populations: pastoralist Tutsi, a minority ruling 
elite, and majority, agriculturalist Hutu. Photogra- 
phy provided visual "evidence" for colonial officials 
and missionaries of the Tutsis' "European" quali- 
ties, and thus supported the preservation of Tutsi 
dominance. After independence, this situation fos- 
tered violence that reached an awful apex in the 1994 
Rwandan genocide. 

Native elites in Madagascar and Ethiopia recog- 
nized the political relevance of photographic por- 
traiture. On Madagascar, photography provided 
a means of self-representation and state building 
for the rulers of the Merina kingdom before the 
1896 French conquest, and the medium's role in 
public life continued in the colonial and post-colo- 
nial eras through official photography agencies 
FTM and ANTA. In Ethiopia (which survived as 
an independent state through most of the colonial 
era) photography played a persistent role in domes- 
tic politics. Using images of uncrowned ruler Lij 
Iyasu, Western scholar Richard Pankhurst pieces 
together how photographs became weapons in the 
internal political struggles of early twentieth cen- 
tury Ethiopia in his article "The Political Image: 
The Impact of the Camera in an Ancient Indepen- 
dent African State" (Pankhurst 1992). After noting 
a local belief that opposition among the country's 
Christian nobility to Lij Iyasu was fostered by a 
now-unknown doctored photograph of the prince 
in Muslim dress, Pankhurst examines extant 
authentic portraits of the prince in both Christian 
and Muslim dress. Pankhurst carries the story for- 
ward, discussing the use of faked photographs to 
discredit Emperor Haile Selassie around the time of 
his overthrow in 1974. 

In East Africa, commercial portrait photography 
proceeded from the coasts inland. The daguerreo- 
type arrived on Mauritius as early as 1840 and, by 
1843, the first photographic studio was established. 
Joseph Razaka, Madagascar's first indigenous 
photographer, opened a studio in 1889 that he 
operated until his death in 1939. Early commercial 
studios on the mainland coast included those of the 
Coutinho Brothers and A.C. Gomes and Son, both 
active in Zanzibar. Englishman William D. Young 



ran studios in Kenya and was the "official" free- 
lance photographer for the construction of the 
Uganda railway. In Ethiopia, portrait studios 
were initially run by Armenians, including the Boy- 
adjians, a dynasty of royal court photographers. At 
the end of the century, Ethiopian studios were run 
mostly by indigenous photographers who contin- 
ued to produce mostly formal, studio-based images 
for life passages and rituals including weddings and 
baptisms. Important studio photographers in Eth- 
iopia include Negash Wolde Amanuel and Ato 
Kebede Guebre Mariam, with photographs taking 
on deep cultural meaning in the realm of familial 
relations, rituals, friendships, and courtships. The 
postcolonial history of this genre and its integra- 
tion into society has been addressed by Heike Ben- 
rend in a series of articles on Kenyan and Ugandan 
portrait photography, including "A Short History 
of Photography in Kenya" from Anthology of Afri- 
can and Indian Ocean Photography (1999), "Frag- 
mented Visions: Photo Collages by Two Ugandan 
Photographers" from Visual Anthropology (2001), 
and "Imagined Journeys: The Likoni Ferry Photo- 
graphers of Mombasa, Kenya" from Photogra- 
phy's Other Histories (2003). In these articles, she 
highlights the contributions of South Asian photo- 
graphers in Kenya, analyzes the elaborate collage- 
based practice of two Ugandan portraitists, and 
discusses the role of backdrops in the work of street 
photographers in Mombasa, Kenya. These articles 
situate photography firmly within East African 
culture as a means of documentation, commemora- 
tion, and self-identification. Together, Behrend's 
articles begin to demonstrate how portrait photo- 
graphers in East Africa create for their customers a 
space in images for wish fulfillment and imagina- 
tion, allowing — through painted backdrops, mon- 
tage, and composite printing — for patrons to 
access luxuries, travels, and social relationships 
which would normally be out of reach. 

Kevin Mulhearn 

See also: Documentary Photography; Peress, Gilles; 
Photography in Africa: An Overview; Portraiture 

Further Reading 

Barnard, Roger. "Camerapix." In Anthology of African and 

Indian Ocean Photography. Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 

1999; 232-235. 
Behrend, Heike. "A Short History of Photography in 

Kenya." In Anthology of African and Indian Ocean 

Photography. Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 1999; 

160-165. 
. "Fragmented Visions: Photo Collages by Two 

Ugandan Photographers." Visual Anthropology 14 

(2001); 310-320. 



31 



AFRICA: EAST AND INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Behrend, Heike. "Imagined Journeys: The Likoni Ferry 
Photographers of Mombasa, Kenya." In Photography's 
Other Histories. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003; 
221-239. 

Breville, Tristan. "£» Route to India." In Anthology of 
African and Indian Ocean Photography. Paris: Editions 
Revue Noire, 1999; 318-325. 

Dugmore, A. Radclyffe. Camera Adventures in the African 
Wilds. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1910. 

Geary, Christraud. "Views from Outside and Inside: Repre- 
sentation of Madagascar and the Malagasy, 1658-1935." In 
Objects as Envoys: Cloth, Imagery, and Diplomacy in Mada- 
gascar. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2002. 

Izydorczyk, Frederic. "The Great Island." In Anthology of 
African and Indian Ocean Photography. Paris: Editions 
Revue Noire, 1999; 326-349. 



Moeller, Susan. Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Dis- 
ease, Famine, War and Death. New York: Routledge, 1999. 

Pankhurst, Richard. "The Political Image: The Impact of 
the Camera in an Ancient Independent African State." 
In Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920. New 
Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992; 234-241. 

Pankhurst, Richard, and Denis Gerard. "Court Photogra- 
pher in Ethiopia." In Anthology of African and Indian 
Ocean Photography. Paris: Editions Revue Noire, 1999; 
118-133. 

Porte, Sebastien. "The Press in Kenya." In Anthology of 
African and Indian Ocean Photography. Paris: Editions 
Revue Noire, 1999; 224-231. 

Ryan, James. Picturing Empire: Photography and the 
Visualization of the British Empire. Chicago: Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1997. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AFRICA: NORTH 



North Africa's twentieth century photographic his- 
tory was shaped primarily by the colonial era and 
the extended struggle for national liberation. Per- 
haps because of greater European immigration and 
integration into the global economy in the nine- 
teenth century, photography by and for the colo- 
nial class became quite highly developed in the first 
half of the twentieth century. Colonization, tour- 
ism, and a taste for the Orientalist picturesque 
fueled the consumption of photographs of North 
Africa in West. 

Colonial authorities in the first half of the twen- 
tieth century — French, English, and Italian — de- 
posited photographs in vast archives. Daly and 
Forbes published images from Britain's Sudan 
archive and noted that the photographs, taken 
mainly by officials and tourists but also by com- 
mercial photographers and press correspondents, 
were initially collected in the service of military 
intelligence. Durand-Evrard and Martini presented 
photographs from France's Algerian archive alon- 
gide other textual and visual documents. Themati- 
cally organized around such topics as agriculture, 
ecoles and lycees, and Saharan exploration, their 
book puts photography in the broader context of 
the production of colonial knowledge. Of particu- 
lar interest are surveillance images from secret 
police files. A related group of identity photo- 
graphs discussed by Carole Naggar offers the case 
of shamefully unveiled Berber women, whom Marc 



Garanger was forced to photograph after being 
pressed into service as a regimental photographer. 
These women offer defiant gazes that resist the 
camera's coercive effects, and Garanger viewed 
these images' publication in the 1980s as a riposte 
to France's willful amnesia about the war of 1954- 
1962. (One might also mention photojournalism of 
Algeria's conflicts: Magnum photographer Marc 
Riboud's exemplary coverage of the 1954-1962 
war, or photography of the under-covered "dirty 
war" between the government and Islamist rebels, 
typified in Algerian photojournalist Hocine's so- 
called Madonna of Benthala, an image of a grieving 
woman after a 1997 massacre [see Convert].) 

The decades before World War One were a golden 
age for commercial photography of North Africa, a 
form of photography most widely distributed as 
postcards. The Koranic injunction against realistic 
images seems to have impeded the development of 
native-owned commercial and portrait studios, 
which were therefore often operated by Europeans 
and especially Armenians in this period as well as 
until well into the later decades of the century. 
Recently, a number of publications have offered 
country-specific selections of postcards, though 
unfortunately with poor quality reproductions (See 
Hebrard and Hebrard, Laronde, and Karmazyn). 

Several important commercial studios active in 
the colonial era should be noted. The Bonfils 
family, based in Lebanon and Egypt, produced 



32 



AFRICA: NORTH, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



large quantities of photographs in the late nine- 
teenth century that remained in commercial 
circulation through the early twentieth. Jules Ger- 
vais-Courtellmont, a French convert to Islam, 
published the illustrated magazine L'Algerie Artis- 
tique et Pittoresque (1890-1892) and created thou- 
sands of direct color autochrome plates frequently 
reproduced in the popular press. Austrian photo- 
grapher Rudolf Lehnert and German manager 
Ernst Landrock worked together in Tunis from 
1904-1914 and Cairo from 1924-1930, at which 
time Lehnert returned to work in Tunis alone. 
Prolific and artistically ambitious, the two pro- 
duced a broad range of images, including roman- 
tic Saharan vistas and erotic portraits, distributed 
through monographs and as original prints, litho- 
graphs, and postcards. 

In an important theoretical text on Algerian 
postcards, Malek Alloula describes the corrosive 
impact of these mass-produced, erotic postcard 
images on the society of their colonized subjects. 
He writes 

Behind this image of Algerian women, probably repro- 
duced in the millions, there is visible the broad outline 
of one of the figures of the colonial perception of the 
native. This figure can be essentially defined as the 
practice of a right of (over)sight that the colonizer arro- 
gates to himself and that is the bearer of multiform 
violence. The postcard fully partakes in such vio- 
lence... (5) 

Westerners' creation of visual imagery stimulated 
by a vision of North Africa(ns) as exotic "Other" 
began well before the period on which Alloula con- 
centrates (1900-1930) and arguably extends to the 
present. Paul Bowles' recently published "souvenir 
snapshots" of his life in Tangier, Morocco, ambigu- 
ously relate to this tradition, offering a hermetic 
vision of the author's expatriate existence. 

Anthropological and archeological photography 
represent two varieties of imagery created through- 
out the twentieth century. In the first category is 
the work of pioneering Finnish sociologist Edward 
Westermarck, whose photographs of Morocco in 
the years before the First World War were made 
into lantern slides to illustrate his lectures and, 
intended only as utilitarian documents, were fre- 
quently of questionable technical quality. By con- 
trast, the work of Harry Burton was of sufficient 
aesthetic merit to warrant a 2001 exhibition at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Bur- 
ton was an archeological expedition photographer 
in Egypt for the Metropolitan and for Howard 
Carter and Lord Carnavon, discoverers of the 
tomb of Tutankhamen. 



The Second World War, fought across North 
Africa, saw the creation of innumerable photo- 
graphs, which generally take as their subjects the 
battling Axis and Allied armies. Unfortunately, 
these images are usually published in books aimed 
at aficionados of military history, which reproduce 
images with little of the context that is of particular 
interest to art historians. 

The early history of artistic photography in 
North Africa is, of yet, little studied. The first 
photographic exhibition was held in Egypt in 1923; 
the second, in 1933, featured 600 photographs by 
roughly 1 30 photographers, over half them Egyp- 
tian. Contemporary photographers have figured in 
recent exhibitions of African art in the West. The 
1996 exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum in New York, In/sight: African Photo- 
graphers, 1940 to the Present, included, for exam- 
ple, Egyptian Nabil Boutros' documentary images 
of Cairo's people by night and arresting photo- 
graphs of the body at moments of birth and death 
by Tunisia's Touhami Ennadre. Zineb Sedira 
works in the context of the North African dia- 
spora. Born to Algerian immigrants in Paris, her 
work deals with cultural assimilation and family 
identity within North African Muslim society in 
the West. 

Kevin Mulhearn 

See also: Documentary Photography; Photography 
in Africa: An Overview; Portraiture; Representation 
and "the Other" 



Further Reading 

Alloula, Malek. The Colonial Harem. Minneapolis: Univer- 
sity of Minnesota Press, 1986. 
Bowles, Paul. Paul Bowles Photographs: How Could I Send 

a Picture into the Desert? New York: Scalo, 1994. 
Convert, Pascal. "Medea the Algerian." Art Press 286 (Jan- 
uary 2003); 19-23. 
Courtellemont, Guy. "Jules Gervais-Courtellemont (1863- 

1931): Autochromist." History of Photography 20 (Fall 

1996); 255-257. 
Daly, M.W., and L.E. Forbes. The Sudan: Photographs 

from the Sudan Archive, Durham University Library. 

Reading, UK: Garnet Publishing, 1994. 
Durand-Evrard, Francoise, and Lucienne Martini. Archives 

d'Algerie: 1830-1960. Paris: Hazan, 2003. 
Egypt: Dream and Realities. Cairo: Aujourd'hui l'Egypte, 

1993. 
Evans, Elaine Altman. Scholars, Scoundrels, and the Sphinx: 

a Photographic and Archaeological Adventure up the Nile. 

Knoxville, TN: McClung Museum, 2000. 
Fletcher, David. Tanks in Camera: Archive Photographs 

from the Tank Museum, the Western Desert: 1940- 

1943. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1998. 
Gabous, Abdelkrim. La Tunisie des Photographes: 1875- 

1910. Tunis: Editions CERES, 1994. 



33 



AFRICA: NORTH, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



Hebrard, Jean-Louis, and Marie-Claude Hebrard. L'Algerie 

Autrefois. Le Coteau: Horvath, 1990. 
Karmazyn, Jean-Claude. Le Maroc en Cartes Postales: 

1900-1920. Cahors: Publi-fusion, 1994. 
Laronde, Andre. La Libye a Travers les Cartes Postales: 

1900-1940. Paris: Paris-Mediterranee, 1997. 
Lehnert, Rudolf, and Ernst Landrock. L' Orient d'un Photo- 

graphe. Lausanne: Favre, 1987. 



Miinnich, Ralf. Panzer in Nord-Afrika: 1941-1943. Fried- 
berg: Podzun-Pallas-Verlag, 1977. 

Naggar, Carole. "The Unveiled: Algerian Women." Aper- 
ture 199 (Summer 1990). 

Suolinna, Kirsti, et al. Portraying Morocco: Edward Wes- 
termarck's Fieldwork and Photographs, 1898-1913. Abo: 
Abo Akademis Forlag, 2000. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AFRICA: SOUTH 

AND SOUTHERN 



Photography has been practiced in Southern Africa 
since the earliest days of the medium. From its 
earliest years in Africa there has been a tension 
between the documentary and the artificial uses of 
photography, a tension which was made more pro- 
found due to the pressures of foreign domination 
and racial classification derived from the colonial 
period. According to scholar Karel Schoeman Just 
as they became popular abroad, plate glass images, 
daguerrotypes, and ambrotypes, as well as paper 
images were also made in South Africa by private 
amateur or traveling artists, and by 1 846 they were 
being produced in commercial photography stu- 
dios. Cartes-de-visite were produced by Arthur 
Green in Cape Town as early as 1861. The conven- 
tions for sitters and their attire followed those of 
Victorian Europe. Also notable for this period were 
the anthropometric studies of Khoi-San people 
made by Wilhelm Bleek, whose attention was 
more directed at aspects of physical description 
and items of dress of the "natives" than the style 
of memorial portraiture seen in visiting cards of 
white subjects. By the 1890s, postcards were also 
produced in Southern Africa, mostly for tourist 
consumption. They described scenes from the dia- 
mond and gold mining camps, the rise of great 
cities Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, and 
Johannesburg, technological marvels, railroads, 
the destructiveness and genocide of the Boer 
War, native "types," and various aspects of the 
control of native populations by colonial powers 
and settlers, including images of Africans admin- 
istering corporal punishment to other Africans. 
Another early use of photography in Southern 



Africa, as noted by Patrick Harries, was as propa- 
ganda for missionaries, especially "before and 
after" shots of Christianized and western-clothed 
Africans. Also, in Mozambique, Harries notes that 
the anthropologist Henri-Alexandre Junod used 
photography to present a view of "primitive" 
Thonga society living "close to nature," in con- 
trast to Europeans in cities who were experiencing 
the "trauma of industrialization." 

By the time of the partition of the African con- 
tinent among European powers after 1884, thus at 
the height of the colonial enterprise, European 
photographic greeting cards had evolved from the 
chromolithograph trade. These cards, collected in 
albums, were made as souvenirs of places traveled 
to in Europe, and also in its colonial outposts. 
What began as exoticism at home was transferred 
quickly to an exoticism of the colonial world, and 
thus it became fashionable among the middle class 
of Europe and in Africa to collect images of the 
scenes and types of the "countries of the world." 
These cards started as lithographic prints, soon 
included photographic prints, and then went into 
mass production using the halftone screen process. 
Christraud Geary notes that by 1900, Sallo Epstein 
and Company in Johannesburg had become the 
largest publisher of postal cards in Southern 
Africa. Epstein and other commercial houses, as 
well as individual artists, according to Geary, 
worked along the lines similar to photographers 
in other African territories. They reproduced simi- 
lar stereotypes of the "native," such as the solitary 
warrior male and the seductively arranged, eroti- 
cized native female group. Studio portraits of Afri- 



34 



AFRICA: SOUTH AND SOUTHERN, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



cans often blurred the edges between factual docu- 
ment and paternalistic fantasy. Interestingly, ima- 
ges of the amaZulu were in especially great demand 
abroad, because of their nation's famous resistance 
against European territorial ambitions under lea- 
ders like Shaka, Dingane, and Cetshwayo. Virginia 
Lee- Webb has noted that many nineteenth century 
images of the amaZulu often were made in-camera 
using fantasy backdrops, jungle scenes, and staged 
sittings. South African studio photographers even 
had boxes of "tribal" props for their sitters to wear 
and hold. 

While in both ethnographic and commercial 
photography, African people were mostly imagined 
to be part of the flora of the country, a small number 
of studios such as H. F. Fine in Johannesburg, Deale 
in Bloemfontein, and traveling portrait photogra- 
phers took pictures of petit bourgeois, middle class, 
and mission-educated black sitters. These images 
were mostly forgotten in storage rooms and the 
bottoms of drawers during the apartheid years 
from 1948-1994, but have recently been unearthed 
as part of Santu Mofokeng's (1991-2000) concep- 
tual archival project, The Black Photo Album/Look 
At Me 1890-1950. In these portraits, turn of the 
century black families imagine themselves differ- 
ently than the authors of the anthropological or 
studio fantasies of the "natives." They face the cam- 
era with dignity and wear Victorian attire. 

At the other end of the spectrum was the multi- 
year, 6000 image documentary project on native 
"types" by Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin, a for- 
mer employee of De Beers Consolidated Mines in 
Kimberley. His tribal categorizations are random 
and arbitrary, but his images have the benefit of 
giving dignity to their subjects and not removing 
whatever signs of contemporaneousness they wore 
as everyday garb. His pseudo-ethnological four- 
volume The Bantu Tribes of Southern Africa 
(1928-1954), however, would later be used, espe- 
cially after 1948 by the architects of apartheid like 
Daniel Malan and Hendrik Verwoerd, as evidence 
of the "natural" separation of the races and ethni- 
cities. This, they believed, needed to be enforced 
through strict policing of borders and national leg- 
islation to keep African groups distinct from each 
other and apart from Europeans. 

Closer in line with art photography, but equally 
romanticizing of her subject, were the many por- 
traits of amaNdebele taken by Constance Stuart 
Larrabee during the 1930s and 1940s. The amaN- 
debele were a people whose lands had been taken 
during the nineteenth century and were living scat- 
tered on white farms just a short drive north of 
Stuart's studio in Pretoria. Because of easy access 



to their homesteads by white weekenders, the 
amaNdebele have become something of an arche- 
type of pristine native life in South Africa as seen as 
a whole. For this reason they would later be orga- 
nized into a "homeland" and a tourist colony by 
the South African government. 

By the 1950s and 1960s, the entrenchment of 
apartheid was reacted against by the efflorescence 
of documentary type, series-oriented, photojourna- 
listic photography. Popular white owned, but 
black oriented and black staffed photo magazines 
like Drum and Zonk! devoted themselves to the 
politics and social life of the day. Drum would 
later be printed in West African and Caribbean 
editions, thus bringing images of South African 
life to other parts of Africa during the period of 
independence. At a time of growing racial animos- 
ity, activism by Nelson Mandela and the African 
National Congress, and government repression, 
Drum featured photographers like Alf Khumalo, 
Jurgen Schadeburg, Peter Magubane, Ranjith 
Kally, G.R. Naidoo, and Bob Gosani, giving the 
first mass exposure to a mixed-race group of out- 
standing photojournalists. 

Black photographers were treated with particu- 
lar roughness by the authorities. In 1969 Peter 
Magubane was placed in solitary confinement for 
two years, and then banned from taking photo- 
graphs for another five. He later worked for Time 
and has published several major books on the 
1976 Soweto student uprising and the revolution- 
ary struggle of the 1980s. His colleague Ernest 
Cole was less fortunate. Cole's book House of 
Bondage, published in 1967, was a book-length 
version of the kind of photo essay work seen in 
Drum — the absurdity of pass laws, conditions of 
black poverty, illegal drinking establishments in 
the black townships, syncretic religion, the African 
middle class, and the romance/exile of the "bantu 
homelands" — but for an international audience. 
House of Bondage was banned in South Africa 
but copies were circulated underground and 
Cole's work influenced several subsequent genera- 
tions of black and white photographers in South 
Africa. Unable to live in South Africa after the 
publication of his book, Cole went into exile and 
eventually died penniless on the streets of Manhat- 
tan. The other great master of the serial documen- 
tary approach was David Goldblatt who from the 
1960s published a number of disturbingly frank 
portraits in a number of works including Some 
Afrikaners Photographed (1975), and The Trans- 
ported of KwaNdebele (1989). Roger Ballen contin- 
ued this documentation of Afrikaners in their 
homes and enacting inexplicable rituals in the 



35 



AFRICA: SOUTH AND SOUTHERN, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



1980s and 1990s, to considerable international 
acclaim. Goldblatt was also instrumental in the 
founding of the Market Photography Workshop 
and as an individual mentor, where a number of 
young artists of all races, most notably Santu Mo- 
fokeng, could get hands-on training and also 
engage in intellectual discussions about the politics 
of representation. 

The 1970s and 1980s saw the rise of this work- 
shop atmosphere between artists and of social rea- 
list "struggle" photography. Still there was a 
tension regarding the most appropriate subject 
matter and formal approach among those who 
hoped to document the struggle and aid the effort 
to overthrow apartheid in South Africa. This ten- 
sion can be seen by comparing two books from the 
1980s: South Africa: The Cordoned Heart, prepared 
by the Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Develop- 
ment in Southern Africa; and Beyond the Barri- 
cades: Popular Resistance in South Africa, a 
project by the activist photographic collective Afra- 
pix founded in 1982. The Cordoned Heart chroni- 
cles the underdevelopment of black South Africa. 
It contains mostly straightforward domestic scenes 
and some images of political rallies (it includes a 
portion of Goldblatt's "Transported"). The only 
image of the State is at the end: in a photo by 
Omar Badsha, police appear at the airport to escort 
a recently released political prisoner. In contrast, 
Beyond the Barricades is by turns more lyrical and 
more harshly realist, since it includes scenes of the 
popular unrest and the police violence that perme- 
ated South African life during the 1980s. Cops and 
protesters and banners and blood are everywhere 
in these images, but there are also sections without 
images and a text that makes clear that photogra- 
phy, even press photography, was also used by the 
State as an instrument to surveil and silence. Afra- 
pix members such as Steven Hilton-Barber, Santu 
Mofokeng, Paul Weinberg, and Guy Tillim, who 
initially worked together to supply the radical 
press, workers' organizations, and struggle culture 
magazines such as Staffrider with images at low 
cost, by the later 1980s began moving away from 
the starker definitions of struggle photography. 
Weinberg began photographing the San of the 
Kalahari, Mofokeng went to look for spiritual 
sources in Lesotho, and Hilton-Barber showed 
images of northern Transvaal male circumci- 
sion — this last caused great controversy when 
exhibited in 1990 at the Market Gallery in Johan- 
nesburg. Photojournalists were also critical to the 
exposure of atrocities committed by South African 
occupying forces in Namibia. Likewise in Mozam- 



bique, Ricardo Rangel set up a photography-train- 
ing institute and archive for anti-colonial work, the 
Centro de Formacao Fotografica in Maputo. 

Just before the first democratic elections in South 
Africa in 1994 high stakes commercial work was in 
great demand by foreign press agencies and a num- 
ber of intrepid photojournalists, including Ken 
Oosterbroek, Mike Marinovich, Joao Silva, and 
Ken Carter helped sensationalize the ultraviolence 
of the transition period. After the elections and the 
broader access to international exhibitions and 
other art histories abroad, the 1990s and early 
2000s also witnessed the production of more con- 
ceptual and experimental approaches to photo- 
graphic technique including the use of serially 
arranged compositions (Mofokeng and Abrie 
Fourie), the grid (Hentie van der Merwe), life-sized 
color prints (Zwelethu Mthethwa), digital media 
(Minette Vari), constructed still-life composition 
(Lien Botha), and solopsistic meditations on the 
history of the archive of South African photography 
itself (Senzeni Marasela). 

Because of the long history of struggle for repre- 
sentation, there is still a strongly social activist 
tendency in present photographic practice in 
Southern Africa, even on the more artistic/concep- 
tual end of the spectrum. Now there are other 
struggles besides colonialism or apartheid: the pro- 
blems of overcrowding and urban blight, AIDS, 
the gay lifestyle, the continuing "stain" of race, 
and the unifying yet divisive potency of the sacred 
in everyday life. Artists working with photo- 
graphic-related processes today are more aware of 
the alternating perception of the photograph as 
both artifact and artifice than were their peers 
during the nineteenth century. Some, such as 
Andrew Tshabangu, Tracey Rose, Jean Brundrit, 
Berni Searle, and others, are endeavoring to use 
this empowering knowledge to address the new 
demands for representation felt by South Africans 
in the post-apartheid era. 

John M. Peffer 

See also: Ballen, Roger; Documentary Photography; 
Drum; Photography in Africa: An Overview; Por- 
traiture; Schadeburg, Jiirgen 



Further Reading 

Van Wyk, Gary. "Drawing a Bead on Blacks: Eastern Cape 
People Painted by Baines, Shot by Pocock." In South 
African National Gallery's Ezakwantu: Beadwork from 
the Eastern Cape. Cape Town, South Africa: SANG, 1993. 



36 



AFRICA: SOUTH AND SOUTHERN, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 




Jodi Bieber, South Africa, Johannesburg, 1996 June 16 Celebration. Apartheid Protest. 
[Jodi Bieber/ South Photographs] 



37 



AFTERIMAGE: THE JOURNAL OF MEDIA ARTS AND CULTURAL CRITICISM 

AFTERIMAGE: THE JOURNAL OF 
MEDIA ARTS AND CULTURAL 

CRITICISM 



Founded in 1969 by the writer, photographer, and 
curator Nathan Lyons, the Visual Studies Work- 
shop (VSW) in Rochester, New York, was also the 
birthplace of the well-known journal Afterimage: 
The Journal of Media Arts and Cultural Criticism. 
Afterimage remains the primary journal devoted to 
a critical understanding of issues in photography 
and art, despite its unassuming black and white 
broadsheet format. Since its conception, the jour- 
nal has taken a radical political stance. Afterimage 
was founded in order to provide a forum for the 
investigation of the relationships between politics, 
art and photography. As Grant H. Kester writes in 
the introduction to the anthology of Afterimage 
essays published in 1998, the questions motivating 
Afterimage's founding were, 

What is the relationship between art production and 
more direct (or at least more conventionally recogniz- 
able) forms of political struggle and protest? What con- 
stitutes an activist art practice? And what is the role of 
criticism, and the critic, in relation to such a practice? 
(p.1, Art, Activism, and Oppositionality: Essays from 
Afterimage. Durham and London: Duke University 
Press, [1998]). 

The founding of Afterimage coincided with bur- 
geoning socio-political critiques of photographic 
representation promulgated by such scholars as 
John Tagg, Abigail Solomon-Godeau, Victor Bur- 
gin, Rosalind Krauss, and Allan Sekula, influenced 
by French post-structuralist philosophers such as 
Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. Afterimage's 
program was also concurrent with the initial stir- 
rings and subsequent growth of revisionist art his- 
tory and was part of a general movement towards 
visual culture studies at large, which included 
movements to break down barriers between scho- 
larly disciplines. 

The VSW began as an experimental, multi-pur- 
pose space, incorporating a gallery, archive, 
library, media center, educational programs and 
a press for the publication of artists' books as well 
as Afterimage. Lyons founded the VSW after leav- 



ing his post as chief curator and assistant director 
at the George Eastman House's International 
Museum of Photography (IMP), also located in 
Rochester, so it is not a coincidence that Roche- 
ster has become a nexus of Visual Culture Studies 
and a hotbed of photographic activity. Graduate 
students and artists contributed to the workshop's 
initial and continued efforts, and Joan Lyons was 
originally in charge of the book publishing section. 
The organization even had a VSW Book Bus that 
brought the publications and ideology of the VSW 
to the citizens of Rochester. Today, the State Uni- 
versity of New York (SUNY) College at Brock- 
port offers a Masters of Fine Arts in conjunction 
with VSW. 

The overall goals of the VSW were to create a 
bridge between theory and practice, in order to 
provide a more critical and useful understanding 
of both. Photographic work, so easily reproduced, 
was also seen as more democratic than other forms 
of art, in terms of its inexpensiveness and accessi- 
bility through circulation. Little institutional sup- 
port at that time existed either for photographic 
criticism or for any kind of photography that was 
not strictly high art. Independent film and video 
were also fledgling industries and lacked little insti- 
tutional support, and so the aims of VSW and 
Afterimage were also to provide institutional sup- 
port and a forum for discussion of these media. 
Naturally, Afterimage has since incorporated dis- 
cussions and work of digital media as well. 

In the 1980s, according to Kester, Afterimage 
focused on the identity of the photographer or 
writer, at the same time attempting to locate his 
or her work in the context of political struggle. 
MFA programs in photography were becoming 
more widespread, and artists and photographers 
were trying to incorporate larger political issues 
into their local practices. Cultural diversity 
among practitioners was increasing at the same 
time the so-called "culture wars" that began in 
1989 when grants to fund exhibitions of works by 
Robert Mapplethorpe and Andres Serrano by the 



38 



AGITPROP 



National Endowment for the Arts came under 
close scrutiny by the political right garnered wide 
attention. Under editors like Martha Gever, Cath- 
erine Lord, and David Trend, Afterimage focused 
on such political and topical issues as AIDS, repro- 
ductive rights, racial identity, political organizing, 
queer theory, sexual difference, patronage in the 
form of institutional support, audience reception 
and deconstructing the art world and art and 
photographic practice. Afterimage allowed new, 
formerly marginalized voices to be heard, and its 
authors engaged in contemporary debates about 
new scholarship, canons and practices. In the 
1980s Afterimage published such important essays 
as Jan Zita Grover's "Visible Lesions: Images of 
PWAs" (Vol. 17, summer 1989); Coco Fusco's 
"Fantasies of Oppositionality" (Vol.16, December 
1988) and Lorraine O'Grady's "Olympia's Maid: 
Reclaiming Black Female Subjectivity" (Vol. 20, 
summer 1992). 

In its early days, Afterimage adopted two meth- 
odological approaches in order to question photo- 
graphy's aesthetics and to criticize institutional 
ways of understanding photography. Articles in 
the journal argued against the then standard 
mode of viewing art photography as separate 
from the daily uses of photography; essentially to 
argue for an inclusion of all types of photography 
in its study and history. The other, interrelated 
approach was to cross over the boundaries between 
critic, curator, and artist, creating new personas 
that incorporated some or all of these aspects, 
exemplified in Lyons, the founder, who took 
photographs as well as edited, wrote and curated. 
A strong interest in vernacular photography and 



the hope of creating an interdisciplinary field that 
would embrace popular and visual culture also 
motivated the early issues of Afterimage and con- 
tinue to inform its ideology today. 

Physically, Afterimage does not look much dif- 
ferent than it did thirty years ago, and its articles 
remain focused on topical political, theoretical, and 
social issues, as its subtitle suggests. Current issues 
are slightly larger and include four more pages than 
in the past. Currently edited by the French photo- 
grapher and writer Bruno Chalifour, Afterimage 
devotes 24 pages to photography, video, film, digi- 
tal media, and art, encompassing issues of craft, 
methodology, and social criticism alike. The bi- 
monthly journal also includes exhibition and 
book reviews, a national list of exhibitions includ- 
ing some international venues, a list of internships 
and grants, editorials and letters to the editor, and 
usually contains an artist's portfolio of images. 
Afterimage is published internationally and keeps 
a rotating staff of freelance writers. 

Allison Moore 

See also: Barthes, Roland; Burgin, Victor; Krauss, 
Rosalind; Lyons, Nathan; Photographic Theory; Post- 
modernism; Sekula, Alan; Solomon-Godeau, Abigail 



Further Reading 

Afterimage: The Journal of Media Art and Cultural Criticism 

published by the Visual Studies Workshop, 31 Prince 

Street, Rochester NY (1969-present). 
Kester, Grant H. ed. Art, Activism and Oppositionality: 

Essays from Afterimage. Durham and London: Duke 

University Press, 1998. 



AGITPROP 



The term "agitprop" fuses the first syllables of 
the two words agitation and propaganda. During 
the 1920s and 1930s in particular, this term was 
applied to a brand of Central European Left-wing 
cultural practice (theater, literature, painting, pho- 
tography) that sought to propagate Marxist-Leni- 
nist ideology at the same time that it aimed to 



agitate its viewers toward political action. Thus, 
agitprop was a socially-oriented art form whose 
aim was simultaneously to re-educate and politi- 
cally stimulate. The use of the term signified differ- 
ently depending on the political circumstances in 
which it was employed. In 1920s Germany, for 
instance, agitprop cultural practice intended to gal- 



39 



AGITPROP 



vanize a mass audience toward a communist revo- 
lution in the context of a capitalist political econ- 
omy. Therefore, the tone of agitprop art was 
generally critical of and oppositional toward the 
governing regime. In the Soviet Union, by contrast, 
a communist revolution had already occurred in 
1917. Therefore, agitprop took on a legitimizing 
function, designed to further enable the construc- 
tion of an ideologically-strong socialist state. Dur- 
ing the immediate post-revolutionary period in 
Russia, for instance, agit-trains traversed the coun- 
tryside while agit-boats docked in harbors. Plas- 
tered with pro-Bolshevik images, these mobile 
agitprop vessels spread the new ideology on the 
premise that the visual image was the most effective 
and legible means by which to persuade an often 
illiterate mass audience. 

Photography played a vital role in agitprop cul- 
ture, not least because it was easily transportable, 
endlessly reproducible, and possessed a documen- 
tary status. As such, a photograph either provided 
testimony to Soviet industrial and social develop- 
ment, or it asserted capitalist "degeneracy" in the 
West. In Soviet Russia, the most innovative agit- 
prop photographer was the avant-garde artist 
Aleksandr Rodchenko. Through the use of extreme 
camera angles, such as close-up, bird's eye, and 
worm's eye views, Rodchenko aimed to stimulate 
the eye and the mind, seeking to produce a fresh 
vision of a revolutionary society. Furthermore, 
technological advances in printing methods in the 
early 1920s, most notably the rotogravure process, 
allowed for the mass reproduction of both text and 
photograph on the same page. Thus, the journal 
USSR in Construction, which was published in four 
languages and distributed to an international read- 
ership, photographically documented the major 
construction projects in the Soviet Union during 
Joseph Stalin's first and second Five- Year Plans. 
During this time of accelerated industrialization, 
the use of dramatic formal elements such as com- 
positionally-assertive diagonals, close-up, and wide- 
angle views projected the image of dynamism, 
energy, and industrial prowess that the Soviet State 
desired to promote abroad. Rodschenko was only 
one of many contributors to this journal. 

In Germany, the mass media empire of Willi 
Miinzenberg, which was loosely affiliated with 
the Communist International (Comintern), used 
the photographs as the centerpiece of its agitation 
and propaganda efforts. Such was the impetus 
behind the Miinzenberg-sponsored Der Arbeiter- 
Fotograf (The Worker-Photographer), a journal 
founded in 1926 and designed to educate a cadre 
of amateur proletarian photographers who would 



generate class-conscious photographs for the revo- 
lutionary cause. Similarly, Munzenberg's Arbeiter 
Illustrierte Zeitung (Worker's Illustrated Journal) 
provided imaginative and socially critical photore- 
portage on a weekly basis for a broad leftist read- 
ership. In this journal, visually and politically 
compelling photographs were provocatively juxta- 
posed with incisive text or other photographs in 
order to activate communist political conscious- 
ness. Until the advent of National Socialism in 
early 1933, the Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung reached 
a peak circulation of 500,000, making it the sec- 
ond-most popular illustrated journal in Germany. 
Exiled to Prague, the journal continued to circulate 
its revolutionary message until 1938, albeit to a 
reduced readership of around 12,000. 

Photomontage, or the juxtaposition of photo- 
graphs with text or other photographs, was equally 
if not more significant as an agitprop device as 
pure photography. With the cut-and-paste techni- 
que of photomontage, it was possible to disassem- 
ble and then reassemble the familiarly represented 
world. The procedure emphasized the artifice of 
pictorial construction, which, depending on its 
context, either functioned as a metaphor for the 
deconstruction of the status quo, or signaled a new 
society still in the making. Typically, photomon- 
tage upset conventional representations of space, 
accentuating incongruity and spatial instability in 
order to convey social dynamism and change. 
Early Soviet photomontage, such as Gustav Klu- 
cis' poster design Electrification of the Entire Coun- 
try of 1920, juxtaposed abstract forms drawn from 
Constructivist aesthetics with photography, thus 
combining symbols of avant-garde art with tech- 
nological modernization. Photomontages gener- 
ated during Stalin's Five-Year Plans featured a 
more immediately legible pictorial composition, in 
keeping with intensified propaganda efforts, but 
still foregrounded emphatic diagonals and a dis- 
junctive syntax. This shift in representation is 
readily evident in Klucis' 1930 Male and Female 
Workers (Let Us Fulfill the Plan of the Great 
Projects), which unifies multiple hands, palm up, 
into a symbol of the Five-Year plan while it slices 
across the pictorial surface in a gesture of reso- 
lute solidarity. 

At the same historical moment, the provocative 
photomontages of the German artist John Heartfield 
(pseudonym of Helmut Herzfelde) were featured 
within the pages and on the front covers of the 
Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung. The goal of these photo- 
montages was to seize and politically stimulate the 
passing gaze in a public sphere saturated by the 
photographic image. They aimed to reveal the reali- 



40 



AGITPROP 




Gustav Klucis, Fulfilled Plan, Great Work, 1930, Lithograph, printed in color, 46 3 A x 33", 

Purchase Fund, Jan Tschichold Collection. 

[Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/ Licensed by SCALAjArt Resource, New York] 



41 



AGITPROP 

ties behind appearances, mobilizing the visual 
machinery of satire, including, as the scholar David 
Evans points out, metamorphosis, hybridization, 
anthropomorphism, and metaphors of scale. In 
Heartfield's 1932 photomontage The Meaning of 
the Hitler Salute, for example, Hitler's arm does 
not thrust vigorously forth, but flops limply back, 
palm up, to receive millions of Rentenmarks from 
the hand of a giant, bloated capitalist standing 
behind him. "Millions stand behind me," declares 
the caption — Hitler's own proclamation — while 
the image reports the true source of Hitler's elec- 
toral support. 

In photography, the notion of agitprop contin- 
ued to be redefined in the later half of the twen- 
tieth century and has become primarily a tactic 
within advertising that uses references to the his- 
torical practice. 

Sabine Kriebel 



See also: Heartfield, John; Image Theory: Ideology; 
Photography in Europe: Russia and Eastern Europe; 
Social Representation; Worker Photography 



Further Reading 

Ades, Dawn. Photomontage. London: Thames and Hudson, 
1986. 

Buchloh, Benjamin. "From Faktura to Factography," 
October 30, (1984)82-119. 

Evans, David. John Heartfield, AIZ/VI: 1930-1938. Lon- 
don: Kent Fine Art, Inc., 1992. 

Evans, David and Sylvia Gohl. Photomontage: a Political 
Weapon. London: Gordon Fraser, 1986. 

GaBner, Hubertus, et al., Gustav Klucis. Stuttgart: Verlag 
GerdHatje, 1991. 

Tupitsyn, Margarita. The Soviet Photograph: 1924-1927. 
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 



MAX ALPERT 



Russian 

Max Alpert was a leading Soviet photographer 
who helped shaped the modern photo essay 
through his work as a propagandist of the Soviet 
state in the 1930s through the 1950s. His documen- 
tations of huge state-sponsored projects form a 
lasting record of Soviet industry and ideology. 
Although always under the direction of the state 
to photograph the properly sanctioned material, 
Alpert brought a stark artistry to all his work, 
enabling it to survive while much Socialist Realist 
and propaganda photography has not. 

Alpert was born in 1899 in Simferopol in the 
Crimea (present-day Ukraine). The son of an arti- 
san, at age 15 he was apprenticed to a photogra- 
pher in Odessa. In 1919 Alpert volunteered for the 
Red Army. During the 1920s he became a leader 
of the Red Army's photographic brigade alongside 
such young photographers as Yevgeny Khaldei. 
After his demobilization in 1924 he joined the 
Moscow newspaper Rahochaya Gazeta where he 
worked for four years. Many of his photographs 



from this period, including Maxim Gorky 's Return 
from Italy, were widely published. 

Hired by Soviet organ Pravda in 1928 he photo- 
graphed the collectivization of agriculture and con- 
struction during the first of Premier Josef Stalin's now 
infamous Five Year Plans. As part of his coverage of 
these projects he began to work systematically on 
developing serial or sequence photography. An im- 
portant early example includes his series The Con- 
struction of the Magnitogorsk Steelworks Factory of 
1929-1930. Over the years Alpert made repeated vis- 
its to the town to document its ongoing development. 
Among his most noted works was the sequence Mas- 
ter and Builder in which Alpert chronicled the career 
of Viktor Kalmikov, a worker at the Magnitogorsk 
steel foundry who began as an illiterate mason and 
became an expert construction worker. 

In 1931 Alpert began photographing for the 
magazine USSR na stroike (USSR in Construction) 
contributing to stories directed at foreign audi- 
ences. During this time he covered the digging of 
the Fergana Canal (also known as the Great or 
Grand Fergana Canal), to draw water for irrigation 



42 



ALPERT, MAX 



of cotton crops in the Fergana Valley in present- 
day Uzbekistan and contributed a series of photos 
of the hydroelectric plant on the Dnepr River. 

In 1931, along with Arkady Shaikhet and Salo- 
mon Tulesa, Alpert worked on the picture story 
Twenty-Four Hours in the Life of the Filippov 
Family. The photo-essay, published as a cover 
story in the German weekly Arbeiter Illustrierte 
Zeitung to wide praise in Europe and the United 
States, covered the life of a metal worker in Mos- 
cow's Red Proletarian factory. The influential 
work was critical in establishing the photo essay 
as a significant photographic genre and was among 
the most significant photography projects of its 
time, touring Vienna, Berlin, and Prague as an 
exhibition in 1931. The project was organized by 
editor Lazar Mezhericher as a manifestation of his 
views as expressed in his article "Serial Photogra- 
phy as the Highest Stage of Photographic Propa- 
ganda." The three photographers spent four days 
with the Filippov family, producing around 80 pic- 
tures of Nikolai Filippov and his wife and children; 
of these, 52 were used in the photo essay. 

The images depict specific events in the life of 
what is claimed to be a typical family, each shot 
presenting an intelligible narrative which adds to 
the whole. The series begins with portrayals of the 
Moscow neighborhood in which the Filippovs live. 
Contrast is made between the Filippov's previous 
wooden house and their new and comfortable 
apartment building by including a miniature shot 
of their former dwelling. The meaning of such jux- 
tapositions is supported with explanatory texts to 
show the greatly improved living conditions of 
working families in the new Soviet society. 

Following the presentation of the living environ- 
ment the photographers present a complete portrait 
of the family members, each identified by name, as 
they enjoy a morning tea inside their furnished 
apartment. This introduction prepares viewers to 
identify family members as they go about their day 
on the streetcar, in the factory where the father and 
son work, in the stores where the mother shops, 
and in the store where the daughter works. Close- 
ups of joyful and happy family members portrayed 
the security Soviet workers felt while photos of the 
factory and commune showed that such security is 
only possible through the work of the community. 

A year later the essay was analyzed thoroughly 
in Proletarskoye Foto in an article that identified 
the photo essay as a new art form, similar to film. 
The enormous success of the Filippov essay made 
photo stories mandatory. Prominent photo stories 



that followed included Alexandr Rodchenko's 
White Sea Canal essay in 1933 and Mark Mar- 
kov-Grinberg's sequence on the coalminer Nikita 
Izotov in 1934. The essay form as put forth by 
Alpert and his colleagues had a powerful impact 
on photography internationally, providing inspira- 
tion for Life magazine's founding in 1936. It also 
proved influential on the works produced by the 
Farm Security Administration in the United States. 

Alpert, along with Arkady Shaikhet, led the Union 
of Russian Proletarian Photographers (ROPF), 
which formed in the early 1930s. The photojournal- 
ists of ROPF repudiated the experimental manipula- 
tion of the October group, the avant-garde agitprop 
artists as exemplified by Rodchenko. In opposition to 
the startling angles and crops deployed by these 
photographers, now commonly called the Construc- 
tivists, the realists of ROPF urged straightforward 
reportage. ROPF rejected notions of art for art's 
sake and argued that photography pursue a purpose. 
Content rather than style should be the photogra- 
pher's primary consideration. 

Along with Shaikhet, Alpert offered some of 
the earliest denunciations of the nonrepresentational 
works and theories of the October Association photo- 
graphers, including Rodchenko, Boris Ignatovich, 
and Elizar Langman. This position eventually gar- 
nered official support. In 1931, the Central Committee 
of the Proletarian Cinematographers and Photogra- 
phers sanctioned the photographic approach pre- 
sented in Twenty Four Hours in the Life of the 
Filippov Family as the appropriate model for the pro- 
letarianization of Soviet photography. 

Alpert's work was displayed at the Exhibition of 
Works by the Masters of Soviet Photo Art in 1935, 
the last exhibition to show the vitality and diversity 
of Soviet photography prior to the institutions of 
socialist realism. Alpert also exhibited in the First 
All-Union Exhibition of Photo Art at the State 
Pushkin Museum in Moscow in 1937. This exhibit 
signified the closing chapter in post-revolution 
Soviet innovative photography. At the same time 
Alpert's images were produced not for galleries or 
museums but for a mass audience. 

During World War II Alpert reported for TASS 
news agency. As with other Soviet photojournalists 
of The Great Patriotic War (World War II), few of 
Alpert's wartime photos were ever shown in gal- 
leries. Following the war Alpert worked for the 
Soviet Information Office and the Novosti Press 
Agency. He died in 1980. 

Jeffrey Shantz 



43 



ALPERT, MAX 



See also: Agitprop; Photography in Europe: Russia 
and Eastern Europe; Propaganda; Shaikhet, Arkady; 
Socialist Photography; Worker Photographer 

Biography 

Born in 1899 in Simferopol in the Crimea. Relocated to 
Odessa; apprentice in a photographic studio, 1914. Red 
Army service, 1919; a leader of the Red Army's photo- 
graphic brigade, early 1920s. Joined the Moscow news- 
paper Rabochaya Gazeta 1924-1928. Hired by the 
newspaper Pravda, 1928, worked photographing collec- 
tivization of agriculture and construction during the first 
of Stalin's Five Year Plans. Began work for the maga- 
zine USSR na stroike; work on photo essay Twenty-Four 
Hours in the Life of the Filippov Family, 1931. Involve- 
ment in Union of Russian Proletarian Photographers 
(ROPF), early 1930s. Correspondent for TASS News 
Agency, 1941-1945. After the war he worked for the 
Soviet Information Office and Novosti Press Agency. 
Died 1980. 



Selected Works 

Magnitogorskii Zavod, 1929 

Viktor Kalmikov on the Train to Magnitogorsk, 1929 

A Kulak's Cottage Is Given to a Poor Peasant, 1930 

Viktor Kalmikov, 1930 

Construction of Magnitogorsk Steelworks, 1930 

Viktor Kalmikov at Night School, Magnitogorsk, 1931 

Twenty-Four Hours in the Life of the Filippov Family, 1931 

Elections to the USSR Supreme Soviet, 1936 

View of Dnepr o-GES Dam, The Ukraine, 1936 

Construction of Fergana Canal, 1939 

Three Fergana Canal Workers, 1939 



The Line of Fergana Canal Workers, 1939 
Workers at Sunrise, 1960 



Further Reading 

Bakshtein, J. "Russian Photography and Its Contexts." Art 
Journal 53 (1994): 43-44. 

Bendavid-Val, Leah. Propaganda and Dreams: Photograph- 
ing the 1930s in the USSR and the US. Zurich: Edition 
Stemmle, 1999. 

Carlisle, Olga. "The Aperture of Memory." Aperture 116 
(1989): 40-45. 

Eerikainen, Hannu. "Up from Underground." Aperture 116 
(1989): 56-67. 

Mihailovic, Alexandar. "Armed only with a Camera: An 
Interview with Dmitri Baltermants." Aperture 116 
(1989): 2-6. 

Mrazkova, Daniela. "Many Nations, Many Voices." Aper- 
ture 116 (1989): 24-33. 

Reid, Susan. "Photography in the Thaw." Art Journal 53 
(1994): 33-39. 

Sartorti, Rosalinde. "No More Heroic Tractors: Subverting the 
Legacy of Socialist Realism." Aperture 116 (1989): 8-16. 

Shudakov, Grigori. 20 Soviet Photographers, 1917-1940. 
Amsterdam: Fiolet and Draaijer Interphoto, 1990. 

Shudakov, Grigori, Olga Suslova, and Lilya Ukhtomskaya. 
Pioneers of Soviet Photography. New York: Thames and 
Hudson, 1983. 

Tupitsyn, Margaret. "Against the Camera, For the Photo- 
graphic Archive." Art Journal 53 (1994): 58-62. 

Tupitsyn, Margaret. The Soviet Photograph, 1924-1937. 
New York: Yale University Press, 1994. 

Tupitsyn, Victor. "The Sun Without a Muzzle." Art Journal 
53 (1994): 80-84. 

Welchman, J. "The Photograph in Power: Images from the 
Soviet Union." Arts Magazine 64 (1990): 74-78. 



AN AMERICAN PLACE 



In the aftermath of the catastrophic stock market 
crash that ushered in the Great Depression, photo- 
grapher and curator Alfred Stieglitz opened his last 
gallery in December 1929. Stieglitz's first gallery, 
The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession (known 
as "291" for its location at 291 Fifth Avenue in 
New York City) had been open from 1903 to 1917, 
and during those years, Stieglitz had championed 
photography as a fine art with exhibitions of Amer- 
ican and European photographers and painters 
that provoked questions about the relationship 
between media and advanced the cause of an 
avant-garde aesthetic. During the 1920s, Stieglitz's 



own photographic production had flourished, 
inspired by his new relationship with painter Geor- 
gia O'Keeffe, and he continued to champion the 
cause of modern art in America with exhibitions he 
organized at the Anderson Galleries (1921-1925) 
and The Intimate Gallery (1925-1929), both in 
New York City. In these years Stieglitz made 
some of his best-known works, including his photo- 
graphs of clouds known as Equivalents and his vast 
portrait of O'Keeffe undertaken over two decades. 
As the 1929 season at The Intimate Gallery came to 
a close in May, Stieglitz learned that the building 
would be demolished. Several colleagues felt 



44 



AN AMERICAN PLACE 



strongly that he needed to continue his work as a 
supporter of American art at a new gallery, and 
photographer Paul Strand and close friend Dor- 
othy Norman raised funds to rent a space at 509 
Madison Avenue that Stieglitz dubbed "An Amer- 
ican Place." The light-filled space included five 
rooms, with white or pale grey walls, and a plain, 
painted cement floor. The gallery opened on 
December 7 with an exhibition of new watercolors 
by John Marin. 

At An American Place, Stieglitz maintained and 
refined the same approach to exhibiting art that 
had informed his work in the earlier spaces. He 
disavowed any commercial practices including 
advertising or promoting the gallery to potential 
customers. The phone number was not listed in the 
phonebook and one oft-repeated story involved a 
woman asking Stieglitz where she might find the 
gallery he ran, and the photographer responding 
with a dismissive explanation that he did not run 
any gallery — clearly he felt the confused woman to 
be unworthy of the kind of intellectual and spiritual 
sustenance offered by An American Place. Stieglitz 
did not profit financially from his role at the gal- 
lery. Funds from the sale of works of art went 
directly to support the artists and to pay the rent. 
During the 1920s and 1930s, Stieglitz focused his 
attention on an increasingly small group of Amer- 
ican artists, rather than the international artists 
that he had championed from 1903-1917. The lim- 
ited season of four to five shows annually at An 
American Place featured regular exhibitions of new 
work by painters John Marin, Arthur Dove, and 
Georgia O'Keeffe; other artists supported at the 
gallery included Charles Demuth, Paul Strand, 
and Marsden Hartley. With the opening of the 
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) just one month 
earlier than An American Place, Stieglitz antici- 
pated MoMA's preference for the European avant 
garde and sought to advocate on behalf of the 
American artists he had supported since the earliest 
years of their careers. 

Only a handful of photographers had exhibitions 
at An American Place, but their impact was never- 
theless significant, and photography remained an 
essential element of the American modernist aes- 
thetic advanced by Stieglitz. Soon after Julien Levy 
opened his new gallery in New York devoted to 
Surrealist art and photography in the fall of 1931, 
Stieglitz decided to mount a retrospective of his own 
work. 727 Photographs (1892-1932) by Alfred Stie- 
glitz was open from February 15 to March 5, 1932, 
and featured early images of New York and portraits 
of colleagues such as Marin and Paul Rosenfeld, as 
well as Equivalents, portraits of Dorothy Norman, 



portraits of O'Keeffe, and new views of the changing 
skyline in midtown Manhattan as seen from the win- 
dows of An American Place and his apartment at 
the Shelton Hotel. Just one month later, Stieglitz 
mounted his final exhibition of work by Paul Strand. 
This show included images from Strand's driftwood 
series and views of the New Mexico and Colorado 
landscape. Their friendship of more than fifteen 
years, however, was strained and Strand saw less 
and less relevance in the spiritual formalism advo- 
cated by his mentor. After handing in his keys to the 
gallery at the close of his exhibition, Strand would 
spend the next decade involved with social-realist 
and documentary filmmaking. Inspired by the re- 
discovery of some of his old negatives from the 
1880s and 1890s, Stieglitz mounted one final exhibi- 
tion of his own work in December 1934, to coincide 
with the publication of the collection of essays, Amer- 
ica and Alfred Stieglitz. 

On March 28, 1933, a new young photographer 
walked into the gallery and presented his work to 
Stieglitz. After looking through the portfolio, the 
senior master welcomed Ansel Adams to An Amer- 
ican Place. The two photographers maintained a 
regular correspondence over the next decade, and 
the West Coast-based photographer made annual 
visits to New York to meet with Stieglitz. Stieglitz 
harbored hopes that Adams might take on the 
mantle of championing American art and photo- 
graphy at An American Place, but the younger 
artist would not abandon his connection to the 
Western landscape. Stieglitz presented Adams's 
work in a solo show at An American Place in the 
late fall of 1936. The only other solo exhibition of 
photographs at An American Place featured the 
work of Eliot Porter. The December 1938 show 
included black and white wildlife studies and inti- 
mate landscapes. Following his experience at An 
American Place, the naturalist chose to focus exclu- 
sively on his photographic career, eventually pro- 
ducing the spectacular color images of nature for 
which he is best known. 

In the final decade of the gallery, before Stie- 
glitz's death in 1946, photographers continued to 
visit or correspond with Stieglitz in hopes of some 
acknowledgement from the elder statesman of their 
field. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Walker Evans, and 
Weegee (Arthur Fellig) all made contact with Stie- 
glitz during these years, and for better or worse, 
each counted the interaction a significant moment 
in their development. The final seasons of An 
American Place were devoted to exhibitions of 
paintings by O'Keeffe, Dove, and Marin. 

Rachel Arauz 



45 



AN AMERICAN PLACE 



See also: Adams, Ansel; Evans, Walker; Levy, 
Ansel; Modernism; Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Museum 
of Modern Art; Porter, Eliot; Stieglitz, Alfred; 
Strand, Paul; Weegee 

Further Reading 

Frank, Waldo, Lewis Mumford, Dorothy Norman, Paul 
Rosenfeld, and Harold Rugg, eds. America & Alfred 
Stieglitz: A Collective Portrait. New York: The Literary 
Guild, 1934. 

Greenough, Sarah. Modern Art and America: Alfred Stie- 
glitz and His New York Galleries. Washington, DC: 
National Gallery of Art, 2000. 



Hoffman, Michael, and Martha Charoudi. "Spirit of An 
American Place: An Exhibition of Photographs by 
Alfred Stieglitz," Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin, 
76 (1981) no. 331. 

Newhall, Nancy. From Adams to Stieglitz: Pioneers of Mod- 
ern Photography. New York: Aperture, 1989. 

Norman, Dorothy. Alfred Stieglitz: An American Seer. New 
York: Aperture, 1990. 

Seligmann, Herbert J. Alfred Stieglitz Talking. New Haven: 
Yale University Library, 1966. 

Whelan, Richard. Alfred Stieglitz A Biography. New York: 
Little, Brown and Company, 1995. 



APPROPRIATION 



Appropriation became one of the most confounding 
and provocative strategies used by artists during — 
and since — the 1980s. The medium of photography 
was integral to this method as the most effective tool 
to enable artists to take possession of, borrow, steal, 
or otherwise copy existing imagery, whether drawn 
from the public domain, the works of other artists, or 
the general cultural context. 

Art historical precedents for the late twentieth 
century strategy of appropriation included French 
avant-garde artist Marcel Duchamp's decision 
to exhibit "readymades" such as his signed urinal 
entitled Fountain beginning in 1913, the Dadaist 
collages and photomontages of Kurt Schwitters 
and others, Robert Rauschenberg's use of found 
objects in his "combine" works of the late 1950s, 
or the Pop Art and Fluxus movements of the 
early 1960s, both of which frequently incorporated 
commercial imagery. Certainly Andy Warhol's 
landmark photo silkscreens depicting multiple re- 
presentations of Campbell's Soup cans, Coca-Cola 
bottles, and Hollywood personalities such as Ma- 
rilyn Monroe became touchstones for later practi- 
tioners of appropriation such as American sculptor 
Jeff Koons. 

Among the most notable artists to emerge in the 
wake of appropriation were Jack Goldstein, Louise 
Lawler, Sherrie Levine, Richard Prince, and Cindy 
Sherman. Each of these artists used photographic 



techniques that played off photography's ability to 
represent reality and to create multiple originals, and 
expanded the definition of fine arts photography. 
Goldstein (re-)presented brief film clips such as the 
MGM lion's roar shown on a continuous loop, and 
Prince enlarged and thereby distorted imagery drawn 
from magazine advertisements featuring the iconic 
Marlboro cowboy. Levine critiqued the myth of the 
great Modernist masterwork in her re-photographic 
works such as the series After Walker Evans. Lawler, 
who also collaborated early on with Levine, became 
known for her photographs of works of art as they 
are displayed in public institutions and private 
homes. Sherman did not appropriate images as 
such, but uncannily mimicked the general look of 
1950s and 1960s Hollywood films in her disarmingly 
straightforward 35-mm black-and-white series of 
Untitled Film Stills. 

Artists such as Levine found support in the writ- 
ings of critics such as Douglas Crimp and Hal Foster. 
Crimp, in his remarks as curator of the 1977 exhibi- 
tion Pictures, made the case that artists were now in 
explicitly Postmodernist territory, having departed 
from existing Modernist norms: "Those processes of 
quotation, excerption, framing and staging that con- 
stitute the strategies of the work I have been discuss- 
ing necessitate uncovering strata of representation... 
underneath each picture there is always another pic- 
ture." Meanwhile Foster in his analysis of appropria- 



46 



APPROPRIATION 



tion commented that "this shift in practice entails a 
shift in position: the artist becomes a manipulator of 
signs more than a producer of art objects, and the 
viewer an active reader of messages rather than a 
passive contemplator of the aesthetic or consumer 
of the spectacle." 

However painters such as Julian Schnabel and 
David Salle met with strong market support yet 
were received coolly by those critics largely 
unsympathetic to a "return to painting" often 
perceived as uncritical and market-driven. While 
Schnabel gained initial renown for applying shat- 
tered crockery to the canvas and then covering it 
partially by thick layers of pigment, and also made 
reference to artists from Caravaggio to Warhol, 
others relied strongly on photography. In his 
paintings Salle incorporated both his own photo- 
graphy and found sources ranging from the art 
historical to the pornographic. The New York 
East Village painter Mike Bidlo created meticu- 
lous copies of the works of Pablo Picasso and 
other Modern artists, and by the 1990s he was 
also photographing staged tableaux based upon 
works such as Edward Manet's Olympia and offer- 
ing his own direct homages to Duchamp's early 
readymades. Jean-Michel Basquiat also combined 
spontaneous and exuberant drawing by hand with 
photo-silkscreened elements from borrowed 
sources. Jeff Koons embraced his borrowed ima- 
gery in the name of a new pseudo-populist aes- 
thetic. In his quest to please his collectors, he 
oversaw the replication of stuffed animals, liquor 
decanters, and posed for photographs using the 
idioms of advertising, publicity shots, and hard- 
core pornography. 

Sigmar Polke and Gerhard Richter and the Rus- 
sian emigre duo Komar and Melamid responded to 
their own specific cultural surroundings. Polke and 
Richter, both raised in the former German Demo- 
cratic Republic, or East Germany, created works in 
the mid 1960s under the heading "Capitalist Rea- 
lism" and both experimented extensively with 
photography. Polke manipulated and distorted his 
photographs technically and incorporated them 
into his large, nonsensical paintings, while Richter 
made exquisitely rendered paintings from family 
and found photographs. Komar and Melamid in 
their SOTS art appropriated and transformed the 
iconography and stylistic effects of Socialist Rea- 
lism, yielding aesthetically seductive and critically 
incisive results. 

The subtle and complex feminist critique evident 
in the works of Levine, Lawler, and Sherman was 
proclaimed more boldly in the photomontages of 
former graphic designer Barbara Kruger, which 



displayed such slogans as "Your Body is a Battle- 
ground." "It's a Small World (but not if you have 
to clean it)," and "Your Gaze Hits the Side of My 
Face," presented as bold white typographic state- 
ments set into red banners laid over large-scale 
appropriated images. Jenny Holzer also used frag- 
ments of everyday speech and received knowledge 
in her textual works, most characteristically dis- 
played using moving LED display signs. Other 
contemporary artists such as the American media 
artists Dennis Adams and Hans Haacke, the Chi- 
lean social activist photographer Alfredo Jaar, and 
Polish-Canadian public art innovator Krzysztof 
Wodiczko recontextualized documentary images 
within gallery installations, light boxes, and slide 
projections in order to offer pointed political com- 
mentary particularly during the Reagan era of the 
mid-1980s. 

Appropriation became a characteristic artistic 
style of the 1980s, but perhaps as with its con- 
temporaneous movements graffiti and neo-expres- 
sionism, its power and influence seemed to 
initially diminish after a period of overexposure. 
However in a more positive sense appropriation 
today has become merely one of a range of Post- 
modernist tools still actively used by contempor- 
ary artists in the context of multidisciplinary 
works. The general ubiquity of technology in the 
early twenty-first century, and the widespread use 
of digital replication and repetition in music, 
advertising, and film, almost ensures the likeli- 
hood that the strategy of incorporating borrowed 
images will continue unabated in the contempo- 
rary art world. 

Martin Patrick 

See also: Conceptual Photography; Feminist Photo- 
graphy; History of Photography: 6: the 1980s; 
Krauss, Rosalind; Kruger, Barbara; Modernism; 
Postmodernism; Prince, Richard; Rauschenberg, 
Robert; Representation; Sherman, Cindy; Solo- 
mon-Godeau, Abigail 



Further Reading 

Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: 
University of Michigan Press, 1995. 

Bolton, Richard, ed. The Contest of Meaning: Critical His- 
tories of Photography. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT 
Press, 1989. 

Crimp, Douglas. On the Museum's Ruins. Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts: MIT Press, 1993. 

Endgame: Reference and Simulation in Recent Painting and 
Sculpture, Boston: Institute of Contemporary Art/MIT 
Press, 1986. 

Foster, Hal. Recodings: Art, Spectacle, Cultural Politics. 
Seattle: Bay Press, 1985. 



47 



APPROPRIATION 




Barbara Kruger, Untitled (your body is a battleground), 1989, photographic silk on vinyl, 
112 x 112". 

[BARBARA KRUGER, "Untitled" (Your body is a battleground) , 112" by 112", photographic 
silkscreen'vinyl, 1989, © Barbara Kruger. Collection: The Broad Art Foundation, Santa Monica. 
Courtesy: Mary Boone Gallery, New York] 



Heartney, Eleanor. Critical Condition: American Culture at 
the Crossroads. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1997. 

Krauss, Rosalind. The Originality of the Avant-Garde and 
Other Modernist Myths. Cambridge, Massachusetts: 
MIT Press, 



Nagy, Peter, moderator. "From Criticism to Complicity [a 
discussion with Sherrie Levine, Peter Halley, Jeff Koons, 
Haim Steinbach, Ashley Bickerton, Philip Taaffe]," 
Flash Art, Summer 1986, 129. 

Owens, Craig. Beyond Recognition: Representation, Power, 
and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. 



48 



ARAKI, NOBUYOSHI 



Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. Photography at the Dock: 
Essays on Photographic History, Institutions, and Prac- 
tices. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 
1994. 



Wallis, Brian, ed. Art after Modernism: Rethinking Repre- 
sentation. Boston: David R. Godine, 1984. 



NOBUYOSHI ARAKI 



Japanese 

Tokyo-based Japanese photographer Nobuyoshi 
Araki has gained worldwide notoriety for his can- 
didly erotic pictures. Perhaps the most prolific photo- 
grapher in the history of the medium, Araki is 
the author of more than 200 books, and his exhibi- 
tions often include thousands of images. A self-styled 
"photo-maniac," photography is a lifestyle for Araki; 
he shoots many, sometimes dozens of rolls of film a 
day. Best known for his voyeuristic, snapshot-style 
images of women often tied up with ropes (kinbaku) 
and colorful, sensual flowers, Araki has used photo- 
graphy to interpret emotions and experience. 

Born in Tokyo, Araki was given a camera at the 
age of 12 by his father. In 1963, he graduated from 
the engineering department at Chiba University, 
majoring in photography and cinema. He went 
into commercial photography soon after graduat- 
ing, working at the advertising company Dentsu in 
1963. During his nine years there, he also pursued 
his own projects. In 1964 he received the Taiyo 
prize for Satchin (1963), a black and white photo- 
graphic series featuring kids from downtown 
Tokyo, whose title derives from the pet name of a 
little girl. He exhibited these works and others in 
his first exhibition in 1965. 

In 1970 Araki created the first of his Xerox photo 
albums, which he produced in a limited edition and 
sent to friends, art critics, and people randomly 
selected from the phone book. The quality of this 
early type of photocopy often led to unusual tonal 
effects in the resulting images. In 1971, he pub- 
lished the privately printed photographic collection 
Sentimental Journey ( Senchimentaru na tabi), in 
which his personal life, in particular his wedding 
and honeymoon with Yoko Aoki, was displayed in 
a diary format. At first glance the images seem to 
be naive records but they are in fact staged. Senti- 
mental Journey established Araki's reputation, and 



in 1972 he left Dentsu and became a freelance 
photographer. Since then, almost all his works 
have revolved around his own life, and are almost 
always about the women who are close to him. 

Stylistically, Araki has never been a purist. He 
works in black and white and color, using ciba- 
chrome as well as color photocopies for their gar- 
ishness and artificiality; he uses natural light and 
hard flash. Araki has also employed many experi- 
mental techniques and processes including collage, 
montage, solarization, and hand-applied color, 
including paint (one series presents paint dripped 
onto close-up images of vaginas). He also works 
with negatives that are damaged or decayed, and 
scratches into the emulsion on finished prints, such 
as in a series where he scratched out the genitals on 
nudes. He juxtaposes snapshots with studio pho- 
tos, portraits, and street scenes, and still lifes with 
hardcore pornography. He photographs voracious- 
ly, from the female body to food to cats. Araki 
works primarily with a Pentax 6x7 format cam- 
era, dating the resulting prints to register them in 
time; in his ongoing Tokyo diaries Araki uses a 
camera that automatically prints the date on the 
image. Reflecting the nature of how he shoots, his 
work is presented and is best understood in the 
context of the series. 

Araki's work is paradoxical in that it is subjec- 
tive and yet makes no claim to photographic truth; 
he often appears in scenes containing sexual activ- 
ity, yet one of his best known images is a self- 
portrait wearing his recently deceased wife's pink 
coat, gripping a large black-and-white framed por- 
trait of her. For Araki, an everyday street scene 
may become transformed into a setting of intimate 
revelation. Particularly preoccupied with female 
sexuality, Araki attempts to become more intimate 
with women through photography, claiming the 
ropes he uses replicate an embrace. However critics 
argue that the photographer's objectification of his 



49 



ARAKI, NOBUYOSHI 



subject limits if not precludes emotional connection 
and hence empathy, creating in effect, images void 
of intimacy. Similarly to Goldin and Joel-Peter 
Witkin, who also work with erotic imagery, Araki's 
work seeks to balance the sublime and the obscene; 
it is at once shocking and mysteriously tender. Over 
the years, his bold, unabashed photographs have 
been the object of censorship, especially in his 
native Japan, a fact that has not diminished his 
influence. Series have included images of gagged 
and tied women wearing the traditional dress of 
the kimono, on tatami mats in a riyokan (Japanese 
inn). Although the women are often restrained and 
silenced, the Japanese art of rope-tying, kinbaku, 
differs from Western style bondage. Araki's images 
are also heir to the Japanese tradition of erotic art, 
especially Shunga, the erotic painting from the Edo 
period. They combine ecstasy and death, a passion 
for life and a melancholy awareness of the finite- 
ness of life. 

Flowers have featured in several of Araki's pro- 
jects of the 1990s and are appropriate subjects for 
his fusion of eros and death. Araki's photographs 
make explicit that flowers are reproductive organs 
and emblems of the consummation of love. How- 
ever, Araki's flower studies are hardly sentimental; 
the flowers petals are often painted with garish 
colors and seem past their prime. 

The city of Tokyo is another of Araki's chosen 
subjects although he claims only an interest in the 
urban areas he frequents and knows well, such as 
Shinjuku, Tokyo's entertainment district with its 
nightclubs, strip joints, and seedy hotels. People 
often seem sad and lonely in Araki's Tokyo. He 
claims that "photography is synonymous with 
what relates to me. I don't go somewhere simply 
to take photographs." 

Araki has edited most of his own books, and has 
gained a strong and growing following in the United 
States and Europe. He has formed friendships with 
other great photo-diarists such as Robert Frank and 
Nan Goldin, and in 1995 Araki published a book 
with Goldin (Tokyo Love). He has also delved into 
stylized fashion photography. In 2002, the German 
publisher Taschen released a lavish tribute to Araki's 
work — an enormous and unique (numbered and 
signed) book featuring 1000 images, with a print run 
of only 2500 copies. In 2003 the photographer pub- 
lished Araki by Araki: The Photographer's Personal 
Selection 1963-2002 — the most comprehensive col- 
lection of his work, gathering images from each year. 

Daniel Palmer 

See also: Erotic Photography; Goldin, Nan; Photo- 
graphy in Japan 



Biography 

Born Tokyo, Japan, May 25 1940. Graduated from Engineer- 
ing Department of Chiba University with a major in 
Photography and Filmmaking, 1963. Started work at 
Dentsu advertising company, 1963. Received prize for 
Satchin, a collection of photographs, 1964. First exhibi- 
tion, 1965. Privately published Sentimental Journey, 1971. 
Left Dentsu in 1972 to work as a freelancer. Helped found 
the Workshop School of Photography, 1974. Opened the 
Nobuyoshi Araki School, 1976. Formed the Araki Lim- 
ited Stock Company, 1981. Established Photo Clinic, 
1982. Established AT Room, 1988. Lives and works in 
Tokyo, Japan. 



Selected Individual Exhibitions 

1965 Satchin and Mabo, Shinjuku Station Building, Tokyo, 
Japan 

1966 Subway, Mitsubishi Denki Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 

1967 Ginza, Mitsubishi Denki Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 
1973 Flowers in Ruins, Shimizu Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 
1976 Yoko, My Love, Nikon Salon, Tokyo, Japan 
1984 A World of Girls, Zeit-Photo Salon, Tokyo, Japan 

1986 Araki's Tokyo Erotomania Diary, Zeit-Photo Salon, 
Tokyo, Japan 

1987 Arakism: 1967-1987, Zeit-Photo Salon, Tokyo, Japan 
1990 Towards Winter: Tokyo, A City Heading for Death, 

Egg Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 

Tokyo Lucky Hole, Apt Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 
1993 Erotos, Parco Gallery, Tokyo, Japan 
1995 Journale Intime, Fondation Cartier pour l'art contem- 

porain, Paris, France 




Noboyoshi Araki, Tokyo Cube #102. 

[Collection Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, partial 

and promised gift from the Howard and Donna Stone 

Collection, Photograph © Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Chicago, © Nobuyoshi Araki, Courtesy of Yoshiko Isshiki 

Office] 



50 



ARBUS, DIANE 



1997 Tokyo Comedy, Wiener Secession, Vienna, Austria 
2000 Viaggio Sentimentale ; Centro per l'Arte Contempora- 

nea Luigi Pecci, Prato, Italy 
2002 Araki Nobuyoshi: Hana-Jinsei, Kyoto Museum of 

Contemporary Art, Kyoto, lapan 
2002 Nobuyoshi Araki: Tokyo Still Life, Helsinki City Art 

Museum, Helsinki, Finland 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1971 The 10th Contemporary Art Exhibition of Japan, 
Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Tokyo, lapan 

lapan 15 Photographers, The National Museum of 
Modern Art, Tokyo, lapan 

1977 Neue Fotografie aus Japan, Graz City Museum, Graz, 
Austria 

1979 Japan: A Self-Portrait, International Center of Photo- 
graphy, New York, New York 

1989 Tokyo: A City Perspective, Tokyo Metropolitan 
Museum of Photography, Tokyo, lapan 

1991 Japanese Photography in the 1970s, Tokyo Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Photography, Tokyo, lapan 

1994 Liquid Crystal Futures: Contemporary Japanese Photo- 
graphy, The Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland 

2001 Facts of Life: Contemporary Japanese Art, Hayward 
Gallery, London, England 

Open City: Street Photographs Since 1950, Oxford: Museum 
of Modern Art Oxford, England 



Selected Works (Books) 

Satchin, 1963 

Sentimental Journey ( Senchimentaru na tabi), 1971 



The Camera Between Men and Women (Otoko to onna no 

aida ni wa shashinki ga aru), 1977 
Yoko, My Love (Waga'ai Yoko), 1978 
Tokyo Elegy (Tokyo ereji), 1981 
World of Girls (Shojo sekai), 1984 
Tokyo Autumn (Tokyo wa aki), 1984 
Tokyo Story, 1989 

Towards Winter: Tokyo, A City Heading for Death, 1990 
Sentimental Journey j Winter Journey, 1991 
Tokyo Love, with Nan Goldin, 1995 
Naked Faces, 1996 

Obscenities and Strange Black Ink Stories, 1997 
Tokyo Luck Hole, 1997 
Tokyo Comedy, 1997 
Flowers, 1998 
Tokyo Nostalgia, 1999 
Sentimental Photography , Sentimental Life, 1999 



Futher Reading 

Araki, Nobuyoshi. Araki by Araki: The Photographer's 
Personal Selection 1963-2002. Tokyo: Kodansha Inter- 
national, 2003. 

Araki, Nobuyoshi. Shikijyo: Sexual Desire. Text by Jean- 
Christophe Ammann, Peter Weiermair, and Mario Kra- 
mer. Zurich: Edition Stemmle, 1997. 

Brougher, Kerry, and Russell Ferguson. Open City: Street 
Photographs Since 1950. Oxford: Museum of Modern 
Art Oxford, 2001. 

Grosenick, Uta, and Burkhard Riemschneider, eds. Art at 
the Turn of the Millennium. Koln: Taschen, 1999. 

Sans, Jerome. 'Araki Interviewed by Jerome Sans." In 
Araki. Zurich: Taschen, 2003. 



DIANE ARBUS 



American 

Diane Arbus, whose singular, often shocking por- 
traits emerged among the most iconic and modern 
images of the 1960s, famously wrote in 1971, "A 
photograph is a secret about a secret. The more it 
tells you the less you know" (Arbus 1971, 64). 
Although Arbus's quote reveals her skepticism 
toward the common assumption that photography 
tells the truth — in other words, that it is a visually 
accurate medium — her work has nonetheless been 
linked to the documentary photographic tradition. 
By the late 1950s American photographers in par- 
ticular began to register their discontent with the 



prevailing photographic conventions that focused 
on formalism or "fine art" aesthetics. Photojour- 
nalism — including the role it played in larger cul- 
tural upheavals, such as Vietnam, the civil rights 
and women's movements — emerged as a viable 
mode of photography. Moreover, the role of the 
photographer in relation to his or her subject came 
under scrutiny. Post-World War II figures such as 
Lee Friedlander, Garry Winogrand, Danny Lyon, 
Bruce Davidson, and Arbus, among others, 
pointed their cameras toward the common, every- 
day, and often ugly realities of urban existence and 
the individual subject. Their vernacular approach, 
which actually borrowed from both the fine art and 



51 



ARBUS, DIANE 



documentary traditions, came to be described as 
the snapshot aesthetic. These pictures of the so- 
called "social landscape" were often captured 
quickly using portable 35-mm cameras, often on 
the street. They appeared to be casually composed 
(if at all), incorporating movement and happen- 
stance. Critics and historians of photography such 
as Nathan Lyons and John Szarkowski attempted 
to describe this fresh development that brought 
greater, self-conscious creativity to the objective 
and socially conscious picture. 

A formative exhibition that introduced the 
notion of social landscape photography was New 
Documents: Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, Garry 
Winogrand (1967), organized by Szarkowski at the 
Museum of Modern Art in New York. Head of the 
museum's photography department from 1962 to 
1991, Szarkowski's wide-ranging and ground- 
breaking exhibitions helped place photography 
within the company of painting and sculpture in 
the art museum and beyond. New Documents her- 
alded a nascent age in a photography that empha- 
sized the pathos and conflicts of modern life 
presented without editorializing or sentimentaliz- 
ing but with a critical, observant eye. Szarkowski 
saw in these three artists a shift in the documentary 
approach, traced through Walker Evans, which 
incorporated deeply personal ends. He wrote in 
the Museum's wall panel, "Their aim has been 
not to reform life, but to know it. Their work 
betrays a sympathy — almost an affection — for the 
imperfections and frailties of society (Szarkowski 
quoted in Diane Arbus Revelations 2003, 51). 

Arbus's affinity for imperfection and frailty is 
today legendary, making her role in this sea-change 
historically relevant. Yet her oeuvre is also distinct 
and virtually unique in her generation for its 
emphasis on portraiture in its classical sense. 
Unlike the loose and cropped compositions of her 
peers, who often captured fleeting images and 
moments, Arbus's photographs relied upon an 
established relationship of some sort between the 
sitter and the photographer. In other words, 
Arbus's process intimately involved the subject, 
who was usually posed, and always remained cog- 
nizant of the photographer's presence. While the 
pictures may appear candid, they were more often 
than not painstakingly composed with an emphasis 
on visual narrative and description. Her talents lie 
in her uncanny ability to communicate something 
distinct, private, and mutable about her subjects' 
personalities, fantasies, or experiences, what she 
called "the gap between intention and effect" 
(Arbus 1972, 1-2). Drawn to the power of myth 
and self-invention, Arbus's titles reflected this 



interest in telling a story about her subjects: A 
family on their lawn one Sunday in Westchester, N. 
Y. (1968), Man at a parade on Fifth Avenue, N. Y.C. 
(1969), A Jewish giant at home with his parents in 
the Bronx, N.Y. (1970), and Child with a toy hand 
grenade in Central Park, N.Y.C. (1962). This nar- 
rative approach is related to the context in which 
the images were first seen — primarily in the pages 
of popular magazines where they appeared as 
photo essays. 

Diane Nemerov Arbus's photographic career 
began as a commercial one in which she partnered 
with her husband Allan Arbus. The couple ran a 
successful commercial studio in New York City, 
and their work appeared regularly in Glamour and 
other magazines. Diane generally devised the con- 
cepts and designed and styled the shots, while Allan 
worked behind the camera; she learned from him 
how to develop film and print negatives in the 
makeshift darkroom that was the couple's bath- 
room. She simultaneously took her own pictures, 
using a 35-mm Nikon to photograph people, often 
those characters she met on the street. The Arbuses 
worked together from about 1941 to 1956 when 
Diane quit the business to pursue her own photo- 
graphy fulltime; she pursued editorial assignments 
in order to pay for more creative, personal work. 

In 1959 she earned her first commissioned photo 
essay, ostensibly about the vagaries of urban life in 
New York City for Esquire magazine. Titled The 
Vertical Journey: Six Movements of a Moment 
Within the Heart of the City, the portfolio included 
portraits as disparate as a side-show performer 
known as The Jungle Creep, who appeared in 
Hubert's Museum of eccentrics in Times Square 
to an honorary regent in the Washington Heights 
chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. She went on to publish more than 250 pictures 
in Harper's Bazaar, Esquire, the Sunday Times 
Magazine of London, and elsewhere. Other photo 
essays included The Auguries of Innocence (Har- 
per's Bazaar, December 1963), The Soothsayers — 
What's New: The Witch Predicts {Glamour, Janu- 
ary and October 1964), and People Who Think 
They Look like Other People {Nova, October 
1969). Arbus generally wrote extensive text cap- 
tions for the essays' images. She approached her 
personal work in much the same manner. 

Although Arbus's most famous subjects were 
outsiders such as transvestites, strippers, carnival 
performers, nudists, dwarves, and other assorted 
"freaks," she was equally drawn to the prosaic in 
subjects as ordinary as children, mothers, couples, 
old people, and the like. She photographed her 
subjects in familiar settings: their homes, on the 



52 



ARBUS, DIANE 



street, in the workplace, in the park. While the 
environmental setting often provides description 
as to the sitter's personality or life, it does not 
distract from the matter at hand, namely the poign- 
ancy or intensity of the interaction between Arbus 
and her subject. 

She admired and was influenced by the typolo- 
gies of August Sander, whose assorted shop- 
keepers, industrial workers, peasants, artists, as 
well as social outcasts reflected archetypes the 
photographer found within his own milieu — Ger- 
many in the 1920s and 1930s. She shared with 
Sander a breadth of iconography and a sympathy 
with subjects presented without romanticism. Her 
nearly archeological interest in social mores and 
milieus is evidenced in her project proposal for a 
1963 Guggenheim Grant. Titled American Rites, 
Manners and Customs, she sought to depict a 
range of social ceremonies, including beauty 
pageants, games and competitions, costumes, par- 
ties, and the like. Arbus called these ceremonies 
"our symptoms and our moments. I want to save 
them, for what is ceremonious and curious and 
commonplace will be legendary" (Arbus quoted 
in Diane Arbus Revelations 41). She won this 
grant and received a second one from the Guggen- 
heim in 1966. Arbus's photography also bears the 
influence of her teacher, Austrian-born Lisette 
Model, who also photographed for Harper's 
Bazaar and whose expressive images monumen- 
talize their human, often quirky, subjects. 

In order to achieve sharper, less grainy images, 
Arbus had abandoned the 35-mm format by 1963 
for a wide-angle Rolleiflex and later a Mamiyaflex 
camera, each of which produced 2-%" square nega- 
tives. A photographer held the 2-% cameras at 
waist-level, looking down, which slowed down the 
process of picture-making considerably. This for- 
mat was in keeping with her prolonged portrait 
sittings. In addition, the wide angle of her first 
Rolleiflex created a slight warping of the contents 
of the frame, lending a subtle skewing of the com- 
position that enhanced the psychological effect of 
the picture. As early as 1965 she began printing her 
pictures with the irregular, black borders that 
showed the entire, uncropped negative. These bor- 
ders (also used in Richard Avedon's portraits) 
called attention to the fact that the image was con- 
structed on a two-dimensional surface rather than 
a window-like view to the subject. Typical of the 
1960s documentary aesthetic, Arbus's use of the 
negative borders put stress upon the subjectivity 
of the photographer and her vision. Arbus's por- 
traits search the surface of people, their facades, 
costumes, eccentricities, and her direct, frontal 



compositions reflect this. However, penetrating 
vision often points to a hidden psychology, or at 
least the traces of the vulnerabilities that lie 
beneath this surface. 

Historians have noted the potency, and discom- 
fort, associated with Arbus's seemingly voyeuristic 
iconography, especially in relation to the viewer. 
Arbus was intently aware of the role she played in 
relation to her subjects, including any responsibil- 
ity she might have for or to them. Because she 
recognized that the pictures were the result of an 
often passionate, emotional investment in her sub- 
jects, she was careful to temper this with aesthetic 
deliberation and dispassion. This complex inter- 
twining of roles — between photographer and sub- 
ject, photographer and viewer, and subject and 
viewer — reveals Arbus's masterful understanding 
of empathy moderated by critical distance (Phillips, 
Diane Arbus Revelations 59). The gravitas of her 
work, in fact, lay in this acute, triangular relation- 
ship linking photographer, subject, and viewer. It 
represented a rather early understanding of image 
theory that would later inform much of postmo- 
dern photography. 

In keeping with Arbus's interest in subcultures, 
in 1969 she began photographing at a home for the 
mentally retarded in New Jersey. These images 
remain mysterious glimpses into the photogra- 
pher's subjective mindset as well as beautifully 
poignant representations that seem to waver on 
the line between what is normal and abnormal. 
Arbus's care to show her subjects as individuals — 
without exploitation or editorializing — was reflect- 
ed in the seriousness of this personal project, for 
which she had to seek extensive permissions. Most 
of the photographs from this series were posthu- 
mously printed and titled (as Untitled images). In 
her notebooks of the time she detailed the various 
residents by name, often describing particular inter- 
actions on a given day. The work was edited by her 
daughter Doon Arbus and published in 1995 
(Arbus, Untitled 1995). 

That same year she self-produced a limited edi- 
tion portfolio of museum-quality prints titled A 
Box of Ten Photographs (dated 1970). The prints 
were displayed in a minimalist, elegant, clear box 
that doubled as a framing device, designed by her 
friend Marvin Israel. The collection of photo- 
graphs — all of which related to the family — as 
well as their presentation represented a conscious 
statement about how she viewed herself as an artist 
and her photography (Phillips, Diane Arbus Reve- 
lations 66). The portfolio included several images 
from New Documents and five that had been pub- 
lished in Artforum, May 1971. She advertised the 



53 



ARBUS, DIANE 



sale of the portfolio in Artforum magazine; only 
four sets sold in her lifetime, one to the artist 
Jasper Johns. 

At the time of her death by suicide in 1971 (she 
had suffered from depression throughout her adult 
life), Arbus's photography was not widely exhib- 
ited in museums and galleries, although it would 
prove to be instrumental in the artistic reexamina- 
tion of photography within American museums, 
where the medium would assume a sure and stable 
place during Szarkowski's tenure. Although Arbus 
had serious reservations about displaying her pic- 
tures in museum exhibitions, where she feared her 
intentions might be misunderstood, her work has 
retained a vital and major place within the history 
of photography. 

Lynn M. Somers-Davis 

See also: Documentary Photography; Model, Lisette; 
Street Photography; Szarkowski, John; Winogrand, 
Garry 



Biography 

Born Diane Nemerov, New York City, March 14, 1923 to 
Gertrude and David Nemerov. Her wealthy family of 
Russian-Jewish descent owned Russek's, a fashionable 
Fifth Avenue department store. Married Allan Arbus 
against parents' wishes in 1941. Brother was Howard 
Nemerov, Pulitzer-prize winning poet and U.S. Poet 
Laureate in 1988. Daughter Doon Arbus born 1945; 
daughter Amy Arbus born in 1954. With husband 
opened fashion photography studio ("Diane and Allan 
Arbus"), 1946. Attended first photography course in 
mid-1950s with Alexey Brodovitch at New School for 
Social Research, New York City; studied with Lisette 
Model at the New School, 1956-1958. Quit the business 
in 1956 to pursue her own work, garnering assignments 
for Esquire, Harper's Bazaar, and the London Sunday 
Times Magazine. The Arbuses separated amicably, 1959; 
that year Diane began keeping notebooks of her writings 
with ideas for pictures and other interests. By early 1960s 
discovered Hubert's Museum (flea circus in Times 
Square) and Club 82 (a female-impersonator club in 
downtown Manhattan); revisited these sites extensively 
to photograph. Met Walker Evans through Marvin 
Israel, 1962. Received first Guggenheim Fellowship for 
American Rites, Manners and Customs, 1963; second 
Guggenheim Fellowship for The Interior Landscape, 
1966. Began teaching at Parsons School of Design, 
New York City. Included in MoMA exhibition New 
Documents, 1967 '. Hired by John Szarkowski at Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, to research exhibition on 
news photography, From the Picture Press, 1969-1970. 
Produced with Marvin Israel a limited edition portfolio 
of 10 photographs {A Book of Ten Photographs), 1969- 
1970; published Five Photographs by Diane Arbus, Art- 
forum, May 1971. Taught a private master class at West- 
beth, the artists' cooperative housing where she lived, 
1971. Died by suicide in her New York City home, July 
28, 1971. Subject of posthumous retrospective at 



Museum of Modern Art, New York, with accompanying 
monograph Diane Arbus (1972). 



Individual Exhibitions 

Note: Arbus's sparse exhibition history and the relative lack 
of scholarship on her is due in part to the control The 
Estate of Diane Arbus has maintained over her work 
including exhibitions and reproductions of it. 

1972 Diane Arbus; Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
New York, and traveling retrospective 

2003 Diane Arbus: Family Albums; Mount Holyoke College 
Art Museum, South Hadley, Massachusetts, and traveling 

2004 Diane Arbus Revelations; San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art; San Francisco, California; traveling to Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas; Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, New York, New York; Museum 
Folkwang, Essen, Germany; Victoria and Albert 
Museum, London, England; and Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1955 With Allan Arbus. The Family of Man; Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, New York 

1965 Recent Acquisitions: Photography; Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New York, New York 

Invitational Exhibition: 10 American Photographers; School 
of Fine Arts, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

1967 New Documents: Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, Garry 
Winogrand; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1969 Thirteen Photographers; Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
New York 

Human Concern) Personal Torment: The Grotesque in 
American Art; Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, New York 

New Photography U.S.A.; Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York, and traveling 

10 Photographers; U.S. Pavilion, Japan World Exhibi- 
tion, Osaka, Japan 

1971 Contemporary Photographs I; Fogg Art Museum, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy 

1977 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 
1960; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1989 On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty 
Years of Photography; National Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., and Art Institute of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, and traveling to Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 

Photography Until Now; Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York, and traveling to the Cleveland 
Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

2003 Cruel and Tender: The Real in the Twentieth-Century 
Photograph; Tate Modern, London, England 



Selected Works 

Headless Man, N.Y.C., 1961 

Child with a toy hand grenade in Central Park, N. Y.C., 1962 
A house on a hill, Hollywood, California, 1962 
The Junior Interstate Ballroom Dance Champions, Yonkers, 
N.Y., 1963 



54 



ARBUS, DIANE 




Diane Arbus, Child with toy hand grenade, New York, New York, 1962, Gelatin-silver print, 

7/ 4 x8 %". 

[Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/ Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY] 



Teenage couple on Hudson Street, N.Y.C., 1963 
A young man in curlers at home on West 20th Street, N. Y.C.. 
1966 



A family on their lawn one Sunday in Westchester, N.Y., 

1968 
A naked man being a woman, N. Y.C., 1968 



55 



ARBUS, DIANE 



Man at a parade on Fifth Avenue, N.Y.C., 1969 
A Jewish giant at home with his parents in the Bronx, N. Y., 1970 
The King and Queen of a Senior Citizens' Dance, N. Y.C., 1970 
Mexican dwarf in his hotel room, N. Y.C., 1970 



Further Reading 

Arbus, Diane. Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph. Mil- 
lerton, New York: Aperture, 1972. 

Arbus, Diane. Diane Arbus: Untitled. Edited by Doon 
Arbus and Yolanda Cuomo, afterword by Doon 
Arbus. Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1995. 

Arbus, Diane, and Thomas Southall. Diane Arbus: Maga- 
zine Work. Edited by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel. 
Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1984. 

Arbus, Diane. "Five Photographs by Diane Arbus." Art- 
forum (May 1971). 

Armstrong, Carol. "Biology, Destiny, Photography: Differ- 
ence According to Diane Arbus." October 66 (Fall 1993). 

Bosworth, Patricia. Diane Arbus: A Biography. New York: 
Alfred A. Knopf, 1984, reprinted in 1995 by W. W. Norton. 



Decarlo, Tessa. "A Fresh Look at Arbus." Smithsonian 
(May 2004). 

Diane Arbus Revelations. Essays by Sandra S. Phillips, Neil 
Selkirk, chronology by Elisabeth Sussman and Doon 
Arbus, afterword by Doon Arbus, (Exhibition catalo- 
gue). San Francisco and New York: San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art, Random House, and The 
Estate of Diane Arbus LLC, 2003. 

Goldman, Judith. "Diane Arbus: The Gap Between Inten- 
tion and Effect." Art Journal v. 34, no. 1 (Fall 1974). 

Hirsch, Robert. Seizing the Light: A History of Photogra- 
phy. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000. 

Lee, Anthony. W., and John Pultz. Diane Arbus: Family 
Albums. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 
2003. 

Lord, Catherine. "What Becomes a Legend Most: The 
Short, Sad Career of Diane Arbus: Part I." Exposure v. 
23, no. 3 (Fall 1985). 

Rosenblum, Naomi. A History of Women Photographers. 
New York: Abbeville Press, 2000. 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



Architectural Photography is the representation of 
architecture in images. This includes the depiction 
of buildings and interiors in photographs, but also 
comprises the reproduction of designs, the depic- 
tion of architectural models, the participation in 
preservation campaigns, and all forms of journal- 
istic imagery for magazines and newspapers. This 
genre of photography has wide commercial and 
industrial application, as well as a long tradition 
as a fine-arts practice. Architectural Photography 
is a tool for architects as well as for construction 
and development companies to advertise their ser- 
vices or product. For industries that manufacture 
components such as windows, doors, tiles, or drain 
pipes, the attractive, yet accurate rendering of the 
items provides a valuable shorthand reference. 

Throughout its history, Architectural Photogra- 
phy has been as important in interpreting architec- 
tural design as in criticizing political approaches 
represented in buildings and constructions. Architec- 
tural Photography has also shaped architectural 
design itself through its pedagogical uses. Indeed, 
since the invention of photography in the mid-nine- 
teenth century, Architectural Photography has been 
of primary importance to instruct architects-in-train- 



ing as well as historians and others interested in the 
field. This included some of the technical derivations 
of Architectural Photography such as photogram- 
metry and (aerial) topogrammetic photography. 

Architectural Photography may not have been 
more than just another aspect of the commercial 
and industrial use of photography if it had not 
been for the work of Eugene Atget. Atget linked 
the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, both in 
his choice of subjects and in his stylistic approach. 
A frantic collector of edifices and details, who was 
especially attentive to situations that ordinarily 
might be overlooked, within three decades work- 
ing on his own, he produced a grand oeuvre in 
Architectural Photography. This treasure trove 
was not widely known until it was discovered 
toward the end of Atget's life in the 1920s by the 
Parisian avant-gardists. The Americans Man Ray 
and his then-assistant Berenice Abbott were 
instrumental in bringing Atget's work to the atten- 
tion of the New York fine arts and publishing 
world. The latter figure followed Atget's lead by 
amassing an extraordinary portfolio of architec- 
tural photographs of New York in the 1930s. 
At about the same time Walker Evans contributed 



56 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



his unique, intimate approach to architectural sub- 
jects. With Abbott and Evans, a firm tradition 
of Architectural Photography was established 
that concentrated on the accumulation of large 
numbers of images, especially of vernacular archi- 
tecture. Abbott's example was followed by photo- 
graphers such as Chicago-based Harold Allen and 
Clemens Kalischer, whereas Evans found fol- 
lowers throughout the American continent, not- 
ably Wright Morris and David Plowden, who 
used a panoramic camera to capture wide sections 
of the built environment. 

One subgenre within architectural documenta- 
tion of the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen- 
turies had social purposes as well. Before 1900, a 
number of authors and social reformers had out- 
lined the effects of living conditions on health and 
criminal activity, and photographers soon took up 
the cry. Thomas Annan photographed the old 
closes of Glasgow in the 1860s, Jacob Riis worked 
for city authorities in New York in the 1 890s, and 
Lewis Hine's seminal photographs of New York 
City tenements were taken for the Red Cross 
from 1910 to 1930. The Berliner Hermann Lichte 
photographed for the Prussian health insurance 
industry around 1913, and anonymous colleagues 
were commissioned for similar work in the German 
cities of Kassel and Heidelberg. Many of these 
photographs were taken with small format cameras 
and flash and captured candid images of families 
living in neglected, rundown tenements in squalor 
and misery. Most of the architecture shown in these 
series had been erected in the nineteenth century, 
and it was the clear intention of both the photo- 
graphers and their patrons that these buildings 
were to be dismantled as soon as possible. This 
application of Architectural Photography thus 
had the function of destroying the past and making 
way for future structures. These socially concerned 
series were part of the emergence of modernism, 
with Architectural Photography, changing its func- 
tions and form as did architecture itself. 

In the realm of architectural practice, photogra- 
phy proves that a design has been executed, a 
building has been erected, or a bridge constructed. 
This documentation is now an integral part of the 
business practice of architects. One of the earliest 
architects to exist on private commissions and run 
a modern, professional office was the Beaux Arts 
architect Henry Hobson Richardson of Boston, 
Massachusetts. He was scrupulous in hiring the 
best photographers of his time. These images were 
not only used for covering the walls of his office 
and impressing prospective clients, but Richardson 
also arranged to have them reproduced in architec- 



tural magazines — at his own cost — in one of the 
earliest appearances of Architectural Photography 
as a public relations strategy. The photographs 
Richardson commissioned focused primarily on 
the idea of the building, often showing a small but 
representative detail that best depicted his architec- 
tural and design ideas. To accentuate the building 
itself, when possible, Richardson set his structures 
on small hills so they had to be approached from a 
lower level, dominating and further impressing the 
viewer. He instructed his photographers to dupli- 
cate and even accentuate this experience in their 
photographs, creating portraits of his building 
more than strict documents. 

This method of depiction was taken up and 
promulgated, somewhat ironically, when the Arts- 
and-Crafts movement spread through the United 
Kingdom and Central Europe around 1900. Al- 
though architects such as Charles Robert Ashbee, 
William Richard Lethaby, Mackay Hugh Baillie 
Scott, and Charles F.A. Voysey rejected any con- 
nection to the Beaux Arts school in architecture, 
they asked their photographers to set up their 
shots not only utilizing a low viewpoint, but 
using the raking light available when the sun was 
low on the horizon early in the morning or late in 
the day, or by photographing on a day when the 
sky was filled with dark clouds. It was at this time 
that Architectural Photography became a profes- 
sion in its own right, and when some architects 
themselves took up photography, the two profes- 
sions merged. Important photographs have been 
made by architect-photographers. Heinrich Ruck- 
wardt of Berlin, published his Architectural Details 
as portfolios in enormous sizes — up to 60 x 80 cm — 
from 1895 onwards, with a great number of pho- 
tographers following his lead, each developing a 
different approach to documenting buildings both 
new and old. 

Among the important architectural photogra- 
phers around 1900 are Francis B. Johnston and 
Henry Bedford Lemere, who served as propagan- 
dists of the Arts and Crafts movement. Both oper- 
ated throughout the United Kingdom and had 
well-known workshops in the vicinity of London. 
Although there is no typical stylistic approach in 
their work, it is clear that both leaned more toward 
the clear and straightforward designs of Charles 
Rennie Mackintosh than the wealth of detail char- 
acteristic of the work of other designers and archi- 
tects of the era. Instigated by books and reports on 
English architecture, Italian, French, and German 
photographers such as Mauricio Lotze, Michel 
Neurdein, and Waldemar Titzenthaler began to 
produce portfolios of interesting interiors and 



57 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



other series for the illustrated papers; some of them 
cooperated with well known architects by provid- 
ing them not only with pictures of their edifices but 
with historical material as well. Similar to the work 
of their English counterparts, the presentation of 
architecture by these early twentieth century figures 
was meant to educate and refine the sensibilities of 
the increasing number of wealthy clients who had 
made their fortune in the late nineteenth century. 

In the years shortly before World War I, mod- 
ernism made its way to the public via Architectural 
Photography. European architects such as Le Cor- 
busier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der 
Rohe had begun their careers at offices like those of 
Peter Behrens and Theodor Fischer, which featured 
large archives of photographic material from all 
kinds of sources. When Le Corbusier traveled to 
Greece and Italy he took photographs to aid his 
memory, but when he published his research in 
several magazine articles and books — thus found- 
ing avant-garde architecture — he used existing pic- 
tures by photographers such as Fred Boissonas, 
Arthur Koester, and Hugo Schmoelz. On the 
other hand, the American architect Frank Lloyd 
Wright began a close collaboration with the photo- 
grapher Clarence Fuermann. 

In the area of industrial use of Architectural 
Photography, the Deutsche Werkbund, a congrega- 
tion of industrialists, architects, designers, artists, 
and craftsmen founded in 1907, set the parameters 
for modern object photography by producing cata- 
logues of well-designed pieces shown on white back- 
grounds under diffuse light — a method of display 
used throughout the twentieth century. The years 
following World War I saw the beginnings of so- 
called straight photography as a fine art, with Archi- 
tectural Photography playing a large role in this 
development, along with the conventions that arose 
around object photography in commercial and 
industrial applications. Although some American 
and European fine arts photographers, including 
Frederick Henry Evans, Alfred Stieglitz, Edward 
Steichen, and Hugo Henneberg, had used architec- 
ture as motifs in their compositions, Architectural 
Photography was not an important theme in this 
movement. The careers of Charles Sheeler and 
Paul Strand, however, placed Architectural Photo- 
graphy front and center in American fine arts 
photography. Their reference medium was the doc- 
umentary film, and after finishing their movie 
about New York in 1921 architecture became their 
metaphor for both old and modern as well as rural 
versus urban life: Sheeler's series on Shaker villages 
as well as Strand's still lifes of metal objects were 
executed in technically perfect prints and shown as 



if they were commercial Architectural Photogra- 
phy, elevating it to a fine art. 

Different sources in Europe gave birth to similar 
results. The German Neue Schlichkeit (New Objec- 
tivity) was a painting movement emphasizing motifs 
that had been previously explored in Architectural 
Photography, and it returned to fine art photogra- 
phy again in the works of Albert Renger-Patzsch, 
August Sander, and their successors. In France, 
film had early on acquired the status of a fine art 
and the realism of French film, as in the work of the 
director Rene Clair, infused Architectural Photogra- 
phy into the modern consciousness in its use of set- 
tings. The photographer Claude Gravot had his 
roots in this cross-fertilization; he had worked for 
Le Corbusier and Robert Mallet-Stevens, the most 
renowned French film architect in the 1930s. In Bel- 
gium, documentary filmmakers such as Joris Ivens 
provided inspiration for the photography of Willy 
Kessels and Camille Petry. Only the United King- 
dom seemed content with the aesthetic promulgated 
by the Arts-and-Crafts movement and its influence 
on the Linked Ring Brotherhood. Frederick Henry 
Evans, who had done most of his architectural sub- 
jects between 1890 and 1910 in England and France, 
found his successors in Bill C. Clayton, and later in 
Anthony Ayscough and Edwin Smith. Modernism 
in British Architectural Photography lies chiefly on 
the shoulders of Herbert Felton whose immense 
oeuvre is now one of the main sources of material 
on 1930s' design. 

In the 1930s, Modernism continued to spread 
throughout the world, Architectural Photography 
being an important means of dissemination of the 
ideas of the modern architects who used the cam- 
era both for the preparation and the distribution of 
their work. Architectural Photography received a 
new quality in the work of Erich Mendelsohn, 
renowned modernist architect in 1920s Berlin who 
emigrated in 1933, arriving in San Francisco after 
a decade in Israel. Mendelsohn had cooperated 
with photographers like Arthur and Walter Koe- 
ster but was driven to a collection of photographs 
showing American grain elevators and industrial 
sites that were presented by Walter Gropius at an 
exhibition of the Deutsche Werkbund in 1914. In 
1924 he received the commission from one of his 
clients to photograph and describe modern Amer- 
ican architecture and traveled to the United States. 
The photographs he brought back to Germany 
were not only interesting in their choice of subjects 
but as stylistic approaches as well. They subse- 
quently caused a fashion of Americanism in Europ- 
ean Architectural Photography strictly connected 
to Modernism. 



58 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



By the late 1920s, conventions about how to 
depict modern architecture had spread throughout 
Europe. These conventions included depicting the 
building through an axial or diagonal (45°) orienta- 
tion on the selected facade, generally in bright early 
morning or late afternoon sunlight with long and 
strong shadows that emphasized cubic volumes, or 
setting the building against a sky dark with cumu- 
lus clouds, and presenting the image in a crisp clear 
print with an overall depth of field and a glossy 
surface. Another convention was that except for 
the inclusion of one or two individuals in order to 
convey the scale of the structure, the pictures were 
empty of life. Motorcars were banned except when 
the architect had also designed an automobile, as in 
the case of Gropius and Le Corbusier. Trees were 
only allowed without leaves. Preeminent among the 
architectural photographers of this style were 
Claude Gravot and Andre Kertesz in France, 
John Havinden, Francis Yerbury, and the German 
emigree Walter Nurnberg in the United Kingdom, 
the Studio Vasari in Italy, the Koester brothers in 
Berlin, Werner Mantz and Hugo Schmoelz in 
Cologne, Eduard Wasow in Munich, Otto Lossen 
in Stuttgart, Albert Renger-Patzsch in Essen, and 
especially Lucia Moholy in Dessau who, with her 
series on the new buildings of the Bauhaus, lay 
down the rules for a strict documentary approach 
to modern architecture. This modernist convention 
was propagated in illustrated papers, magazines, 
books, and most of all, on picture postcards. 

Modernism became the global style in architec- 
ture, immensely aided by the exhibition, The Inter- 
national Style, at the newly founded Museum of 
Modern Art in New York in 1932. Organized by 
the art historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock and the 
architect Philip Johnson, the exhibition and its 
accompanying book drew from a wealth of photo- 
graphic material that showed architecture from all 
over the world. This new international convention 
of Architectural Photography was quickly adapted 
by commercial photography studios, most notably 
companies such as Hedrich & Blessing in Chicago, 
Nyholm & Lincoln in New York, and Dell & 
Wainwright in London. These studios and others 
presented modern architecture in elegant, techni- 
cally perfect images ready for publication in the 
glossy magazines of the day. Modern architecture 
was the rising star of lifestyle, and Architectural 
Photography was its medium. Individuals such as 
Sigurd Fischer and Ralph Steiner in the United 
States, Roger Schall and Maurice Tabard in 
France, or Hans Spies, Werner Mantz (both emi- 
grated from Germany), and Jaap d'Oliveira in The 
Netherlands contributed to this mainstream report- 



ing on quality design and photographic art. And 
there was Margaret Bourke-White with her huge 
series on the construction of Rockefeller Center 
and the Chrysler building in New York as well as 
the industrial photographs from the Soviet Union 
where photographers like Alexandr Rodchenko 
tried to integrate Architectural Photography into 
their Agitprop work. 

The rise of power of the Nazi party in Germany 
saw the usurping of Modernism and its depiction of 
architecture as a propaganda tool. The Nazi stylis- 
tic approach, best described as an uncanny mixture 
of classicism and romanticism, saw a number of 
photographers profiting from their alliance with 
the regime. Walter Hege and Helga Glassner served 
as de facto reporters of Germany's historic archi- 
tectural and social greatness; Otto Eisenschink., 
Max Krajewski (not to be misindentified as the Bau- 
haus student of the same name) and Hugo Schmoelz 
were named Fotografen der Bewegung (Photogra- 
phers of the [Nazi-]Movement). Schmoelz' son 
Karl-Hugo at the age of 22 received the commission 
to photograph Nazi architect Albert Speer's gigantic 
model of Berlin's sweeping transformation. Some 
photographers were able to continue to integrate 
modern strategies into their architectural propa- 
ganda: Heinrich Heidersberger with his use of 
infra-red photography to create black skies over 
industrial buildings and small houses in Northern 
Germany (which influenced others across Europe) 
as well as in the work of Jonathan Jonals (Jonals 
Company) from Denmark and in the night journeys 
through Paris by Brassai. 

The end of World War II saw numerous new 
commissions for Architectural Photography in 
Europe and Japan to document the widespread 
destruction. Although it was forbidden in several 
countries — notably the United Kingdom and Ger- 
many — amateur photographers even during the 
war years had documented the substantial losses 
of their home cities and areas. As well, the Allied 
forces employed photographic surveillance units to 
record the damage of structures in detail, both in 
aerial and in ground-based films and still images. 
The reaction to these photographs was profound 
and nongovernmental organizations such as 
C.A.R.E. were founded to aid the devastated Eur- 
opean populations. The destruction of Hiroshima 
and Nagasaki by atomic bombs dropped by Amer- 
ican forces was first captured in aerial photo- 
graphs. When blow-ups were printed in magazines 
and newspapers, people had difficulty believing 
what they saw — a particularly striking example of 
the power of Architectural Photography to stir 
individuals to political or social activism. This use 



59 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



of Architectural Photography has become a con- 
vention that has persisted to the present day. 

The disruptions of emergence of the Nazi regime, 
World War II, and its immediate aftermath saw 
exiles and refugees fleeing Europe in the late 
1930s, and again in the late 1940s and early 1950s. 
In architecture, Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and 
several other Bauhaus masters founded large archi- 
tectural offices in the United States, all in need of 
good advertising photography. Mies became asso- 
ciated with Chicago's New Bauhaus (later Institute 
of Design) which trained many photographers in 
the "whole human" philosophy of Laszlo Moholy- 
Nagy, emphasizing industrial, product, and Archi- 
tectural Photography. These expatriates joined 
other Europeans, notably Richard Neutra and 
Rudolf Schindler, who had already emigrated to 
the Los Angeles area in the 1920s. Neutra, an 
expert photographer himself, often told the story 
that in need of a good photographer in the late 
1930s, he encountered Julius Shulman. Shulman 
had no professional training and was told by Neu- 
tra how to look at and photograph buildings. 
Legend or not, it was the beginning of an outstand- 
ing career which lasted for half a century. Shulman 
photographed not only every design by Neutra and 
Schindler but nearly every modern building in Cali- 
fornia. Modern American architecture would not 
have achieved its outstanding international reputa- 
tion without Shulman's work. 

The late 1940s with their postwar reconstruction 
and improving economies across Europe, Japan, 
and the United States, gave birth to a number of 
significant practitioners of Architectural Photogra- 
phy, each individually successful and important in 
his own country: Ezra Stoller and George Cserna in 
the United States; Eric de Mare in the United 
Kingdom; Heinrich Heidersberger, Arthur Pfau, 
and Karl-Hugo Schmoelz in Germany; Lennart 
Olson, Erik Hansen, and Carl Gustav Rosenberg 
in Sweden; Jean-Philippe Charbonnier and Robert 
Doisneau in France; Eva Besnyo and Cas Oorthuis 
in The Netherlands; and Studio Vasari and Paolo 
Monti in Italy, among many others. Important 
collaborations among photographers and archi- 
tects began, like the life-long relation between 
Luis Barragan, Mathias Goeritz, and Armando 
Salas Portugal in Mexico, the latter being the pho- 
tographer of both the architect and the sculptor. 
Some architects were married to photographers 
whose careers were secondary to those of their 
husbands: most prominent among them were 
Binia Bill and Ursula Wolf-Schneider. 

The 1950s saw the first cross-over artists in 
Architectural Photography: writers such as Wright 



Morris followed Walker Evans, historians Martin 
Huerlimann and GE. Kidder Smith were as com- 
petent as photographers as they were experts in 
their fields. Even fine art cross pollinated with 
Architectural Photography; the Americans Clar- 
ence John Laughlin, Jerry Uelsman, and other 
artists in photography used architecture as the 
metaphoric base of their ideas. A similar use of 
architecture is found in European fine art photo- 
graphy of the 1950s, which was further deeply 
influenced by existentialist philosophy: the Paris 
stories by the Dutch photographer Ed van der 
Elsken and the Swiss Rene Groebli needed the 
city's streets and places as much as Bill Brandt's 
perspectives or the work of the German fotoform 
group and Robert Hausser's heroic pictures. The 
same can be said about the world-wide work of 
Henri Cartier-Bresson, the New York images of 
Andre Kertesz, the Spanish series by Inge Morath 
and W. Eugene Smith, and a number of other 
photographic journalists whose photographs close- 
ly related their subjects to the architectural spaces 
in which they appeared. 

All of these works influenced Architectural 
Photography by the introduction of the city scape 
as subject. Whether inspired by writings of theor- 
ists like Kevin Lynch, Lewis Mumford, or William 
Hubbard on the importance of the image of the 
city, or simply actively involved in cultural move- 
ments of arts and literature, photographers such as 
John Szarkowski, Cervin Robinson, Morley Baer, 
and others began to document the conglomeration 
of what had grown within one century of American 
building, mainly in the big cities. Some, like Evelyn 
Hofer, returned to their European roots and — by 
titles like The Stones of Florence — even to the Arts- 
and-Crafts movement. There was also a return to 
one of the foundations of Architectural Photogra- 
phy: the preservation of monuments. In Chicago, 
Richard Nickel meticulously recorded every detail 
of historic buildings as they were being torn down; 
he paid with his life when part of the building 
collapsed while he was photographing the demoli- 
tion of Louis Sullivan's Stock Exchange building. 
In photographing the demolition of New York's 
Pennsylvania Station in 1964, Norman McGrath 
succeeded in bringing back the political sense of 
building preservation that it had had in the nine- 
teenth century. 

Inventories of buildings to be preserved or lost 
were always politically influenced, but when mod- 
ernism began to become stale in the late 1960s this 
field of Architectural Photography rapidly began 
to grow as a base of citizenship initiatives con- 
cerned about the integrity of their neighborhood. 



60 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



Industrial archeology and oral history both used 
the camera to establish their methods hitherto seen 
as irrelevant. Photographers such as Hilla and 
Bernd Becher collected industrial construction 
forms; Concept Art groups like the London-based 
Art & Language (with Victor Burgin) or the Artist 
Placement Group (with Stuart Brisley) began with 
large collections of vernacular photography for 
specific reasons grounded in local contexts but 
with the space — and thus architecture — as constant 
background. When in 1975 the European year of 
building preservation was proclaimed, these initia- 
tives were the first to gain political effort. But pre- 
servation still is not always seen as positive by 
governing forces; photographers such as Xujong, 
who want to save Beijing's Hutong quarters from 
being torn down, have to fight for decades with 
their work. Travel photography has also gained 
from the new interest in old buildings as can be 
traced in the work of the Swiss photographers 
Werner Studer and Emil Schulthess. 

Urbanism is more than just old and new con- 
structions along the roads and places of a given 
city, it includes the spirit of an overall layout, 
which was detected by a number of photographers 
and artists in the 1960s. Art Sinsabaugh with his 
large panoramas of motorway crossings and rail- 
road junctions is an urbanist as well as other 
panoramists: Eugene Omar Goldbeck, Joachim 
Bonnemaison, and Josef Sudek. Ed Ruscha pro- 
duced long leporellos of simple images taken along 
roads like Hollywood's Sunset Strip, which ins- 
pired architectural theory like Venturi and Rauch's 
Learning from Las Vegas and influenced Pop Art 
and Conceptual Art alike. Painters like Gerhard 
Richter began to work from aerial views of city 
centers by projecting these onto their canvasses. 
Richard Hamilton and Sigmar Polke had bird's 
eye views of urban places enlarged to the visibility 
of printing dots and transferred these images into 
oil paintings or silk screen prints. 

The staleness of architectural modernism only 
was surpassed by the boredom of Architectural 
Photography at the same time. Postmodernism 
was on its way, and it would not have been possi- 
ble without the influence of fashion and lifestyle 
photography in the 1970s. Again, this influence 
was made evident by the preservative character of 
photography, and large collections of pictures 
served as depositories for construction details 
freshly combined by architectural double-coding 
(Charles Jencks, The Language of Post-Modern 
Architecture, London: Academy Editions [1977]). 
Manfred Hamm was an important interpreter of 
industrial heritage and dead technique. Reinhart 



Wolf began to set New York's skyscrapers' 
heads, Georgia's framework houses, Spanish cas- 
tillos, and German as well as Japanese vernacular 
architecture into scenes. Jean-Claude Gautrand 
and the philosopher Paul Virilio strengthened 
their interest in bunker archeology along the 
French Atlantic coast. Gabriele Basilico went 
along Mediterranean coasts for his series on Italian 
and French harbors. Richard Pare collected court- 
houses in the United States; Lewis Baltz recorded 
industrial construction sites as well as parking lots 
all over the world; and Stephen Shore concentrated 
on road crossings. 

Frank Gohlke, Joel Meyerowitz, and William 
Eggleston reduced the concept of their collections 
to the randomness of their appearance at a certain 
place, a concept to be followed by a large number 
of photographers in the early 1980s: Heinrich Rie- 
besehl and Wilhelm Schurmann in Germany, 
Manfred Willmann in Austria, Luigi Ghirri and 
Giovanni Chiaramonte in Italy, Tony Ray- Jones 
and Martin Parr in the United Kingdom, and Jay 
Ullal in India. Postmodernism formed a full circle 
when the Japanese photographer Yukio Futagawa 
began to publish his magazine Global Architecture 
concentrating on the heroic period of modern 
architecture with the works of Frank Lloyd 
Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, 
and others. 

In the 1980s photography had become a fine art 
in itself, established and regarded all over the 
world. Bernd Becher was awarded an academy 
professorship, and his Dusseldorf class seemed to 
be the first one constituting Architectural Photo- 
graphy as an important subclass of photographic 
art. Although the first generation of his students — 
Tata Ronkholz, Volker Dohne — followed his ex- 
ample of collecting vernacular or forgotten archi- 
tectural specimen, the second generation began to 
make Architectural Photography in itself a theme: 
closure and distance were the categories to sub- 
sume their art now. They form the most renowned 
group of students from this class: Andreas Gursky, 
Candida Hofer, Axel Hiitte, Thomas Ruff (today 
Becher's successor on the seat), Thomas Struth, 
and Petra Wunderlich. The third and last genera- 
tion no longer regarded even these categories as 
serious, and only a small number of them still 
stuck to Architectural Photography: Laurenz Ber- 
ges, Johannes Bruns, Elger Esser, Jongmyung Lee, 
Heiner Schilling, and Josef Schulz. 

Becher's class had competition from the early 
1980s onwards in a group of students forming 
themselves under difficult conditions of the late- 
communist Leipzig academy: Rudolf Schafer, 



61 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



Max Baumann, Matthias Hoch, Frank-Heinrich 
Muller, Frank Silberbach, Marion Wenzel, and 
Thomas Wolf, among others. When the school 
was reformed in 1991, the interest in Architectural 
Photography shifted similar to the Becher class 
from architectural documentation towards the dis- 
tance between reality and imagery, only Frank 
Muller, Annett Stuth, and Thilo Kiihne stuck to 
Architectural Photography. As usual in academic 
training, the Becher class reproduced itself: Tho- 
mas Struth and Candida Hofer gained seats in 
Karlsruhe and inspired students like Mona Breede. 
A number of other teachers in European and 
American academies and universities incorporated 
Architectural Photography more or less willingly 
into their curricula as was asked by the students. 

Some photographers with a background in ar- 
chitecture, sculpture, engineering, or even compu- 
ter science announced themselves in the late 1980s 
and early 1990s as the heralds of late modernism 
or new constructivism in Architectural Photogra- 
phy. Tomas Riehle came from the Diisseldorf 
academy having studied sculpture, Richard Bryant 
settled in the United Kingdom after leaving his 
native South Africa for the United States, Heiner 
Leiska became one of the best model photogra- 
phers in the world after a career in computer-aided 
construction. The German Klaus Kinold and the 
Austrian Eduard Huber, working in New York, 
were trained architects but concentrated on photo- 
graphy in their subsequent work. Today, in most 
architectural departments of design schools, aca- 
demies, and universities Architectural Photogra- 
phy is an integral part of basic instruction. There 
still is a large need for good Architectural Photo- 
graphy in magazines, books, and on websites but 
it is clear to see that the field will have had its days 
within the next decade. 

Virtual Reality had found its way into archi- 
tecture, and it has crept into the work of model 
builders, master draftmen, and finally into photo- 
graphy. The results of computer-aided design at 
the end of the twentieth century finally left the 
plainness of scattered lines and flat surfaces to 
become more and more integrated into a form 
of photomontage. A simple photograph of a site 
is melded into an image of forthcoming construc- 
tions, and in more and more cases it is animated 
in one form of movement or another. Another 
development is of similar importance to the 
future of Architectural Photography: the fame of 
an architect is no longer dependent on the reali- 



zation of his buildings. A good presentation at 
competitions, perfect CAAD visualizations of 
projects, a book or two with a wealth of text — 
all lead more to international acclaim rather than 
the actual building. Architectural Photography 
has lost its basic function but it is now recognized 
as fine art. 

Rolf Sachsse 

See also Abbott, Berenice; Aerial Photography; Agit- 
prop; Bauhaus; Atget, Eugene; Becher, Hilla and 
Bernd; Bourke- White, Margaret; Brandt, Bill; Brassai; 
Burgin, Victor; Cartier-Bresson, Henri; Conceptual 
Photography; Doisneau, Robert; Eggleston, William; 
van der Elsken, Ed; Evans, Frederick Henry; Evans, 
Walker; Gohlke, Frank; Gursky, Andreas; Hine, 
Lewis; Hiitte, Axel; Industrial Photography; Kertesz, 
Andre; Kessels, Willy; Laughlin, Clarence John; 
Linked Ring Brotherhood; Man Ray; Meyerowitz, 
Joel; Modernism; Morath, Inge; Morris, Wright; 
Museum of Modern Art; Olson, Lennart; Parr, Mar- 
tin; Plowden, David; Propaganda; Ray-Jones, Tony; 
Renger-Patzsch, Albert; Riis, Jacob; Ruff, Thomas; 
Sander, August; Sheeler, Charles; Shore, Stephen; 
Steichen, Edward; Stieglitz, Alfred; Struth, Thomas; 
Sudek, Joseph; Szarkowski, John; Tabard, Maurice; 
Uelsman, Jerry; Virtual Reality 



Further Reading 

Blau, Eve, and Edward Kaufman, eds. Architecture and its 
Image. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989. 

de Mare, Eric. Photography and Architecture. London: 
Architectural Press, 1961. 

Exh. cat. Images et Imaginaires dArchitecture. Dessin Pein- 
ture Photographie Art Graphiques Theatre Cinema en 
Europe Aux XIXe et Xxe Siecles. Paris: Centre Georges 
Pompidou, 1984. 

Exh. cat. Moderne Griifie, Architektur der 1920er Jahre auf 
Bildpostkarten. Essen: Pomp Verlag, 2001. 

Exh. cat. City Scape East, Topographic Photographs of East- 
ern Germany. Stuttgart: Hatje Cantz, 2001. 

Jencks, Charles. The Language of Post-Modern Architec- 
ture. London: Academy Editions, 1977. 

Pare, Richard, ed., Exh. cat. Photography and Architecture 
1839-1939, Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architec- 
ture, 1982. 

Robinson, Cervin, and Joel Hershman. Architecture Trans- 
formed. A History of the Photography of Buildings from 
1839 to the Present. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. 

Sachsse, Rolf. Bild und Bau. Zur Nutzung technischer Med- 
ien heim Entwerfen von Architektur , Bauwelt Fundamente 
113. Braunschweig Wiesbaden: Vieweg Verlag, 1997. 

Veltri, John. Architectural Photography. Garden City, NY: 
Amphoto, 1974. 



62 



ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 



.jm* r 



iiiiiiiii 



Giinther Forg, E.U.R. Palazzo della Civilta, 1985, Gelatin silver print, 71 x 47" 
Collection Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Gerald S. Elliott Collection. 
[Photograph © Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago] 



63 



ARCHIVES 



ARCHIVES 



There is considerable confusion surrounding the 
concept of archives, and even professional archi- 
vists exacerbate the problem by employing the 
word in several ways. The words "archive" and 
"archives" are used in several different contexts, 
especially with regard to photographs. "An 
archive" is classically defined by archivists as the 
records of a governmental organization or institu- 
tion, and such a file of records frequently contains 
photographs. However, by extension the term cov- 
ers other kinds of collections, including business 
records, personal papers, and other archival col- 
lections. A long, rich tradition governs the manner 
in which such archives are processed, catalogued 
and described, stored, and made available for 
research. Archivists are professional staff respon- 
sible for the care of archival collections. The pro- 
fession is well developed and is represented by a 
number of organizations in the United States and 
other countries, such as the Society of American 
Archivists, formed in 1936. Archival training is 
offered at various universities, often in history 
departments and library schools. 

Archival, Library, and Museum Traditions 

Because this entry concerns photographs in archives 
and archival collections, it is necessary to compare 
how photographs are managed in three basic types 
of repositories. Photographs are found in libraries, 
museums, and archives. Each type of organization 
has a distinctive tradition and methodology, al- 
though in practice they overlap considerably, with 
frequent exceptions to general rules. Libraries tend 
to be item-oriented: the bound book is the unit to be 
catalogued and tracked, from its shelf location to its 
circulation to patrons. By extension, the individual 
photograph in a library file cabinet is analogous to 
the book as a research or study unit; in practice it 
may not be individually catalogued — although it 
presumably would be if time and resources per- 
mitted. When possible, libraries may mark each 
photograph with a code or number which facilitates 
refiling it in its proper location. In a museum collec- 
tion, the individual photograph is also the unit to be 
catalogued, typically according to aesthetic or tech- 
nological criteria, rather than subject content. In an 



art museum, emphasis is usually placed upon the 
photographer, and works by identified artists are 
stored by the artists' names in alphabetical order. 
Exceptions may be made for special formats, espe- 
cially unidentified or unattributed items. Anon- 
ymous daguerreotypes, for example, may be stored 
together. Accepted museum practice requires that 
each photograph, regardless of its precise storage 
location, be marked with a unique catalogue number 
to link it to its individual catalogue record, whether 
manual or electronic, which will also identify its 
provenance. 

In archives and archival collections, the basic 
unit to be identified, catalogued, and tracked is a 
container, such as an approved, acid-free box, and 
its contents. The container may be filled with doz- 
ens or even hundreds of sheets of paper, including 
materials such as correspondence, financial docu- 
ments, or photographs, neatly organized in labeled 
folders. To draw a parallel between library and 
archival practice, one might think of a box of 
paper documents in folders as rather like an 
unbound book Typically, however, the archival 
document box and its contents will be described 
in a "finding aid" or "container list" rather than 
in separate manual catalogue cards or entries in an 
electronic database. 

Archival theory and tradition assume that true 
archives and most "archival collections," that is, 
organically created and assembled business and 
personal papers as well as "artificial" collections 
of papers and photographs (usually collected from 
external sources selectively) whether carefully or 
chaotically, will be processed and handled at the 
group level, both for theoretical and practical rea- 
sons. An archival collection such as the records of a 
governmental unit is usually retained in its original 
order, if that order was meaningful. Respect for 
original order derives from the fact that, in organi- 
cally formed document collections, the existing 
order reflects the history and activities of the orga- 
nization and the arrangement in itself provides 
information, which might be lost if that order 
were disrupted or destroyed. Implicit in the rule 
of retaining original order within a particular 
group of documents, regardless of the medium or 
form of the documents (e.g., manuscripts, type- 



64 



ARCHIVES 



scripts, sound recordings, videotapes, photo- 
graphs), is that the group will not be commingled 
with other groups; each will retain its separate 
identity and its provenance will be clearly articu- 
lated. These features of archives may be appre- 
ciated most vividly by contrasting them with the 
practices of most libraries, which tend to interfile 
the components of collections according to subject 
criteria. Certainly this is true of books, usually 
arranged by subject according to a classification 
scheme without regard to provenance. Similarly, 
libraries that collect photographs for study pur- 
poses often interfile them in accordance with sub- 
ject criteria or a pre-ordained classification system, 
disregarding photographers and provenance. By 
contrast, archives do not normally interfile photo- 
graphs in this manner because of concern for main- 
taining original order and provenance. It should be 
noted that many libraries and some archives do not 
attempt to identify and record photographers. 

Photographs in Archives 

Since at least the 1970s, many archivists have spe- 
cialized in photographs, and training is available in 
university settings and in special workshops. The 
Society of American Archivists has sponsored 
courses on the management of photographic collec- 
tions for many years, but archivists without specia- 
lized training are also expected to have at least a 
rudimentary knowledge of photographs and their 
physical and documentary characteristics in order 
to preserve them and make them available for 
research purposes effectively. 

Margery S. Long of the Society of American 
Archivists wrote: 

Archivists and historians did not always recognize 
photographs as primary source materials. In the forma- 
tive years of archives, only written records were 
regarded as archival and deserving of preservation. Pic- 
torial materials, if they were retained at all, often were 
removed from the collections of records and manu- 
scripts and assembled in general picture files; the prin- 
ciple of provenance was seldom applied to them. Some 
archivists designated photographs "miscellaneous ephe- 
mera" or "memorabilia" and relegated them to the last 
boxes in manuscript and archival collections. Some 
photographs were not even noted in finding aids, but 
were left in their original location, intermingled with 
manuscripts, documents, and correspondence. Since 
photographs often had no identifying information writ- 
ten on them, such undisturbed positions in archival 
collections were fortunate. Often the only clue to iden- 
tification for some photographs is their location in files, 
reports, or diaries, or their proximity to a letter describ- 



ing the events or naming the persons shown in the 
photographs. 

(Ritzenthaler et al., Archives & Manuscripts: Admin- 
istration of Photographic Collections, Revised edition 
1999.) 

Attempts to maintain original order can create 
challenges for archivists, especially with photo- 
graphs. For example, photographs intimately asso- 
ciated with other types of materials ideally may 
require a different standard of care and storage envir- 
onment than the associated papers. Photographs are 
generally not catalogued individually because they 
are part of a group, which can be described at the 
collective level in registers and container lists; this 
practice, however, implies that the removal of a 
photograph from its file location for copying, repro- 
duction, or exhibition represents a tracking chal- 
lenge to ensure that the item eventually can be 
returned to its proper location. Many photographs 
are part of a large group, which would be difficult or 
impractical to catalogue at the item level. A by-prod- 
uct of the increasing interest in all kinds of historic 
photographs since the 1 960s and 1 970s is that greater 
numbers of photographs from archives are being 
selected for reproduction and other purposes, and 
greater demand creates challenges for archival meth- 
ods and assumptions. Some archives have adopted a 
strategy of selective item-level cataloguing for 
photographs and other high-demand items on a 
user-driven basis, since usage frequently begets 
repeat demand and an increased need for staff to 
locate individual photographs or information 
about them; the need to identify image surrogates 
such as copy negatives and scan files implies item- 
level cataloguing in spite of the archival protocol for 
group-level description. Such practice makes the 
archival repository a more hybrid kind of organiza- 
tion, overlaying archival techniques with library and 
museum methods. Since photographs frequently 
embody many layers of meaning — as historical evi- 
dence, aesthetic object, and cultural artifact, whether 
identified and interpreted singly or in groups — a 
flexible approach to varied modes of access may be 
advisable. A library, museum, or archival repository 
can severely limit its options and its services to 
patrons by attempting to impose a rigid, tradition- 
bound policy for access to its holdings. 

Photographs and other visual materials, no mat- 
ter how well they function in a group context, 
ultimately demand some degree of item-level 
access. While a written document may be refer- 
enced, summarized, or quoted without physically 
removing it from its file location, visual materials 



65 



ARCHIVES 



occasionally must be removed from their archival 
context to facilitate forms of "quotation" such as 
copying, scanning, or public display. 

Groups of photographs whose "original order" is 
deemed not meaningful or absent altogether can be 
rearranged for the convenience of the archivists and 
their patrons. This situation often occurs when the 
original owners or creators of the photographs 
failed to recognize significant relationships among 
them or simply never devised a useful filing system. 
Archivists also deal with materials that are not 
"archives" in the sense of representing organic orga- 
nizational records. Such aggregations, often broadly 
called "manuscript collections," regardless of the 
precise content, frequently can be rearranged with- 
out loss of contextual information. Indeed, many 
such collections are acquired by archival organiza- 
tions whose mission is to collect relevant research 
materials according to specified guidelines from a 
variety of collectors and sources. Some "archives" 
are hybrid organizations, fulfilling several distinc- 
tive missions. The archives of the Art Institute of 
Chicago, which hold the business records of the Art 
Institute, also collect the papers of artists — often 
including photographs — as well as miscellaneous 
research materials from a variety of sources. 

Archival organizational structures vary widely. 
Some archival collections are found in libraries, 
which may or may not include administratively 
separate archival sub-units. The so-called "special 
collections" of many libraries often include man- 
uscript collections and photographic files, and col- 
lections that are managed in accordance with 
archival traditions. University libraries typically 
hold such "special collections," usually including 
photographic materials. 

Archives range in size and scope from the files 
generated by a small business or an individual pro- 
fessional person (such as a photographer) to the 
vast holdings of governmental units. The National 
Archives and Records Administration of the Uni- 
ted States preserves the records generated by the 
many official agencies of the U.S. government. The 
Still Picture unit of the Special Media Archives 
Services Division, located in College Park, Mary- 
land, contains millions of photographs, which are 
made available to serious researchers. The National 
Archives is perhaps the quintessential archival 
repository, which helps to set archival standards 
for the entire profession. The Library of Congress, 
a separate government entity, is not merely a gigan- 
tic library but is a hybrid organization that includes 
collections of documents that are managed accord- 
ing to archival principles. It serves as a highly influ- 
ential creator of descriptive standards. Its Machine 



Readable Cataloguing (MARC) format for catalo- 
guing databases is employed internationally for the 
cataloguing of books, and has been adapted for the 
description of archival materials such as photo- 
graphic collections, at both group and item levels. 
Museums have tended to avoid the MARC format 
because of its library orientation. 



Photographers' Archives 

The life's work of a photographer, containing a 
variety of forms and media, such as original nega- 
tives, transparencies, prints, and professional and 
personal papers, is often called an archive. A few 
organizations, most notably the Center for Creative 
Photography (CCP) at the University of Arizona in 
Tucson, actively acquire selected photographers' 
archives, most through donation. Photographer, 
curator, and educator Harold Jones was the found- 
ing Director of the CCP (1975-1977). The CCP 
holds more archives and individual works by twen- 
tieth-century North American photographers than 
any other museum in the nation. These holdings 
include a research collection featuring the archives 
of over 60 photographers — Ansel Adams, Richard 
Avedon, Lola Alvarez Bravo, Louise Dahl- Wolfe, 
Robert Heinecken, W. Eugene Smith, and Edward 
Weston among them. Archives include photo- 
graphs, negatives, albums, work prints, manu- 
scripts, audio-visual material, contact sheets, 
correspondence, and memorabilia and have re- 
cently been mined as a resource for specialized 
publications that contextualize photographers' 
careers within their archives. 

Other universities, libraries, historical societies at 
the regional, state, and municipal levels, and some 
museums also collect photographers' archives on a 
limited basis, often because the photographer was 
an alumnus or former teacher or the work matches 
a preexisting collection strength. The archives of 
documentary photographer David Plowden, who 
attended Yale, is now in the collections of Yale 
University, for example. Laura Gilpin, famous for 
her views of the west, has her archive at the Amon 
Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, known for 
its Western U.S. collections. Amon Carter also 
holds Eliot Porter's archives. 

Because a photographer's archive can necessitate 
a heavy investment of space, budget, and staff 
involvement for processing and preservation, non- 
profit historical organizations must be highly selec- 
tive and are understandably wary of large acquisi- 
tions. Art museums, normally devoted to issues such 
as connoisseurship and the acquisition and manage- 



66 



ARCHIVES 



ment of individual works of art, usually are unable 
to accommodate entire photographers' archives 
except very selectively. And often these archives are 
accessioned along with a gift of a body of the photo- 
grapher's work suitable for collecting and exhibition, 
as was the case of a 1997 donation to the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago by Irving Penn. 

Some museums build collections around an 
important archive, such as the August Sander 
Archive in Cologne, which presents exhibitions of 
other photographers along with holding the seminal 
German figure's work, or the Berlinische Galerie's 
acquisition in 1979 of the Hannah Hoch Archive of 
paintings, collages, graphics, and photographs. 

At the end of the twentieth century, however, 
photographers' archives constituted a looming prob- 
lem; many photographers or their heirs were unable 
to locate permanent homes for a sudden influx of 
thousands of negatives, prints, and papers, even on a 
gift basis, and large aggregations of significant 
photographs, whether considered works of art or 
historical documents, went begging for institutional 
protection, risking eventual dispersal or destruction. 
A fairly new solution is to set up an independent 
foundation (often with tax benefits to the estate) to 
house the archive; a model is the Foundation Henri 
Cartier-Bresson, inaugurated in 2003. Another is the 
Lee Miller Archive in East Sussex, England. 

Another strategy is to pinpoint a genre or topic 
that can sustain broader donor interest than a sin- 
gle artist's archive, such as the Women in Photo- 
graphy International Archive, which amasses 
biographical files, books, and articles on female 
photographers past and present and as well as 
photographs taken by women. 

Archives have also been increasingly seen as a 
source of profit. The venerable Bettmann Archive, 
long the model of a commercial stock photo arch- 
ive, was acquired at the end of the century by Cor- 
bis, founded by Microsoft's Bill Gates to acquire 
images for digitalizing and distribution via the 
internet. The Hulton Archive, London, is another 
large international stock photo archive. Conde 
Nast publications' inventory of more than one mil- 
lion fashion, celebrity, still-life, and travel photo- 
graphs and illustrations is housed in the Conde 
Nast Archive. Traditional photo agencies such as 
Black Star or Magnum Photos, though clearly com- 
mercial concerns, also function as archives. 



Artifact Archives 

"Archive" also has been used as a generic term for 
collections without regard to form of material, 



especially at the George Eastman House in Roch- 
ester, New York, thereby introducing an additional 
element of confusion over the application of the 
word. Originally Eastman House's holdings of 
photographs, cameras, and other photographic 
apparatus, and ephemera were called simply "the 
collections," but beginning in the 1980s these hold- 
ings came to be called "archives," in opposition to 
the terminology employed by most museums. This 
apparently coincided with the "PABIR" slogan 
("photographic archives belong in Rochester"), 
which was used in the successful fund-raising and 
public relations campaign to prevent the contents 
of the museum from being transferred to the 
National Museum of American History at the 
Smithsonian Institution. A distinction is now 
made between Eastman House curators and archi- 
vists: curators collect, organize exhibitions, and 
perform research, while archivists care for the col- 
lections and provide reference services for research- 
ers. Since "archivists" normally deal with papers, 
photographs, and media such as motion pictures 
and sound recordings according to the archival 
traditions previously mentioned, the notion of 
archivists working with technological and cultural 
artifacts such as cameras, in the museum item-level 
tradition, strains the usual definition. On the other 
hand, in many institutions so-called manuscript 
collections (including photographs) are entrusted 
to manuscript "curators" rather than "archivists," 
even though they utilize archival methodology. 

In the broadest possible, if non-traditional, 
sense, an archive may be construed as any body 
of original or primary source material maintained 
as historical evidence for study, so perhaps East- 
man House can be forgiven for its extension of the 
term to cover its collection of "three-dimensional" 
cultural and technological artifacts. If the original 
assumption of archivists was that their collections 
would consist essentially of language materials — 
documents containing written words and mathe- 
matical symbols — it soon became evident that pic- 
torial materials could not logically be excluded. 
Maps, engineering drawings, hand-rendered illus- 
trations, and photographs — all documentary, his- 
torical evidence — are properly the concern of 
archivists. The distinction between museum collec- 
tions and archival manuscript collections at times 
appears arbitrary in terms of the forms of material 
collected, hinging upon the volumetric versus the 
flat. Museums, of course, collect both types of 
objects, so photographs are found in both mu- 
seums and archives. If the distinguishing feature 
of archives is their emphasis on groups of objects 
that bear some internal relationship or association, 



67 



ARCHIVES 



it seems simplistic and arbitrary to exclude volu- 
metric items merely because the archival tradition 
assumes flatness. 



Magnum Photos; Museums; Museums: Europe; Mu- 
seums: United States 



Conclusion 

The essence of museum and archival collections is 
their emphasis on primary source materials. Con- 
ventional libraries collect mass-produced, second- 
ary materials, rather than unique or original items, 
although most libraries also contain some rare 
items and some libraries specialize in rarities. 
Photographic collections in libraries may serve as 
primary source materials, and they have the advan- 
tage of facilitating immediate subject access to 
materials unrelated by provenance, introducing 
insights that may not be available in archival, self- 
selected collections. Photographs often function as 
primary source materials, although it must be 
admitted that this is a relative thing. Some photo- 
graphs, especially photographs of objects that are 
still extant in approximately the same state as their 
photographs indicate, may function as secondary 
source materials. Archives, with their emphasis on 
aggregates and accumulations of related materials, 
provide a valuable service for those who require an 
extensive study of related photographs. 

David Haberstich 

See also: Art Institute of Chicago; Black Star; Cen- 
ter for Creative Photography (Tucson); Conde Nast; 
Conservation; Corbis/Bettmann; Farm Security Ad- 
ministration; Jones, Harold; Library of Congress; 



Further Reading 

Betz, Elisabeth, comp. Graphic Materials: Rules for Describ- 
ing Original Items and Historical Collections. Washing- 
ton, DC: Library of Congress, 1980. 

Burke, Peter. Eyewitnessing: The Uses of Images as Histor- 
ical Evidence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. 

Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. 

Eskind, Andrew, and Deborah Barsel. "International 
Museum of Photography: Conventions for Cataloging 
Photographs." Image 21 (1978), 1-31. 

Fox, Michael J., Peter Wilkerson, and Suzanne R. Warren, eds. 
Introduction to Archival Organization and Description: Access 
to Cultural Heritage. Getty Information Institute, 1998. 

Jones, H.G., ed. Historical Consciousness in the Early Repub- 
lic: The Origins of State Historical Societies, Museums, and 
Collections, 1791-1861, North Carolina Society, 1995. 

Muller, S., J.A. Feith, and R. Fruin. Manual for the 
Arrangement and Description of Archives. Trans, of sec- 
ond edition, Arthur H. Leavitt, Chicago: Society of 
American Archivists, SAA Classics Series, 2003. 

Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn, Gerald J. Munoff, and Margery 
J. Long. Archives & Manuscripts: Administration of 
Photographic Collections, SAA Basic Manual Series, 
Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1984, Revised 
edition, 1999. 

Schellenberg, T.R., Modern Archives: Principles and Prac- 
tice, Chicago: SAA Classics Series, Society of American 
Archivists, 2003. 

Sekula, Allan. "The Body and the Archive." October 39 
(Winter 1986), 3-64. 

Shaw, Renata V. "Picture Organization: Practice and Pro- 
cedures, Parts 1 and 2." Special Libraries 63:10 and 11 
(1972): 448-56, 502-06. 



EVE ARNOLD 



American 

Driven by simple curiosity and a love of the unpre- 
dictability of photography, Eve Arnold helped 
shape photojournalism in the latter half of the 
twentieth century. Part of the Magnum Photos 
stable, Arnold took still photographs for magazine 
and newspaper assignments, advertising cam- 
paigns, and films. In choosing her photographs, 
Arnold asked herself if the subject was visual and 



if words would enhance the picture. Rather than 
selecting the sensational, Arnold let the subject 
dictate the treatment, angle of approach, and 
point of view. Describing her vision, she stated 
that if a topic interested her then she believed that 
she could make it interesting to others. Her aim has 
been to hold a mirror up to the world and make 
people aware of the human condition. 

Arnold became involved in photography in 1943 
through a position as a manager at a photo-finish- 



68 



ARNOLD, EVE 



ing plant in New Jersey. She began photographing 
while working at the plant and decided to take a 
six-week course in photography offered by the 
influential photography teacher Alexey Brodovitch 
at New York City's New School for Social 
Research. Impressed by her pictures of a Harlem 
fashion show, Brodovitch encouraged Arnold to 
keep shooting. Some of these photographs were 
eventually published in a British magazine, which 
brought her to the attention of Magnum. 

Arnold soon took up the profession full-time 
and capitalized on her status as a woman photo- 
grapher — still a relatively rare occurrence — by 
using her female insight and personality to inter- 
pret what she photographed. After a disastrous 
experience in which a hostile writer changed the 
meaning of Arnold's fashion show photographs, 
she resolved to get as much control as possible 
over the words that accompanied her pictures; for 
Arnold, a photograph without words fell short. 

Throughout the 1950s, Arnold concentrated 
mainly on portraiture, usually undertaken as assign- 
ments for magazines or Hollywood film produc- 
tions. As she became more confident, she began to 
produce work independently, enjoying both the 
freedom and the knowledge that if the photographs 
were of sufficient quality, they would appear in more 
venues than if they had been tailored to the editorial 
needs of a particular magazine. Yet she kept the 
marketplace in mind when selecting her subjects. 

Arnold first became associated with Magnum 
Photos in 1951 and became a full member in 
1955. Always interested in improving herself, as 
she recalled later, Arnold scoured the files at Mag- 
num, especially going over the proof sheets in an 
effort to understand how other photographers 
worked. Arnold had begun her career using a $40 
Rolleicord camera and had gone on to a Rolleiflex 
before she discovered that it was very hard to fill 
the frame of the large square-format pictures these 
cameras produced. She then changed to the 35-mm 
format Nikon, in part because it was difficult to get 
German-made Leicas in the United States after 
World War II. To move around easily and elicit 
more from her subjects, Arnold streamlined her 
equipment early in her career, eschewing motor 
drives, lights, or tripods, and carrying a minimal 
amount of gear in a single bag. As Arnold 
explained in her autobiography, In Retrospect, her 
way of working was a low-key approach based on 
establishing contact with the subject and using 
whatever light was available. 

For example, when photographing on movie 
sets, Arnold habitually worked barefooted, seeking 
to not draw the attention of her subjects, and 



would stop photographing if noticed. For greater 
variety Arnold would photograph the same situa- 
tions in black-and-white and in color; she contin- 
ued this method until the mid-1970s when the 
market for monochrome largely disappeared. In 
her color work, Arnold was inclined to use color 
as an accent or as part of the overall design and 
believed that muted color often proved more effec- 
tive than stark tones. 

While Arnold is known for her photographs of 
Hollywood stars, political figures, and religious 
leaders, including such notables as Marlene Die- 
trich, Joan Crawford, Senator Joseph McCarthy, 
Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower, and Malcolm X, she also photographed 
ordinary people. The photographs for which she is 
perhaps best known are those of Marilyn Monroe. 
Unlike those of many celebrity photographers of 
the 1950s and 1960s, Arnold's photographs are 
typically candid, unretouched shots, as her por- 
traits of Monroe illustrate. She had a total of six 
sessions with Monroe, ranging from press confer- 
ences to her last film, The Misfits. Male photogra- 
phers generally captured Monroe's sexuality, 
whereas Arnold portrays a more relaxed star. 

In 1961, Arnold began work with the London 
Sunday Times and relocated to England in 1962; 
she stayed under contract with the Times for the 
next ten years. At this stage in her career, Arnold 
worked autonomously, originating ideas and hand- 
ling everything from initial research through to the 
finished prints. Although she completed difficult 
assignments such as traveling alone through the 
mountains of Afghanistan, Arnold never covered 
armed conflict. Despite her desire to do so, her art 
director refused to allow her to cover the Vietnam 
War because of the hazards involved. 

Arnold is also known for her 11 books, which 
she closely oversaw, including volumes that fea- 
tured Marilyn Monroe and Mikhail Baryshnikov 
and the American Ballet Theater. From the start of 
her days as photographer, Arnold had dreamed of 
shooting in China; a 1979 assignment resulted in 
the book In China. In it Arnold sought to reflect the 
happiness that most Chinese felt about the 
approach of industrialization. The pictures brought 
Arnold her first major solo exhibition at the Brook- 
lyn Museum in 1980. 

Caryn E. Neumann 



Biography 

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1913. Began photo- 
graphing in 1946; took a six- week course in photography 
with Alexei Brodovitch at New York City's New School 



69 



ARNOLD, EVE 




ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



for Social Research in 1948; associated with Magnum 
Photos in 1951; became full member of Magnum in 
1955; worked freelance and on assignment for maga- 
zines; employed by London Sunday Times, 1961-1971; 
first major solo exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum, 
1980; Lifetime Achievement Award from the American 
Society of Magazine Photographers, 1980; Fellow of the 
Royal Photographic Society, 1995; elected "Master 
Photographer" by New York's International Center of 
Photography, 1995; recipient of the Kraszna-Krausz 
Book Award for her autobiography In Retrospect, 
1996; awarded Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science 
from the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, 1997; 
awarded Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters from 
Staffordshire University, 1997; awarded Honorary 
Degree of Doctor of Humanities from American Inter- 
national University in London, 1997; appointed member 
of the Advisory Committee of the National Museum of 
Photography, Film & Television, 1997. As of 2004 
resides in England. 



1997 Menil Museum, Houston, Texas 
1997 The National Museum of Film, Photography, and 
Television, Bradford, England 



Selected Works 

77;<? Unretouched Woman, 1976 

Flashback: The 50s, 1978 

In China, 1980 

In America, 1983 

Portrait of a Film: The Making of White Nights, 1985 

Marilyn For Ever, 1987 

Marilyn Monroe: An Appreciation, 1987 

Private View: Inside Baryshnikov's American Ballet Theatre, 

1988 
All in a Day's Work, 1989 
The Great British, 1991 
In Retrospect, 1995 
Magna Brava: Magnum's Women Photographers, 1999 



Individual Exhibitions 

1980 Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York 

1991 In Britain; The National Portrait Gallery, London, 

England 
1995 In Retrospect; Barbican, London, England 

1995 The National Portrait Galley, Edinburgh, Scotland 

1996 The Gallery of Photography, Dublin, Ireland 

1996 The Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, England 

1997 Castelli Galleries, New York, New York 

1997 International Center of Photography, New York, New 
York 



Further Reading 

Eve Arnold: Film Journal. Boomsbury Publishers, 2002. 

Eve Arnold in Retrospect. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
1995. 

Brown, Sarah. "Eve Arnold." British Journal of Photogra- 
phy (5 January 2000). 

Magnum Photos. "Eve Arnold." http://www.magnumpho 
tos.com/portfolio/are/arebio.html (Accessed July 17, 
2005). 



ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



Chicago in the late nineteenth century experienced 
a burst of cultural and philanthropic activity as 
new universities, libraries, theaters, and museums 
appeared on the landscape. After a series of evo- 
lutions under different names, the Art Institute 
of Chicago was established on Michigan Avenue 
in 1882. Within about twenty years, the Art Insti- 
tute was the largest art museum in the country. 
The museum presently encompasses 400,000 
square feet and includes a theater and film center. 
Home to more than 300,000 works of art in 
10 curatorial departments, the museum owns mas- 
terpieces by Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse- 
Lautrec, Georges Seurat, Claude Monet, and 
Constantin Brancusi. 



The School of the Art Institute, founded by a 
small group of artists in 1866, predates the museum 
and is presently the largest art school in the coun- 
try. Another Chicago art school, the Association of 
Arts and Industries, was established in 1922 to 
compete with European product design. The Asso- 
ciation had hoped to establish a school with a focus 
on design after attempts to join the School of the 
Art Institute were unsuccessful. In 1937 the Asso- 
ciation invited Laszlo Moholy-Nagy to head the 
new design school. The New Bauhaus: American 
School of Design was reformed and renamed as the 
Institute of Design and eventually became part of 
the Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1950 the 
Institute of Design became the first American art 



71 



ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



school to offer a graduate program in photogra- 
phy, conferring its first advanced degrees in 1952. 
James N. Wood, president of the Art Institute of 
Chicago from 1980 until 2004, has said, "Ask any 
photographer with whom he or she trained, and 
you can probably trace that education back to the 
Institute of Design." After four years of research, 
the Art Institute mounted a presentation of the 
Institute of Design's contribution to American 
photography titled Taken by Design: Photographs 
from the Institute of Design, 1937-1971. Installed at 
the Art Institute in 2002, "Taken by Design" tra- 
veled to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
and the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 2003. 

As the Art Institute was settling into its new 
home in the 1880s, photography was just becoming 
established as an art form in America. The first 
major photography exhibition in Chicago was 
held in April 1900, when the Society of Amateur 
Photographers presented the First Annual Photo- 
graphic Salon. No American museums had yet 
established photography departments or programs, 
although three New York galleries were exhibiting 
photography in the early 1900s. 

Alfred Stieglitz's protege Julien Levy collected 
and exhibited photography at his New York gal- 
lery from 1931 until 1949. When the Art Institute 
acquired the Julien Levy Collection in 1975, it 
encompassed the work of 35 photographers, in- 
cluding Alvin Langdon Coburn, Imogen Cunning- 
ham, Lee Miller, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Ralph 
Steiner, in addition to Eugene Atget's entire collec- 
tion of photographs and negatives, which Levy had 
bought in 1927. 

Under the direction of Robert B. Harsche, the Art 
Institute hired a professional curatorial staff in 
the 1930s, which led to the development of the 
Department of Prints and Drawings, which in turn 
generated the photography department. Daniel Cat- 
ton Rich was named the Art Institute's Director 
of Fine Arts in 1938, and throughout his tenure 
provided support for exhibiting and collecting 
photography, before most other U.S. museums con- 
sidered photography a fine art medium. Rich met 
Alfred Stieglitz's muse and painter Georgia O'Keefe 
in 1929 through Mabel Dodge Luhan, the arts doy- 
enne of Santa Fe, thus cementing a friendship. After 
Stieglitz's death in 1946, O' Keefe turned to Rich 
for advice about dispersing Stieglitz's photographs 
and ultimately donated a major portion of the col- 
lection to museum.The memorial exhibition titled 
Alfred Stieglitz: His Photographs and His Collection, 
which opened in January 1948, included photo- 
graphs by Edward Steichen, Ansel Adams, Paul 
Strand, David Hill, Julia Margaret Cameron, 



and other members of Photo-Secession Group. 
Rich eventually arranged O'Keeffe's first American 
solo exhibition. 

Hugh Edwards, associate curator of prints and 
drawings at the Art Institute from 1959 until 1970, 
was one of the most influential curators of photo- 
graphy in America. Edwards shepherded the nas- 
cent photography collection at the Art Institute 
until it became an officially recognized department. 
His enthusiasm for street photography was infec- 
tious and served as inspiration for Danny Lyon, 
among others, and ultimately changed what was 
considered a proper subject for art. He was the 
first to offer shows to Duane Michaels and the first 
to exhibit Robert Frank's The Americans in 1961. 

Edwards established an Art Institute tradition 
of granting solo exhibitions to photographers 
early in their careers: Andre Kertesz and Walker 
Evans in 1946, Ansel Adams and Edward Weston 
in 1952, Gordon Parks in 1953, and Henri Cartier- 
Bresson in 1954. An exhibition of photographs by 
Harry Callahan in 1951 inaugurated the Photo- 
graphy Exhibition Gallery. In 1953 "Photographs 
in the Peabody Fund" displayed pictorial photo- 
graphs donated by Mrs. Stuyvesant Peabody 
expressly for the newly established gallery, which 
according to an assistant curator was "part hall- 
way, part waiting room." The gallery later became 
the AIC Gallery of Photography and was launch- 
ed with an exhibition of work by Frederick Som- 
mer in 1963. 

Photography exhibitions at the Art Institute at 
that time were small by today's standards and orga- 
nized without accompanying catalogs or checklist 
documentation. But the department continued to 
grow with additional gifts and acquisitions, includ- 
ing major donations of works by Paul Strand and 
more than 200 photographs by Edward Weston. The 
first color exhibition featured works by Arthur Siegel 
in 1954; Yasuhiro Ishimoto was the first Japanese 
photographer exhibited at the museum, in 1960. 

The Art Institute continues to bring contempo- 
rary photography to Chicago, including shows by 
Mark Klett, Susan Meiselas, and Raghubir Singh, 
and a retrospective of the work of Kenneth Joseph- 
son in 2000. An exhibition titled About Face: 
Photographic Portraits from the Collection in Octo- 
ber 2004, featured recent acquisitions in the Art 
Institute's collection. Thirty contemporary photo- 
graphers were represented, including Sally Mann, 
Nicholas Nixon, Vik Muniz, Cindy Sherman, Nan 
Goldin, Susan Meiselas, Richard Avedon, Chuck 
Close, Luis Gonzalez Palma, and Fazal Sheikh. 

Renata Golden 



72 



ARTISTS' BOOKS 



See also: Museums; United States 



Further Reading 

Harris, Neil. Chicago's Dream, a World's Treasure: The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1893 - 1993. Chicago: Art Institute 
of Chicago, 1993. 

Maxon, John. The Art Institute of Chicago. New York, 
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1970. 



May, Sally Ruth. The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential 
Guide. Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, 1993. 

Travis, David. Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection: 
Starting with Atget. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, 1976. 

One Hundred Years at the Art Institute: A Centennial Celebra- 

tion. Art Institute Museum Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1,(1993). 

The Art of Photography: Past and Present. Collection of the 

Art Institute of Chicago, National Museum of Art, 

Osaka, Japan, 1984. 



ARTISTS' BOOKS 



In diverse forms and contexts, artists' books experi- 
enced a dynamic presence in the myriad of art 
movements in the twentieth century. The evolution 
of artists' books reflects changes in technology as 
well as social, political, cultural, and economic 
developments. Artists' books have been made 
from traditional materials and bookbinding tech- 
niques, or radically challenging materials and var- 
ious methods of compilation or presentation that 
sidestep bookbinding entirely. 

No single definition of an artist's book can be 
both broad and specific enough to be useful but 
some book forms can be excluded. Some deluxe 
editions, letterpress work, handset type, for in- 
stance, do not typify the nature of an artist's book. 
Some artists' books can be mass-produced through 
xerography or other economical printing methods. 
In the 1950s, Robert Heinecken printed photo- 
graphs of highly political or pornographic imagery 
directly onto the pages of popular magazines that he 
then placed back on store shelves for sale to an 
unsuspecting public. Some artists' books exist in 
limited editions, perhaps produced with the partici- 
pation of a printer, book center, gallery, or museum 
exhibition or collection. These efforts have spread in 
recent years, but remain distinct from books called 
livre d'artist. Some artists' books may be a one-of-a- 
kind object, but generally the term refers to edi- 
tioned, mass-distributed materials. Some artists' 
books entirely avoid material existence and circulate 
as performance pieces or as part of the World Wide 
Web. 

Some artists' books are "containers of informa- 
tion," the material support being secondary to the 



expression or contemplation of personal, political, 
emotional, or social ideas. In other artists' books, 
the object itself is the principle exploration and can 
exist in many forms. Artists' books can be bound in 
traditional, accordion folds, various Japanese bind- 
ings, or the book can be otherwise constructed, 
involving no binding at all. The book may consist 
of pages, be in scroll form, be kinetic and involve 
moving parts, or be sculptural and exist for viewing 
as a 3-D work of art. Some artists alter already 
bound books. 

The growth and intensity of work with artists' 
books in the twentieth century has several histor- 
ical references. In 1974, the Grolier Club organized 
an exhibition and book titled, The Truthful Lens, 
which describes 175 books with original photo- 
graphs, mostly from the nineteenth century, claim- 
ing that a more complete list might number 2,500 
titles. Technology changes in the late nineteenth 
century such as lithography, machine-set type, 
and the linotype machine, facilitated the mass-pro- 
duction and distribution of books. This activity did 
not end the practice of more elaborate book mak- 
ing and by the early twentieth century, the mass 
production of cheaper editions sometimes included 
the production of a limited number of more elabo- 
rate copies. 

In the 1920s, Russian Constructionism served as 
a foundation for the idea of books as art. Art 
movements such as Dadaism, Surrealism, Expres- 
sionism, and Futurism searched not only for new 
content but for new forms of expression and artists' 
books were made by Tristan Tzara, Wassily Kan- 
dinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. 



73 



ARTISTS' BOOKS 



In the 1930s, Walker Evans established a style 
often mimicked in subsequent photography books, 
with the photographs placed on the right-hand 
page and the left-hand page usually left blank. 
Many artists' books are constructed with this gal- 
lery-in-hand presentation. 

In the 1950s, the German-born provocateur 
Dieter Roth shredded, then boiled paper that he 
stuffed into animal intestines to make "literary 
sausages." Considered one of the instigators of 
the contemporary movement in artists' books, 
Roth used a variety of found materials, such as 
overruns from commercial printers, as well as rub- 
berstamping to establish many of the conventions 
of the field. Another seminal figure is the Califor- 
nia painter Ed Ruscha. In the 1960s, Ruscha pub- 
lished Twenty-six Gasoline Stations and made clear 
his intent to explore book art as primary material, 
not as support for his other explorations in art. 
Ruscha's books have been highly sought-after, 
despite their original modest intent to reach a 
wider audience in expensive, unlimited editions. 
By the 1980s, book art branched out into the per- 
forming arts. In a review on performing arts in the 
1990s, British editor Claire MacDonald refers to 
the theatrical manuscript, describing a new interest 
in questioning conventional relationships between 
oral and written texts. 

In 1984, in the United States, the National 
Endowment for the Arts added bookmaking to its 
categories for funding. This fund was eliminated 
several years later. 

In the last decades of the twentieth century, 
Great Britain, Europe, Japan, and the United 
States saw a number of new printing establish- 
ments, mixing craft techniques in paper making 
and book binding. These establishments are some- 
times part of a university or art school, sometimes a 
private institution such as New York City's Center 
for Book Arts or the Purgatory Pie Press. Book art 
centers may provide facilities for the production of 
work as well as funding and an infrastructure to 
showcase results. In 1965, Stan Bevington set up 
Coach House Press in Toronto primarily to publish 
Canadian authors but also to make more craft 
laden books. Since 1972, under the direction of 
Joan Lyons, the Visual Studies Workshop in 
Rochester, New York, has produced more than 
200 books, including artists' books as well as criti- 
cal or historical visual art titles. Other book art 
centers include the Pacific Center for the Book 
Arts (California), Printed Matter Bookstore and 
the Franklin Furnace (New York City), Book- 
works (London), Art Metropole (Toronto), Wo- 
men's Study Workshop (Rosendale, New York). 



Franklin Furnace, founded in 1976, has pursued 
an active and often controversial roll in the produc- 
tion and distribution of artistic works not sup- 
ported by existing artistic organizations. In 1979, 
Franklin Furnace exhibited work curated by sev- 
eral prominent figures from the art world including 
Clive Phillpot, whose curating, writing, and other 
activities made a significant contribution to the 
book arts in the twentieth century. The Nexus 
Press (Atlanta) is run by and for photographers 
who want to publish their own books. In 1976, 
Chicago Books appeared, inviting six to ten artists 
a year to produce a book at its facilities. In 1977, 
the Writer's Center in Bethesda, Maryland, 
expanded its activities to include the production 
of artists' books. Pyramid Atlantic, a book art 
center in Maryland, opened in 1981 under the 
direction of Helen Fredrick. 

Thus, the expansion of funds and facilities for the 
production of artists' books progressed but diffu- 
sion of such objects remained problematic through- 
out the century. Their singularity often makes them 
both precious and inaccessible. Sometimes, artists' 
books can be showcased in traditional venues for 
books, such as bookstores, coffee houses, reading 
rooms, or libraries. Sometimes, such objects are 
best distributed through more traditional art 
venues such as galleries, museums, and art fairs. 
Art fairs devoted specifically to books provide fer- 
tile ground for artists and collectors to compare 
otherwise singular isolated works. Pyramid Atlan- 
tic hosted half a dozen such book fairs in Washing- 
ton, DC, in the 1990s. In New York City, the 
Brooke Alexander Gallery showcased artists' 
books concurrent to the yearly Armory Show of 
prints and drawings. By the end of the century, 
many individuals, universities, and museums 
began to collect and exhibit artists' books, includ- 
ing the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the 
Bibliotheque Nationale Paris, France, The School 
of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Manchester 
Metropolitan University, and the Carnegie Mellon 
Libraries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Fear that mechanical and digital technological 
changes throughout the twentieth century would 
bring an end to the artist's book did not prove true 
and the book as object remained a leading genre 
in the art world. Technology advances made desk- 
top publishing an increasingly democratic possibi- 
lity, supplementing works with precious materials 
with works available to low-budget projects. By the 
end of the century, immaterial books existed on the 
computer screen via the world wide web. 

Bruce McKaig 



74 



ARTISTS' BOOKS 




Ed Ruscha, Every Building on The Sunset Strip, 1966, MCA purchase. 
[Photograph © Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago] 



75 



ARTISTS' BOOKS 



See also: Conceptual Photography; Evans, Walker; 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Museums: United States; 
The Internet and Photography 

Further Reading 

Castleman, Riva. A Century of Artists Books. New York 

City: Museum of Modern Art, 1994. 
Drucker, Johanna. The Century of Artists' Books. New 

York City: Granary Books, 1995. 
Eaton, Timothy. Books as Art. Boca Raton, Florida: Boca 

Raton Museum of Art, 1991. 
Goldschmidt, Lucien, and Naef, Weston. The Truthful 

Lens: A Survey of the Photographically Illustrated Book 

1844-1914. New York: The Grolier Club, 1980. 



Kenny, Lorraine. "On Artists' Book Publishing." After- 
image, vol. 12 (March 1985). 

Klima, Stefan. Artists Books: A Critical Survey of the Lit- 
erature. New York: Granary Books, 1998. 

Lippard, Lucy. Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art 
Object from 1966 to 1972. Berkeley: University of Cali- 
fornia Press, 1997. 

Moeglin-Delcroix, Anne. Esthetique clu livre d'artiste 1960- 
1980. Paris: Editions Jean-Michel Place, 1997. 

Rolo, Jane, and Ian Hunt, eds. Book Works: A Partial 
History and Sourcebook. London: Book Works, 1996. 

Trend, David. "At the Margins: Artists' Books in the '80s." 
Afterimage, vol. 13, no. 1 & 2 (1985). 



ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY 



The night sky has been observed and its move- 
ments documented for thousands of years. Nu- 
merous symbolic visual paintings and carvings 
are found around the world as well as manmade 
solar and lunar calendars. But a true image of a 
celestial body was as fleeting as catching the 
moon's reflection in a bucket of water. The history 
of astrophotography began in 1838 when the 
French stage painter, Louis Daguerre, used his 
invention of a photographic plate to capture an 
image of the moon. The photographic plate con- 
sisted of a silver coated copper plate, which after 
taking a photograph was exposed to vaporized 
magnesium, followed by immersing the plate into 
sodium thiosulfate to fix the image and dissolve 
the unused silver iodide by rinsing the plate with 
hot water. This process was dubbed the Daguer- 
reotype process. The image of the moon, however, 
was not very clear. 

Wet Collodion Process 

The Daguerreotype was used up until 1851, when a 
new process called Collodion or "Wet Plate" pro- 
cess was invented by a Frenchman named G. Le 
Gray and introduced by Frederick Scott-Archer. 
The Collodion process quickly became the pre- 
ferred process of choice by astrophotographers. 
Due to the sensitivity of the plate — five to ten 



times more sensitive than Daguerrotypes — the 
exposure time was much shorter. The only draw- 
back was that the plate had to be used immediately 
after it was made. 

A year later, following the introduction of the 
wet plate process, an amateur English astronomer, 
Warren de la Rue, used the wet plate process in 
capturing images of the moon. By using a 13-inch 
metallic reflector telescope and hand moving the 
plate every 10 to 30 seconds he was able to capture 
the desired images of the moon, which were later 
displayed in 1853 at the Royal Astronomical 
Society meeting. 

Dry Emulsions 

Another field of study that became intertwined with 
astrophotography was that of spectroscopy. Scien- 
tist realized during the 1880s that the light spectrum 
emitted by stars and planets contained information 
about the stars' chemical components. Spectroscopy 
did not become practical until the invention of the 
dry plate. In 1871, Dr. R.L. Maddox, an English- 
man, produced the first positive dry emulsion plate 
by using a gelatin rather than using a glass base for 
the plate. Three years later in 1 874, the negative dry 
emulsion plate was made by Johnston and Bolton. 
Dry plates could be made and stored until needed as 
well as being 100 times more sensitive than the wet 



76 



ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY 



plates of earlier times. In 1876 the first spectrum of 
Vega was completed by a spectroscopist, W. Hug- 
gins, who also did the first spiral galaxy in 1899. 
Photography dramatically changed in 1884 when 
George Eastman once again advanced the art with 
the invention of the celluloid-based photographic 
film. But astrophotographers continued to use the 
glass plates for several reasons, such as film can 
shrink and warp over time, film is not completely 
flat all the time, and telescopes at observatories had 
large focal planes and had no use for the smaller film 
image frames. However for the backyard astropho- 
tographer and the traveling scientist, the use of 
Kodak's new roll film was ideal. 

Color and CCD 

Astrophotography continued to be shot in black 
and white although the Kodachrome process was 
marketed in 1935 and color film had been intro- 
duced commercially during the 1940s. There was a 
problem in trying to capture a color image of the 
heavens because long exposure times resulted in 
distorted color representation. The sensitivity of 
the film needed to be increased so the exposure 
time could be shorter. The Kodak 103a spectro- 
scopic films were still more sensitive than the color 
film and also the color films were not available in 
plate form. William Miller of the Mount Wilson 
and Palomar Observatories was the pioneer of 
color astrophotogrpahy. The 200-inch Hale reflec- 
tor telescope at Palomar Observatory was built 
exclusively for photography. In 1959 Miller used 
Super Ansochrome, a commercially available 
reversal type film. Miller gave the film extended 
exposure time to offset the problem of reciprocity 
failure due to the film's speed, ASA 100. 

Eastman-Kodak solved the problem of low- 
intensity reciprocity failure. This is where the 
photosensitive grains of the emulsion do not 
respond to light in a linear way because water and 
oxygen molecules become trapped within the emul- 
sion. The answer was hypersensitizing, also known 
as gas hypering. 

In 1969, bubble memory, a new type of computer 
memory discovered at Bell Labs was made sensitive 
to light. More sensitive than film, they are stable 
and can be directly input into a computer. Emul- 
sion based astrophotography was replaced by the 
introduction of charge-coupled device or CCD sen- 
sor. The CCD is a small chip broken up into very 
small cells. Light traveling through the lens, is 
reflected by mirrors, then reflected by a prism 
onto the surface of the CCD detector. CCD is af- 



fected by the photons of light when hit. Photons 
hitting the surface of the CCD knock electrons out 
of place in the cell. While CCDs were becoming 
popular, Kodak introduced a new film, Tech Pan 
in 1980, an emulsion with high contrast and sensi- 
tivity that also recorded infared and ultraviolet 
objects. CCD however, had become the preferred 
method for astronomy. Most professional observa- 
tories now use the CCDs. CCDs were also the 
choice of NASA for the Mars Pathfinder mission, 
which upon landing on the Martian surface on July 
4, 1997, began to send back very sharp images of 
the red planet. 

The Camera in Space 

Astrophotography in the twentieth century lit- 
erally reached new heights. Now the cameras 
themselves were actually flying through the very 
heavens they had earlier captured while attached 
to telescopes on terra firma. In 1959 the Soviet 
Luna 3 probe swung around the moon and cap- 
tured the first photograph of the moon's far side. 
Sister probe to Mariner 3, Mariner 4 reached Mars 
in 1965, and took the first close-up images of the 
Martian surface. NASA's Apollo missions had the 
objective of using photography to map the entire 
lunar surface. Hasselblad cameras were used with 
both black and white and color film. Several cam- 
eras were mounted within the command module 
while several other that were controlled by the 
command module were stowed in the scientific 
instrument module. The voyager space probes dur- 
ing the period of 1979-1980 sent back photo- 
graphs of the planetary family as they swung by 
Jupiter and Saturn. The most astonishing photo- 
graphs of the universe were to come once again 
from a telescope, but this time the telescope was 
floating in space. Launched on April 4, 1990 at 
12:33:51 UTC, the Hubble Space Telescope began 
to send back remarkable images of our own galaxy 
as well as others. A 2.4 m, f/24 Ritchey-Chretien 
telescope, the Hubble could make observations in 
visible, near-ultraviolet and new-infared. The ima- 
ging and spectroscope of the future is the Next 
Generation Space Telescope, whose primary mir- 
ror diameter is twice that of Hubble's and 
designed to see the far visible to the mid-infared 
part of the spectrum. 



Camera and Tripod 

The most accessible type of astrophotography is 
that of the camera mounted on a tripod. The cam- 



77 



ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY 



era is mounted on the tripod and the shutter is held 
open with a trigger release cord. Most 35-mm cam- 
eras have a B or bulb setting to do this. This allows 
the film to be exposed to low levels of evening sky 
light. A large variety of wide and zoom lenses are 
incorporated, depending on the object being cap- 
tured. Star tracking is one of the most common and 
easiest special effects to accomplish. This is where 
the shutter is left open for more than 15 seconds, 
thus letting star trails form on the exposed film. 



Piggyback Photography 

This is where the camera is connected to a tele- 
scope either in a piggyback fashion or hooked up 
to the eye piece of the telescope via an adapter. 
Piggyback photography provides the photogra- 
pher with the ability to "track" the stars. An 
equatorial mount is used in which the rotational 
axis of the tracker is aligned with the rotational 
axis of the earth. This is different from an alt- 
azimuth mount where the camera is mounted on 
a vertical swivel so the camera may be aimed at a 
star during a long exposure. This type of mount 
produces an image of a star in the middle of the 
photo as a dot while outlying stars show up as 
arcs, which elongate the further the stars position 
from the center. The arcs are a product of field 
rotation, caused by the camera swivel not being 
aligned with the rotational axis of the earth. 



Autoguided Photography 

Two types of auto guiding are popular, the use of 
an off-axis guider and the use of a separate guiding 
scope. Professionals usually use a CCD autoguider 
or a reticle eyepiece. Reticle eyepieces used are 
either standard or illuminated. With CCD software 
for personal computers, an amateur astrophoto- 
grapher with a hybrid telescope/camera can now 
be hooked up to a personal computer and guided 
through the night sky. 

Stacy Fox 



Further Reading 

Arnett, Bill. Planetary Science Spacecraft, http://seds.lpl. 

arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/Spacecraft.html 

(accessed May 4, 2005). 
De Vacouleurs, Gerad. (trans, by R. Wright) Astronomical 

Photography , from the Daguerreotype to the Electron 

Camera. London: Faber & Faber, 1961. 
Kodak, History of Kodak, http://www.kodak.com/about 

kodak/kodakHistory/milestones78-32.html. 
Malin, D. "The Developing Art of Star Photography." 

New Scientist 120 (Dec. 17, 1988), 23-28. 
Milan, Wil. The Photographer's Progress: A Short History 

of Emulsion-Based Deep-Sky Photography. http://www. 

astrophotographer.com. 
Schirmer, A.F., and S.R. Majewski. History of Photometric 

Measurements in Astronomy. http://www. astro. Virginia. 

edu/~afs5z/photometry.html 1999 (accessed May 4, 2005). 
Space Telescope Science Institute. Hubble Primer, http:// 

oposite.stci.edu/puinfo/spacecraft/Primer. 



EUGENE ATGET 



French 

Although much has been recorded about the lives 
of photographers and artists who worked in Paris 
during the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen- 
turies, the photographer Eugene Atget is an excep- 
tion. What little that is known about his life has 
been laboriously reconstructed; however, the vast 
amount of work he produced provides a record of 
his accomplishments as a photographer. Bits of his 
life have been pieced together from the memories of 
the few people whom he chose to befriend. These 



include Andre Calmettes, actor and motion picture 
director, Man Ray, photographer, and particularly 
the American photographer Berenice Abbott who 
dedicated much of her time to the public recogni- 
tion of Atget. Although he died virtually unknown 
and never formally exhibited his work, upon his 
death Atget left approximately 2000 eight by ten- 
inch glass plates and almost 10,000 prints. 

Orphaned at age five or six, Atget was raised by 
an uncle. At a young age he signed on as a cabin 
boy on a steamer bound for Uruguay, and would 
later exaggerate that he had been on several 



78 



ATGET, EUGENE 



voyages. As a young man he turned to acting, and 
around 1886 met the actress Valentine Delafosse- 
Compagnon who became his lifelong companion, 
or amie, and the two toured minor provincial thea- 
ters. Atget's physique and provincial accent kept 
him from landing anything but undesirable "third" 
roles, and in 1888 he was dismissed from the thea- 
ter. Around 1889 he and Valentine moved to Paris 
where he unsuccessfully tried his hand at painting 
(some of his paintings were uncovered in his studio 
upon his death). Sometime during the late 1890s he 
devoted himself to becoming a self-taught photo- 
grapher, a technology only about 40 years old. 
Little is known about how he learned photographic 
techniques, but Abbott has described his early 
efforts as taking place in remote gardens where he 
was able to learn and experiment undisturbed. 

Atget's early photographs were taken with the 
idea of creating study material for artists, and for 
some years he took pictures of natural images such 
as landscapes and plants. It is thought that Atget 
began working as a photographer in 1898, and it is 
clear that he was soon successful enough to mea- 
gerly support himself. The following announce- 
ment appeared in the February 1892 issue of La 
Revue des Beaux-Arts: 

We recommend to our readers, M. Atget photographer, 
5 Rue de la Pitie (Paris), who has for artists: landscapes, 
animals, flowers, monuments, documents, foregrounds 
for artists, reproductions for paintings, will travel. Col- 
lections not commercially available. 

The hand lettered sign outside his fifth-floor 
apartment-studio at 31 rue Campagne Premiere 
read, "Documents pour Artistes," and it is said 
that numerous Parisian painters, including Georges 
Braque, Henri Matisse, and Man Ray were among 
his customers. 

Atget's friend Andre Calmettes conveyed the 
photographer's early aspirations, "He already had 
the ambition of creating a collection of everything 
artistic and picturesque in and about Paris." Per- 
haps as early as 1898 Atget decided upon the sub- 
ject for which he is best known, a systematic record 
of the streets, storefronts, people, architectural 
details, and landmarks of old Paris. These works 
were not commissioned, offering Atget an artistic 
freedom that was more agreeable to him than his 
earlier natural studies. He eventually disclosed to 
Abbott that he did not like taking commissions 
because "people [do] not know how to see." He 
allowed himself to seek and capture the endless 
surprises of Paris, the winding streets, and the old 
houses, the statues and reflections. His idea was 
nominally successful and in 1901 he began a series 



that was overseen by the Bibliotheque historique 
de la Ville de Paris. The series, titled La Topogra- 
phie du Vieux Paris, was in many ways a continua- 
tion of his own documentation of Paris. The 
concept behind this series, which made it different 
from Atget's earlier work, was to visually record 
architectural and historical sites that were about to 
be demolished, capturing the spirit of a Paris about 
to disappear. 

The photographs of Old Paris by Atget are 
invaluable as a record of a quickly changing city, 
which underwent redevelopment at least twice dur- 
ing his lifetime. Napoleon III came to power in 
1853, appointing Baron Georges Hausmann as 
chief administrator to oversee the task of modern- 
izing the city of Paris with the purpose of showcas- 
ing it as the center of western culture and 
modernity. In the process of building parks, widen- 
ing avenues, and raising new buildings and cathe- 
drals that became known as "Hausmannizaton" 
many old landmarks were demolished, such as the 
street and buildings that were the subject of Cour, 
rue Beethovan, 9 (1901). Victorien Sardou tipped 
off Atget as to which Parisian buildings and land- 
marks were destined for demolition, and Atget 
managed to visually record many of these sites 
just before their destruction. The process of mod- 
ernization again occurred in Paris during the per- 
iod following World War I when Parisians were 
concerned with rebuilding their devastated city. 
Atget himself did little to no photography during 
the war, but picked his camera back up after the 
war's conclusion and expanded his subject matter 
to include the countryside around Paris. 

One intriguing aspect of Atget's photos is the 
ability of the viewer to see historic Paris through 
the eyes of an artist who insisted on the documen- 
tary character of his work. It is this view of his 
own work that might lead one to suggest that 
Atget fully realized the historical context in which 
his images existed and their potential value to fu- 
ture generations. 

In 1926, Atget met the young American photo- 
grapher Berenice Abbott. Abbott's interest in 
Atget's photography and life has proven to be 
indispensable. Upon Atget's death in 1927, Abbott 
purchased a number of his prints, negatives, slides, 
and papers from Andre Calmettes, and this collec- 
tion was purchased in 1968 by the Museum of 
Modern Art, New York. Abbott photographed 
Atget only days before his death, and completed 
biographical writings on his life that have proven 
to be indispensable to scholars. 

Atget captured the contradictions of Paris; the 
simple beauty of the urban landscape and the 



79 



ATGET, EUGENE 



elegance of Versailles juxtaposed with the poverty 
and hard reality of the times. He used various 
mechanical and compositional techniques in his 
photography to invite the viewer into the compo- 
sition. His photographic style did not emulate 
painting as most photography then did, but 
instead his experience and facility with the camera 
allowed him to capture detail and surface texture, 
heightening the viewer's sense of reality of the 
subject. The depth of his images and their atmo- 
spheric quality also had the effect of drawing the 
viewer into his photographs. There was anin tensity 
to his work often achieved by juxtaposing the 
focal point of the image, such as the statue in 
Versailles, pare (1906), against a dark background. 
His work welcomed the viewer's gaze because he 
used an eye-level viewpoint almost exclusively, and 
often created asymmetrical or angled images of his 
subjects, inviting one to mentally "step toward and 
move around" his subjects. 

Although much of Atget's subject matter is 
architectural, he also explored human figures as 
subjects. His studies of people, sometimes casually 
posed and always naturalistic, represented honest 
investigations of the working class as they ap- 
peared in daily life on the streets of Paris as typified 
by Ragpicker, Paris (1899-1900) and Street Musi- 
cians (Joueur d'orgue, 1899-1900). These images 
did not generally describe the particular individual, 
but instead, described their class or occupation 
through dignified and sensitive renderings. Given 
the technological limitations of photography at the 
time, Atget probably posed his figures, asking them 
to "hold still a moment." 

Atget used a simple 1 8 x 24 cm view camera with 
a tripod. His methods were considered old fash- 
ioned by the end of his own lifetime, requiring 
him to lug over 40 pounds of equipment including 
heavy glass plates, bellows camera, and the wooden 
tripod. The Paris Metro was his preferred means of 
transportation, and his client lists provide both 
addresses and the closest metro station. Atget 
never hired assistants to help him with his equip- 
ment, but preferred to work alone. 

One of the photographic techniques Atget used 
that set his images apart from those of other photo- 
graphers of his day was his use of a rapid rectilinear 
lens with a short focal length, resulting in a wide 
lens. This gave his pictures more depth than was 
fashionable at the time, the result being very differ- 
ent from contemporary styles of painting. He was a 
so-called "straight" photographer, meaning that he 
did not crop, trim, or alter the final image by 
burning or dodging any of his prints in the dark- 
room. He printed his glass plates by daylight and 



toned them with gold chloride. Atget relied on 
nature and instinct, using no artificial light for his 
interior shots, no light meter, and judging exposure 
by experience and charts. In 1906 he discovered the 
"faulty" technique of shooting directly into the 
sun, a process that reduced detail but increased 
the atmospheric quality of his images. 

Despite suggestions made by the surrealist 
photographer Man Ray to update the type of 
paper he used, Atget insisted upon using old fash- 
ioned paper that curled and had to be glued onto 
cardboard, the acid eventually damaging the prints 
themselves. Because of the processes he chose, par- 
ticularly the paper selection, many of his works 
have not survived well. Although Atget rarely 
dated his works, he did etch numbers into the 
emulsion, sometimes causing permanent damage 
to his negatives. 

One of the reasons that Atget did not achieve 
much recognition during his lifetime was that he 
did not associate with any sort of photographic or 
artistic groups. He was a dedicated photographer 
who made little time for friends, clubs, or other 
social activities. He rose at dawn every day and 
used the morning hours to photograph in order to 
avoid traffic and crowds, and in the afternoon he 
would develop. His kept strict habits in his man- 
ners of dress and appetite, was a quiet figure who 
wore patched clothes and a large overcoat, and 
lived for 20 years on nothing but bread, milk, 
and sugar. 

Atget's work has been compared with that of 
both the Cubists and the Surrealists, but it was 
the Surrealists who took an interest in his photo- 
graphy and looked to him as a pioneer of their 
movement. Man Ray's exclamation "I discovered 
him!" adequately describes the enthusiasm the 
group held for Atget. The Surrealists were inter- 
ested in publishing Atget's work in their magazines, 
but he would often only submit his work anon- 
ymously, explaining "These are simply docu- 
ments." The Surrealists found a certain mystery 
and atmospheric quality in Atget's photographs, 
particularly in images such as Avenue des Gobelins, 
Paris (1925), Men's Fashions (1925), and a myriad 
of images of shop mannequins and urban ennui. In 
1931, Walter Benjamin wrote in his Small History 
of Photography, "Atget's Paris photos are the fore- 
runners of surrealistic photography." The photo- 
grapher's everyday subjects, his found objects (or 
what the Surrealists called the objet trouve), and the 
tiny details hidden in his works fascinated Surreal- 
ists as such objects and images were believed to be 
imbued with psychological meaning and mystical 
overtones. Painter Salvador Dali commented upon 



80 



ATGET, EUGENE 




Eugene Atget, Avenue des Gobelins, 1925, silver printing-out paper print, 22.9 x 17.2 cm, 

ex-collection Man Ray. 

[Photograph courtesy of George Eastman House] 



81 



ATGET, EUGENE 



a detail in a corner of one of Atget's street images, 
"The reel with no thread clamorously demands to 
be interpreted." 

During his lifetime Atget did not receive the 
recognition he rightly deserved according to his 
peers, critics, and photographers who followed in 
his wake. He died virtually unknown and unpub- 
lished in any major photographic publications; he 
never showed his work in the many Parisian sa- 
lons. There were several institutions, however, that 
honored him by purchasing collections of works 
during his lifetime. These included the Biblio- 
theque historique de la Ville de Paris, the Bib- 
liotheque nationale, and the library of the Musee 
des Arts decoratifs. Despite nominal success dur- 
ing his own lifetime, the work of Atget has been 
increasingly admired since his death. Calmettes 
wrote to Abbott the following epitaph for Atget, 
"May all those who are interested in what he loved 
so much... still pronounce sometimes his name, 
which was that of a strong, courageous artist, of 
an admirable imagier." 

Catherine Burdick 

See also: Abbott, Berenice; Man Ray; Surrealism 



Biography 

Jean Eugene Auguste Atget was born at Libourne, near 
Bordeaux, France, February 12, 1857. Moved to Paris, 
1860s, enrolled in Catholic high school. Enrolled in Con- 
servatory of the French National Theatre, 1879. 
Returned to Paris around 1889 and began photography 
around 1898. Self-educated in photography. Sold 100 
prints to the Bibliotheque historique de la Ville de 
Paris, 1899. Began La Topographic du Vieux Paris, 
1901. Sold 2600 plate glass negatives to the Service 



Photographique des Monuments Historiques around 
1920. Published in La Revolution surrealiste, 1926. Died 
in Montparnasse, August 4, 1927. 



Selected Works 

La Topographic du Vieux Paris (series) 

Street Musicians, 1899-1900 (printed in 1956 by Berenice 

Abbott from Atget's negative) 
Cour, rue Beethovan, 9, 1901 
Versailles, coin de pare, 1902 
Versailles, pare, 1906 
Ragpicker, Paris, 1899-1900 
Eclipse, 1911 (printed in 1956 by Berenice Abbott from 

Atget's negative) 
St. Cloud, 1919-1921 
226 Boulevard de la Villette, 1921 
Avenue des Gobelins, Paris, 1925 
Men's Fashions, 1925 (published title Magasin, avenue des 

Gobelins, printed 1956 by Abbott from Atget's negative) 
Buttes Chaumont, 1926 
Fete de la Villette, 1926 
Boulevard de Strasbourg, 1926 



Further Reading 

Abbot, Berenice. The World of Atget. New York: Berkley 
Publishing Corporation, 1964. 

Atget, Eugene. Atget Paris. Paris: Hazan, 1992. 

Atget, Eugene. Atget's Gardens: A Selection of Eugene 
Atget's Garden Photographs. New York: Doubleday 
and Company Inc., 1979. 

Borcoman, James. Eugene Atget: 1857-1927. Ottawa: 
National Museums of Canada, 1984. 

Lemagny, Jean-Claude. Atget: the Pioneer. Munich, New 
York, London: Prestel, 2000. 

Szarkowski, John. Atget. New York: The Museum of Mod- 
ern Art and Calloway, 2000. 

Trottenberg, Arthur. D., ed. A Vision of Paris: The Photo- 
graphs of Eugene Atget, Words of Marcel Proust. New 
York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1963. 



ELLEN AUERBACH 



American 

Ellen Auerbach founded a pioneering woman-run 
photography studio in Berlin in the late 1920s and 
early 1930s, where she created memorable portraiture 
and advertising photographs. This studio, consisting 
of Auerbach and her close friend Grete Stern, came to 



a sudden end with Hitler's rise to power. Throughout 
her flight from Berlin to Tel Aviv and then to London 
Auerbach still managed to work as a photographer. 
In 1937 she immigrated to the United States where 
she worked as a freelance photographer and then, late 
in life, as an educator working with children suffering 
from schizophrenia. 



82 



AUERBACH, ELLEN 



Auerbach's work, along with that of Stern's, 
focused on the object almost as a sculptural study, 
concentrating on the essential, revealing her affilia- 
tion to Walter Peterhans, with whom she studied 
privately, and the tenets of the Bauhaus. Auerbach, 
however, displayed a particular sensitivity to nature 
and children and conveys what she calls poetically 
"The third eye": "In my photographic work, I have 
not only endeavored to record what one sees on the 
surface, but also to capture the essence that lies 
beneath the surface of things." 

Auerbach studied sculpture at the Badische 
Landeskunstschule from 1924-1927 and continued 
her studies at the Academy of Art (Am Weissen- 
hof) in Stuttgart. Her uncle gave Auerbach her first 
camera (9 x 12 cm) in gratitude for the bust she 
had made of him. The new artistic possibilities and 
also a newly found financial independence led 
Auerbach to discontinue her study of sculpture 
and take up the study of photography. 

In 1929, together with Grete Stern she took 
classes in photography as a private pupil with Wal- 
ter Peterhans in Berlin and, aside from these 
classes, Auerbach was self-taught, although be- 
cause of her association with Peterhans she is 
often considered as Bauhaus-trained. Even though 
the German capital in the 1920s was one of the 
most interesting places for artists, Auerbach and 
Stern appeared to have remained isolated from the 
various photographic circles. Stern had a short 
contact with the photographer Otto Umbehr, an 
acquaintance of her brother who advised her to 
study with Peterhans. 

When Peterhans closed his studio to join the 
Bauhaus staff in Dessau in 1929, Auerbach and 
Stern acquired it with a small inheritance that 
Stern had received. They then opened "foto ringl 
+ pit" (a moniker derived from Grete's childhood 
nickname, and the dancer Pepita Pit, whom Auer- 
bach resembled), the first women-run advertising 
photo studio in Berlin. The studio specialized in 
portraiture, still life, advertising photography, and 
magazine illustration (1931-1933). The studio pro- 
duced clear and precise images in the spirit of the 
Neue Sehen or new photography that was typical 
of Berlin photographers of the era. Their work 
was also notable for its imaginative usage of sur- 
realist motifs and critical humor. Although photo- 
graphs by ringl + pit appeared in periodicals such 
as Gebrauchsgraphik (Commercial Art) and Cah- 
iers d'art, as well as Neue Frauenkleidung und 
Frauenkultur (New Women's Clothing and Wo- 
men's Culture), and the firm's advertising clients 
ranged from manufacturers of hair lotion and 
cigarettes to distributors of petroleum products, 



Auerbach and Stern could not make a living with 
their studio work. 

Aside from her commercial efforts, most of 
Auerbach's photos from this time were the result 
of a creative interplay with Grete Stern. Their stu- 
dio was not only a place of work, but also a space 
of vivid exchange and friendship. To this Auerbach 
brought sculptural sensibility and Stern brought 
her graphic design know-how; both photographers 
signed the works with the studio's name, making it 
difficult to distinguish authorship. This concentra- 
tion on the world of objects differed from the con- 
temporary use of the camera as a means to explore 
urban reality, represented by other photographers 
of the late Weimar Republic such as Lotte Jacobi 
and Marianne Breslauer. The ringl + pit studio 
time allowed Stern and Auerbach to take initiatives 
and to experiment with various techniques, includ- 
ing montage. They developed alternative represen- 
tations of women in advertisement, for instance, 
their famous image Komol, and engaged in a play- 
ful confusion between "living model and manikin" 
(e.g., Petrole Hahn: the manikin is dressed in an 
old-fashioned nightgown, while a human hand 
holds the product). 

In 1933 the studio ringl + pit gained interna- 
tional recognition as the two photographers re- 
ceived first prize from the Deuxieme Exposition 
Internationale de la Photographie et du Cinema 
in Brussels for its advertising photograph Komol, 
taken to advertise a hair lotion of the same name. 
But the incipient careers of Auerbach and Stern 
were soon stymied by Adolph Hitler's rise to 
power as chancellor in 1933. Her future husband, 
Walter Auerbach, an active communist, advised 
the two women of Jewish origin and with left- 
wing ties to leave Germany permanently. 

As Auerbach could not provide the proof of 
financial independence necessary for emigrating to 
England as Grete Stern did, at the end of 1933 she 
emigrated with Walter Auerbach to Tel Aviv, 
Palestine. She found work with the Jewish National 
Fund (KKL) and the Women's International Zio- 
nist Organization (WIZO), but commissions aimed 
at promoting a Jewish state in Palestine were far 
from the photographer's interests. 

Together with her friend Liselotte Grschebina 
and Walter Auerbach, she opened the children's 
portrait studio "Ishon," or eyeball. Her work in 
Palestine was radically different than her work 
done in Berlin. While the ringl + pit pictures 
could for the most part be considered studio 
work, which focused on representations of iden- 
tities, with her emigration such criteria took on a 
secondary importance. The photographer became 



83 



AUERBACH, ELLEN 



an "open window" to the reality of the outside 
world. After the outbreak of the Abyssinian war 
in 1936, Auerbach shut down Ishon and visited 
Grete Stern in London. In the British capital, she 
met the likes of Bertolt Brecht, also in exile, 
whom she had the opportunity to photograph. 
Because Stern was to immigrate to Argentina, 
Auerbach intended to take over her London stu- 
dio but was refused the requisite work and resi- 
dence permits. 

In 1937, she married Walter Auerbach and in 
April they immigrated to the United States, settling 
in Elkins Park near Philadelphia close to relatives. 
While Auerbach toured the suburbs of Philadel- 
phia as a baby photographer, both she and her 
husband worked for the art collection of the Les- 
sing-Rosenwald family in Jenkintown, Pennsylva- 
nia. Photographing the prints collection allowed 
Auerbach to explore even further new photo- 
graphic procedures, experimenting with infrared 
and ultra-violet light to reveal restoration work 
and changes made to prints. During this period 
the photographer couple also made use of the 
carbo printing process. She and her husband 
entered the so-called New York School circles, 
where Auerbach took a photograph of an as-yet- 
unknown Willem de Kooning with his wife Elaine. 

Auerbach separated from her husband in 1944 
and went to New York, where she rented part of 
the studio belonging to the painter Fairfield Porter, 
whose brother, Eliot, was also a photographer. As a 
freelancer, she received commissions from Time 
magazine and Columbia Masterworks. In 1946 she 
traveled to Buenos Aires, where she met Grete Stern 
for the first time in a decade. In 1946 and 1948 
Auerbach made film and photographic studies of 
babies and small children for the Menninger Foun- 
dation, a research institute based in Topeka, Kan- 
sas, and produced photographs and two 16-mm 
films, Mounting Tension, about the behavior of 
infants. In 1953 she traveled extensively to Europe 
(Greece, Majorca, Germany, and Austria). After a 
visit to the photographer Eliot Porter in Maine in 
1953, she decided to accompany him on a photo- 
graphic journey to Mexico in the fall of 1955. Dur- 
ing this trip, the two photographers collaborated on 
a large color-photo documentation of Mexican 
churches, published some 30 years later: Mexican 
Churches (1987), and Mexican Celebrations (1990). 

In her 60s, Auerbach reinvented herself again, 
and worked until 1986 with children suffering 
from learning disabilities. From 1984 on, photo- 
graphy receded into the background. Auerbach 
died on July 30, 2004 in New York, after having 



finally received recognition for her important pho- 
tographic work. 

Nathalie Neumann 

See also: History of Photography: Interwar Years; 
Peterhans, Walter; Photography in Europe: Ger- 
many and Austria; Porter, Eliot 



Biography 

Born as Ellen Rosenberg on May 20, 1906 in Karlsruhe, 
Germany, she died on July 30, 2004 in New York City. 
Studied sculpture at the Karlsruher Kunstakademie 
(1924-1927) and in Stuttgart (1928), later photography 
with Walter Peterhans in Berlin (1929). 1930-1932 
opened the advertising studio "foto ringl + pit" with 
Grete Stern, which won first prize at the deuxieme Expo- 
sition Internationale de la Photographie et du Cinema 
(Brusseles) for its advertising photograph Komol in 1933. 
Emigrated in 1933 to Palestine, made a 16-mm movie 
and opened "Ishon" photo studio. Official photogra- 
pher for WIZO (Women's International Zionist Organi- 
zation); joined Stern in London (1936); married Walter 
Auerbach (1937) and immigrated to the United States. 
Worked at the Lessing Rosenwald Print Collection in 
Philadelphia (1937-1944); Freelance photographer in 
New York City (1945) working for Time magazine, 
Columbia Masterworks. 1946, 1953, 1956 extensive trav- 
els to Argentina, Greece, Majorca, Germany, and Aus- 
tria. Worked with Sybille Escolana for the Menninger 
Foundation, film: Mounting tension. Professor at Junior 
College for Arts and Craft in Trenton (1953). Documen- 
ted Mexico with Eliot Porter (1955-1956). Traveled 
extensively, gaining a fascination for esotericism and 
psychology. From 1965-1984 undertook educational 
therapy for children at the Educational Institute for 
Learning and Research in New York. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1978 Mexican Church Interiors, Sander Gallery, Washing- 
ton, DC 

1980 Images from Mexican Churches (Porter/Auerbach), 
Cathedral St. John the Divine, New York, New York 

1981 ringl + pit, Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin, Germany 

1982 Ellen Auerbach: pictures after 1934, Photographers' 
Gallery, London, United Kingdom 

1998 Die Fotografin Ellen Auerbach, Retrospektive. Akade- 

mie der Kiinste, Berlin, Germany 
2003 Ellen Auerbach, La Mirada intuitiva, Lleida: Fonda- 

cion "la Caixa," Foundation Centre Social i Cultural 

(Blondel, 3), Spain 



Group Exhibitions 

1977 Kiinstlerinnen International, Berlin 1877-1977; Schloss 
Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany 

1978 Das experimented Photo in Deutschland 1918-1940, 
Galerie de Levante, Munich, Germany, and Centre 
Pompidou, Paris, France 



84 



AUERBACH, ELLEN 



A4 r 1 T J T L '+±it 




ringl + pit (Grete Stern and Ellen Auerbach), "Petrole Harm", Werbefoto, Blatt 8 aus dem 
Portfolio "Fotografie ringl + pit," Zwolf Fotografien von Grete Stern und Ellen Auerbach, 
1929-1933, Sander Gallery Editions, New York 1985 (Mappe IV/XV), 1932/ 1985 
Silbergelatinepapier unter Passepartout-karton montiert, 33.5 x 22.2 cm AbzugmaB (HxB); 
48.3 x 38.2 cm Passepartout (HxB). 

[Photograph courtesy of Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Copyright Ellen Auerbach Estate. Courtesy 
Robert Mann Gallery] 



85 



AUERBACH, ELLEN 



980 Avant-Garde Photography in Germany, 1919-1939, San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, and traveling 

980 When Words Fail, International Center of Photogra- 
phy, New York, New York 

981 ring! + pit, Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin, Germany 

982 Avant-garde Fotografie in Deutschland, 1919-1939, 
Munich, Germany 

983 Bauhausfotografie, Institut fur Auslandsbeziehungen, 
Stuttgart, Germany, and traveling 

984 ringl + pit, Deutsche Botschaft, Buenos Aires, Argentina 
984 ringl + pit, Goethe-Institut, New York, New York 
986 Photography: a Facet of Modernism, San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 
986 Photographic und Bauhaus, Kestner Gesellschaft 

Hannover, Hannover, Germany 
988 Experiment Bauhaus, Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin, Germany 
988 Photography Between the Wars, Metropolitan Museum 

of Art, New York, New York 

988 Emigriert: Grete Stern und Ellen Auerbach, Fotogra- 
fien vor und nach 1933, Stadtbibliothek Wuppertal, Ger- 
many 

989 Werhefotografie in Deutschland seit den 20er Jahren, 
Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany 

990 Fotografie am Bauhaus, Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin, Ger- 
many 

992 Photography at the Bauhaus, The Information of Mod- 
ern Aesthetic, Fotofest, Houston, Texas 

993 ringl + pit, Grete Stern und Ellen Auerbach, Museum 
Folkwang, Essen, traveling to Berlin, Karlsruhe, Des- 
sau, Germany 

997 Auerbach, Ellen & Anton Stankowski, Zeitgenossen, 
Walter-Storms Galerie. Munich, Germany 



Further Reading 

Bertonati, Emilio. Das experimentelle Photo in Deutschland 

1918-1940. Munich; 1978. 
Dickel, M. and J. F. Oppenheim. 22 Fotografinnen. Koln: 

1983. 
Eskildsen, Ute, et al. Die Fotografin Ellen Auerbach, Retro- 

spektive. Berlin: Akademie der Kiinste; Munich: Prestel 

Verlag, New York: 1998. 
Eskildsen, Ute. ringl + pit: Grete Stern und Ellen Auerbach. 

Fotograf. Kabinett, Museum Folkwang, Essen, 1993. 
Frowein, Cordula. Emigriert: Grete Stern und Ellen Auer- 
bach, Fotografien vor und nach 1933, Stadtbibliothek 

Wuppertal, Germany, 1988. 
Lavin, Maud, ringl + pit: The Representation of Women in 

German Advertising ( 1929-1933) . In Idem, Clean New 

World. Cambridge, MA: 2001. 
Mellor, David. Germany: The New Photography 1927-1933. 

London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1979. 
Morris Hambourg, Maria. "Photography Between the 

Wars." In Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New 

York; 1988. 
Pierce, Donna. In Mexican Churches j Eliot Porter & Ellen 

Auerbach. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico 

Press, 1987. 
Pierce, Donna, Eliot Porter, and Ellen Auerbach. Mexican 

Celebrations. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico 

Press, 1990. 
Sullivan, Constance. Women Photographers. New York: 

Harry N. Abrams, 1990. 
Valdivieso, Mercedes, Inka Graeve Ingelmann, et al. Ellen 

Auerbach. La Mirada intuitiva, Fondacion "la Caixa," 

Barcelona: 2002. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN AUSTRALIA 



Australia is an island continent situated between 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans to the southeast of 
Asia. Settled at least 40,000 years ago by Austra- 
lian Aborigines it was colonized by Britain in 1788. 
Despite its geographical distance from Europe, 
news of the invention of photography reached Aus- 
tralia's small free settler population by late 1839 
and, two years later, George Goodman took the 
first known daguerreotypes. The introduction of 
photography paralleled the establishment and 
rapid growth of colonial settlement, and the cam- 
era became an extremely popular way for Eu- 
ropean photographers to represent a "new" land 
and its distinctive features. 

By the time Australia became a Federation on 1 
January 1901, the practice of photography had 



developed significantly as a creative process. 
Along with thriving commercial portrait studios, 
the turn of the twentieth century saw a dedicated 
group of photographers committed to promoting 
the medium as art. Pictorialism, an international 
photographic movement that originated in Great 
Britain in the late 1890s, began to gain currency in 
Australia by the early 1900s and was a dominant 
style for several decades. 

John Kauffmann was one of the country's ear- 
liest and finest Pictorialists gaining his first-hand 
awareness of this soft-focus, aesthetic style from his 
travels to Great Britain and Europe. While Kauff- 
mann was especially adept at "low-toned" work, 
fellow Pictorialist Harold Cazneaux helped pro- 
mote a "higher-keyed" approach. Cazneaux be- 



AUSTRALIA, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



lieved sunlight was a key element in helping create a 
distinctly Australian form of Pictorialism and, as a 
leading member of the Sydney Camera Circle 
(founded in 1916), he actively promoted the so- 
called "Sunshine School." Cazneaux was an influ- 
ential advocate and theoretician, publishing articles 
on the aesthetic possibilities and development of 
photography for the Australasian Photo-Review 
(AP-R) and the British publication, The Photo- 
grams of the Year. 

Most Australian Pictorialists were amateurs, 
producing work for exhibition at local and inter- 
national salons, but professional photographers 
also applied this style to their commercial work. 
Around the turn of the century, for instance, H. 
Walter Barnett adopted a soft-focus approach in 
his highly regarded society and celebrity portrai- 
ture, and was the only Australian to be offered 
membership of the prestigious British group, the 
Brotherhood of the Linked Ring. Other notable 
professional Pictorialist photographers included 
Ruth Hollick who specialized in child and social 
portraiture and was one of a number of Australian 
women to take up the medium. Commercial photo- 
grapher and adventurer Frank Hurley applied 
some of the atmospheric qualities of Pictorialism 
to very different and dramatic ends when he was 
employed as official photographer for both Charles 
Mawson and Sir Ernest Shackleton's various expe- 
ditions to Antarctica and to the Australian Impe- 
rial Force during World War One. 

Pictorialism remained popular with many Aus- 
tralian photographers throughout the 1930s and 
1940s. Jack Cato was a major studio photographer 
whose work extended this by now well-established 
style to include more modern elements. Cato is also 
significant as the author of Australia's first history 
of the medium, The Story of the Camera in Austra- 
lia (1955). However, despite the continuation of 
Pictorialism it was clear that the creative spirit of 
the times was changing. As modernism took hold in 
the arts internationally, a group of avant-garde 
Australian photographers began to abandon the 
"fuzzy-wuzzy" look of Pictorialism for an ap- 
proach that they believed was more in tune with 
the machine age. 

Information concerning modernist photography 
reached Australia in the 1930s through imported 
magazines such as US Camera, Das Deutsche 
Lichtbild, and Modern Photography. Their illustra- 
tions had a strong impact on a group of younger 
Australian practitioners who began to experiment 
with modernism and Surrealism in their personal 
and commercial work. Also influential were a 
small number of modernist photographers who 



had been forced to migrate to Australia due to 
the rise of Nazism. Photographers Wolfgang Sie- 
vers, Helmut Newton, Margaret Michaelis, and 
Henry Talbot, all arrived between 1938 and 1940 
and brought with them first-hand knowledge of 
modernist photography. 

Max Dupain was one of the most prolific and 
talented Australian-born photographers of the mid 
1930s and 1940s. Along with the impact of moder- 
nist photography on his practice he was influenced 
by popular debates concerning the revitalization of 
society following World War One. In this interwar 
period, he produced many photographs that are 
often critical of modernity as a degenerative force 
on the body or which — in images such as The Sun- 
baker — suggest the regenerative possibilities of 
contact with nature, in particular, the Australian 
beach. Important outlets for Dupain' s work in the 
1930s were innovative magazines such as Art in 
Australia and The Home, which featured a wide 
variety of creative practice from architecture and 
fashion to art photography. 

Olive Cotton also adopted modernism in her 
own diverse practice. She developed a distinctive 
photographic approach to her architectural and 
commercial subjects but her most enduring inter- 
ests lay with the natural world. Cotton's sensuous 
appreciation of nature shows her delight in the 
ways that light and patterning could play both a 
compositional and atmospheric role. Another 
photographer to appreciate the creative possibili- 
ties of light was Athol Shmith. A Melbourne-based 
fashion and commercial photographer, Shmith 
mixed the clean lines of the modernist style with a 
seductive Hollywood glamour. His studio work in 
particular shows his ability to use lighting, dark- 
room techniques, and hand-coloring to create flaw- 
less images of beauty. 

In the post-war period a group of Australian 
photographers began to produce work in the 
so-called Documentary style. This international 
movement, with its emphasis on creating clear 
statements of actuality, made a major impression 
on Australian photographers including Max 
Dupain, Axel Poignant, David Moore, Jeff Car- 
ter, and David Potts. These practitioners consid- 
ered the Documentary style well suited to 
recording how contemporary Australians lived 
and worked. With a social realist perspective 
inspired by the Documentary philosophy of Scot- 
tish-born filmmaker John Grierson, these photo- 
graphers focused on the world around them 
recording a diverse range of subjects from urban 
poverty to outback life and the Australian inter- 
est in sport and the outdoors. 



87 



AUSTRALIA, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



An important source of inspiration for Austral- 
ian Documentary photographers was the photo- 
essay, a new format in which writing was combined 
with images. Local outlets for Documentary work 
were limited with few magazines offering the 
opportunity of extended photo-essays. Talented 
photographers such as the Swiss-born Axel Poign- 
ant persisted for a time producing bodies of work 
that looked at distinctively Australian subjects, 
such as the natural environment and people living 
in the outback. He was particularly interested in 
the lives of Aboriginal people and produced 
thoughtful series of work in this area often publish- 
ing his images in the locally produced Walkabout 
magazine. But despite the success of his book Pic- 
caninny Walkabout (1957), Poignant eventually left 
Australia to find work overseas. 

David Moore, probably Australia's best-known 
photo-journalist, managed to sustain his career by 
regularly contributing to international journals 
including Life, Time, and Picture Post. One of 
Moore's most celebrated images was Migrants 
Arriving in Sydney — a photograph that captures 
the mixed emotions of joy, anticipation, and anxi- 
ety on the faces of those arriving for the first time in 
Australia. The photograph also summed up a spe- 
cific moment in social history, when Australia's 
migration policies were relaxed sufficiently to 
allow people to settle from a broader range of 
European countries. 

The humanistic approach of Documentary work 
reached its height internationally with the Family of 
Man exhibition mounted by the Museum of Mod- 
ern Art in New York in 1955. This exhibition, 
which included the work of David Moore and 
Laurence le Guay, toured to Australia in 1959 
and was viewed by record crowds. Following the 
flurry of interest in Documentary practice, the 
1960s were a relatively quiet time for creative 
photography in Australia. An exception was 
"Group M," a group of committed amateur photo- 
graphers in Melbourne, including Albert Brown 
and George Bell, who mounted a series of exhibi- 
tions that explored documentary and social realist 
issues. Mervyn Bishop, Australia's first profes- 
sional Aboriginal photographer, also made a sig- 
nificant contribution in this period. Bishop began 
his long career as a press photographer in 1962 
with the major daily newspaper, the Sydney Morn- 
ing Herald and was awarded the coveted News 
Photographer of the Year Award in 1971. 

In the 1960s, other Australian professional 
photographers also continued their work in the 
fields of fashion, architecture, and industry with 
one highly significant practitioner being Wolfgang 



Sievers. Sievers, who had been trained at the Con- 
tempora School for Applied Arts in Berlin, arrived 
in Australia in the late 1930s and applied his experi- 
ence of modernism to his industrial and architec- 
tural assignments. He created many powerful, even 
theatrical images that often showed the interrela- 
tionship of workers and the products of modernity. 

In common with many other countries, a new 
energizing spirit infused Australian photography 
in the 1970s. A wave of social and political change 
swept through society and with it a desire for more 
contemporary means of creative expression. Many 
artists considered the camera to be a powerful aes- 
thetic tool without the historical "baggage" of 
other mediums and one that offered a fresh way to 
express their social, political, and creative concerns. 

The surge of interest in photography was met by 
institutional funding with the Labour government 
of the time injecting funds into art schools, many of 
which began to include photography in their curri- 
culum for the first time. This period saw the foun- 
dation of collections of photography at public 
galleries. In 1967, the National Gallery of Victoria 
established the first separate curatorial Department 
of Photography in Australia and provided funds 
for a broadly based collection to be formed. It also 
began a program of Australian and international 
photographic exhibitions bringing the medium to 
the attention of a wide local audience. The Austral- 
ian National Gallery, Canberra, made its first 
acquisitions of photographs in 1972 founding the 
basis for an important, wide-ranging collection; 
and the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney 
established its Department of Photography in 1974 
and began to build a strong collection. In 1974, the 
Australian Centre for Contemporary Photography 
in Sydney opened its doors as a venue for the 
exhibition, instruction, and promotion of the me- 
dium. The 1970s also saw the establishment of 
commercial galleries that specialized in photogra- 
phy, most notably in Melbourne, and important 
corporate sponsorship of photography including 
the Philip Morris Arts Grant. 

Documentary photography continued to be pop- 
ular among artists but was now often used to dif- 
ferent ends. Carol Jerrems and Max Pam adopted a 
collaborative approach in their documentary work 
based on the consent of their subjects rather than 
simply "taking" portraits. In their distinct ways, 
both Jerrems and Pam captured the mood of the 
times: Jerrems taking portraits of a young Austral- 
ian urban generation and Pam following the hippie 
trail to the East and a world of new experiences. 

The impact of counter-culture politics and fem- 
inism also brought a distinctive range of subject 



AUSTRALIA, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



matter to light as the "personal became political." 
Ruth Maddison was one of a group of photogra- 
phers who validated the richness of everyday Aus- 
tralian experiences by focusing on the often 
overlooked rituals of ordinary life, while Sue Ford 
used her friends as the models for her fascinating 
study of faces taken a decade apart. Ford's appar- 
ently simple photographs reveal the power of 
photography to show how physical, emotional, 
and social changes are reflected in a person's face. 

The creative uses of photography expanded con- 
siderably in the 1970s. The medium began to be 
absorbed into the "mainstream" art world as con- 
ceptual and performance artists started to employ 
the medium. For body artist Stelarc, photographs 
were an important creative adjunct to his art events 
in the 1970s. In a different vein, Jon Rhodes was 
one of several photographers of the period to 
address social issues when he used the medium to 
bring attention to land rights issues for Aboriginal 
people in the Gove Peninsula in his series, Just 
Another Sunrise? Others, such as John Cato and 
Les Walking, explored the metaphoric potential of 
photography. The range of photographic processes 
similarly expanded in this period. Most photogra- 
phers still preferred to produce formally composed 
and finely printed black and white images but 
some, most notably women photographers, found 
that hand-coloring added to the creative possibili- 
ties of their vision. 

The 1980s was a time of diversity in Australian 
photography. One distinctive aspect of the period 
was photography by practitioners from non- 
Anglo-Saxon backgrounds. Takis Christodoulou, 
for instance, used the documentary approach to 
create disturbing, almost claustrophobic images 
suggesting the cultural pressures for contemporary 
Greek families living in Australia. 

However, generally speaking, critical attention 
was diverted in this period away from the docu- 
mentary to a different kind of practice influenced 
by the theories and practices of Postmodernism. 
This complex international movement proved a 
powerful invigorating force on contemporary the- 
ory, art, and culture. Its influence on photography 
in Australia was profound, raising fundamental 
issues concerning the interpretation of images, the 
nature of reality, and the role of the artist. Critical 
debate concerning photography flourished and, in 
1983, the magazine Photofile (published by the 
Australian Centre for Photography) became an 
important venue for writing in the field. 

In general, post-modern photographers called 
into question the long-held objectivity of the me- 
dium, revealing the partial nature of any photo- 



graph through the obviously constructed or "set 
up" character of their work. Naturalism, so long 
held to be the foundation of photography, was 
widely abandoned among Australian photogra- 
phers in favor of openly declared theatrical fabri- 
cations. There was also a shift in the materials used, 
with black and white, discretely sized documentary 
photographs being replaced by large-scaled, opu- 
lent productions with photographers often reveling 
in the lush, saturated colors of the Cibachrome or 
Polaroid processes. 

Post-modern photographers frequently ques- 
tioned cultural truths through the use of allegory, 
parody, and the montaging of image with text to 
disrupt the usual interpretation of the photograph. 
The visual language of popular culture, film, and 
traditional fine arts, such as painting, were all 
raided in the process, as were other photographic 
genres — in particular, glamour, advertising, and 
surrealist imagery. Photographer and filmmaker 
Tracey Moffatt's series Something More was char- 
acteristic of this fertile new area of inspiration for 
artists. In this influential series, Moffatt borrowed 
from 1950s B-grade films to create a fevered story 
of a young woman's search for "something more" 
in her life. Casting herself in the lead role, Moffatt 
set her disturbing and sometimes violent narrative 
in outback Australia, producing images that resem- 
ble film stills. 

Another characteristic trait of 1980s Australian 
photography was the appropriation of imagery 
from various sources. In one of the most notable 
series of the 1980s, Bondi: Playground of the Paci- 
fic, Anne Zahalka wittily explored and subverted 
the mythology and stereotypes that have evolved 
around this famous stretch of the Australian coast 
by reworking various Australian artworks. Julie 
Rrap also drew on art history in her installation 
Persona and Shadow, taking a feminist approach to 
provoke the viewer to consider how women have 
been represented in the visual arts, while Fiona 
Hall created complex tableaux of figures sculpted 
from sardine cans in her large scale Polaroids illus- 
trating Dante's The Divine Comedy. 

In 1988, the Bicentennial of the founding of 
European settlement in Australia offered an oppor- 
tunity to re-evaluate the country's achievements. 
Many major art and social histories were pub- 
lished including two major histories of photogra- 
phy: Gael Newton, Shades of Light: Photography 
and Australia 1839-1988 and Anne Marie- Willis, 
Picturing Australia: A History of Photography. 
Another major photographic publication was 
After 200 Years, which contained substantial 
photo-essays on, or by, contemporary Aboriginal 



89 



AUSTRALIA, PHOTOGRAPHY IN 



and Islander Australians, and reflected the begin- 
nings of a renaissance in work produced by indi- 
genous photographers. 

The advent of New Media in the 1990s prompted 
fundamental shifts in how photography was under- 
stood. With technological advances that allowed 
the total manipulation of content and style, the 
connection between the photograph and the real 
world was severed. As a result, some Australian 
critics suggested that photography was dead. How- 
ever, despite their pessimism the "corpse" of photo- 
graphy in fact remained remarkably lively with 
many concurrent streams of practice evident. Key 
areas of contemporary photography in the 1990s 
included an interest in digital technologies, gender 
issues (including queer art), abstract photography, 
photograms, and documentary photography. 

Patricia Piccinini uses sophisticated new digital 
technologies to make witty and disturbing com- 
ments on genetic engineering. Her seemingly innoc- 
uous images of computer generated "life forms" 
point to one of the major issues of our times: that 
is, the ability to create and manipulate life. Another 
technically sophisticated photographer is Bill Hen- 
son, who continues to expand on a very successful 
local and international career begun in the late 
1970s, with installations of highly lyrical images 
essentially concerned with untranslatable emo- 
tions. Henson was the first photographer chosen 
to represent Australia at the Venice Biennale in 
1995, a mark both of his standing in the arts com- 
munity and a sign of the incorporation of photo- 
graphy into wider art practice. 

Perhaps in reaction to the overturning of tradi- 
tional definitions of photography, a number of 
Australian artists are using various early photo- 
graphic techniques, such as photograms. Penelope 
Davis is one photographer who turns the tables on 
the medium to ironically produce camera-less 
images of the camera. Anne Ferran has used con- 
vict women's clothes to create a series of evocative 
photograms in which the ghostly qualities of the 
medium evoke the bodily forms of women whose 
histories are now otherwise lost. 

Another significant aspect of contemporary 
photography in the 1990s was the re-working of 
traditional processes and styles, most notably in 
the area of documentary photography. After 
years of critical neglect, documentary practices 
underwent a surge in popularity with a new gen- 
eration using and extending this way of working to 
explore the world around them. Two Australian 
prizes that helped encourage documentary photo- 
graphy among younger practitioners were held in 
the 1990s: The Felix H. Man Memorial Prize, at the 



National Gallery of Victoria (1992 and 1993), and 
the Leica Documentary Photography Award, at 
the Centre for Contemporary Photography, Mel- 
bourne in 1998 (ongoing). 

One of the most significant photographic trends 
of the 1990s, which continues to develop, is the 
outstanding work produced by Aboriginal and 
Torres Strait Islander photographers. In a fascinat- 
ing twist on nineteenth century photography, indi- 
genous photographs are often reconfiguring 
images of indigenous people taken by European 
photographers. Leah King-Smith and Brook 
Andrew, for instance, have both produced power- 
ful bodies of work that quote nineteenth century 
photography in order to question how Aboriginal 
people have been depicted and to reassert their 
own continuing presence. 

The work of indigenous artists is one important 
aspect of the robust contemporary photographic 
scene in Australia. Despite its relatively small 
population (around 19 million), the country has 
a rich photographic tradition and continues to 
produce many talented photographers. Although 
Australian practitioners historically have tended 
to follow broad international trends, the images 
they produced often showed considerable innova- 
tion and experimentation. Some, especially in the 
early to mid 1900s, sought to create an Australian 
photographic style based on local conditions and 
subjects — a desire for distinction that is of less 
interest among contemporary practitioners whose 
work is generally "internationalist" in appear- 
ance. While photography has a well-established 
and respected place in Australia's visual arts, 
knowledge of its practitioners internationally is 
relatively limited: outside of Tracey Moffatt and 
Bill Henson, who have well-established interna- 
tional careers, few others are known in any 
depth. However, as the domination by traditional 
centers of photography is slowly replaced by a 
more encompassing and inclusive worldview, it 
seems likely that the significant and ongoing con- 
tributions of Australian photographers will reach 
wider prominence. 

ISOBEL CROMBIE 

See also: Australian Centre for Photography; Digi- 
tal Photography; Documentary Photography; Link- 
ed Ring Brotherhood; Pictorialism; Postmodernism; 
Newton, Helmut 



Further Reading 

Cato, Jack. The Story of the Camera in Australia. Mel- 
bourne: Georgian House, 1955. 



90 



AUSTRALIAN CENTRE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY 



Crombie, Isobel, and Sandra Byron. Twenty Contemporary 
Australian Photographers: From the Hallmark Cards Aus- 
tralian Photographic Collection. Melbourne: National 
Gallery of Victoria, 1990. 

Ennis, Helen. Australian Photography: The 1980s. Mel- 
bourne: Australian National Gallery, 1988. 

French, Blair, ed. Photo Files: An Australian Photography 
Reader. Sydney: Power Publications and Australian 
Centre for Photography, 1999. 

Gellatly, Kelly. Re-Take: Contemporary Aboriginal and 
Torres Strait Islander Photography. Canberra: National 
Gallery of Australia, 1998. 

Michael, Linda. Photography is Dead! Long Live Photogra- 
phy! Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1996. 

Moore, Catriona. Indecent Exposures: Twenty Years of 
Australian Feminist Photography. Sydney: Allen and 
Unwin; Power Institute of Fine Arts, 1994. 



Newton, Gael. Silver and Grey: Fifty Years of Australian 

Photography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1980. 
Newton, Gael. Shades of Light: Photography and Australia, 

1839-1988. Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 

1988. 
North, Ian. A Decade of Australian Photography, 1972- 

1982: The Philip Morris Arts Grant at the Australian 

National Gallery, Canberra. Canberra: Australian 

National Gallery, 1983. 
Taylor, Penny, ed. After 200 Years: Photographic Essays of 

Aboriginal and Islander Australia Today. Canberra: 

Aboriginal Studies Press, 1988. 
Willis, Anne-Marie. Picturing Australia: A History of 

Photography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1988. 



AUSTRALIAN CENTRE FOR 
PHOTOGRAPHY 



The Australian Centre for Photography (ACP) is a 
publicly funded gallery curating exhibitions of Aus- 
tralian and international photography, combined 
with a workshop offering courses to the public 
and access to photographic facilities. It also pub- 
lishes the magazine Photofile. 

The ACP opened in 1974 and it was very much a 
child of its time. Interest in photography as a crea- 
tive art was booming in Australia in the early 
1970s. Art museums were establishing departments 
to collect and exhibit international and Australian 
photography, art schools were establishing photo- 
graphy departments to turn out graduates in what 
was then regarded as the hottest new medium, 
entrepreneurial individuals were opening (mostly 
short-lived) private photography galleries, and 
magazine and book publishers were experimenting 
with (mostly short-lived) publications devoted to 
the new art form. The boom took off first in Mel- 
bourne, but spread to other provincial capitals. 
This photography boom coincided with a general 
cultural and social renaissance in Australia, fueled 
in large part by greatly increased arts funding as a 
result of the progressive federal government, which 
had been elected in 1972. 

In this climate a small group, led by the impor- 
tant Australian documentary photographer David 



Moore, successfully applied to the government for 
funds to set up a 'foundation' for photography. 
Their initial plans were wildly grand: they con- 
ceived of it having a populist, social role (somewhat 
akin to Edward Steichen's gathering the millions of 
photographs from which he selected the seminal 
The Family of Man exhibition shown at the 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1955) as 
well as a professional role in supporting individual 
photographers — from giving them direct grants 
and commissions to collecting their work. But 
within a year or two of its opening APC had settled 
into a mode of exhibiting curated shows of photo- 
graphy to an art audience on a gallery/museum 
model, occasionally touring exhibitions, and offer- 
ing facilities and courses to the general public in a 
workshop that was established in 1976. 

The ACP has always suffered an uneasy relation- 
ship with its shifting and fractious constituency. In 
its formative years it was resented by some for 
draining scarce funds away from the other artist- 
run photography spaces, quasi-commercial photo- 
graphy galleries, and small photography magazines 
that were springing up and struggling to survive 
across Australia. This single institution, located in 
the heart of Australia's largest and wealthiest city, 
was a natural magnet for accusations of elitism and 



91 



AUSTRALIAN CENTRE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY 



for being out of touch with "real" photography — 
whatever that was — since the term covered a con- 
stantly changing and expanding range of practices. 

The ACP came into its own under the aegis of 
American museum-based formalism. In its forma- 
tive years the ACP imported exhibitions by Amer- 
ican masters, such as Diane Arbus; and American 
masters themselves, such as the then Director of the 
Photography Department of the Museum of Mod- 
ern Art New York, John Szarkowski, in 1974, and 
the photographer Lee Friedlander in 1977. How- 
ever the ACP also began to exhibit and support the 
first generation of Australian art school graduates, 
including Carol Jerrems, Bill Henson, and Max 
Pam. It also began to bring important aspects of 
Australia's photographic heritage to light, for 
instance by giving Australia's most important 
photographer, Max Dupain, his first retrospective 
in 1975. Olive Cotton, now one of Australia's most 
loved photographers, was virtually unknown when 
she held her first retrospective at the ACP in 1985. 

Between 1978 and 1982 its director, the U.S. 
trained Christine Godden, established a new level 
of museum professionalism in the gallery, and suc- 
ceeded in moving the ACP to its present location in a 
busy and fashionable shopping precinct. But during 
this period the ACP was criticized for perpetuating a 
so-called "photo ghetto," focusing narrowly on a 
formalist aesthetic, at a time when camera images 
were exponentially increasing in quantity, prolifer- 
ating in format, becoming the central theoretical 
object of postmodern theories of representation, 
and forming the lingua franca of contemporary art 
in general. 

From 1982, with Tamara Winikoff as director, 
the ACP deliberately tried to broaden and connect 
itself to a wider variety of communities. In 1983 it 
began to publish Photofile, which contained reviews 
and longer historical, critical, and theoretical arti- 
cles. The gallery program now often featured 
community-based and issue oriented exhibitions 
exemplified by the 'suitcase shows' it toured, 
which were inspired by the radical socially aware 
practices of British photographers like Jo Spence. 

Photofile was particularly exciting in the mid 
1980s, with the critic Geoffrey Batchen as editor, 
because by then a whole range of sophisticated 
discourses had taken the photograph as their prin- 
cipal subject, and a new generation of theoretically 
savvy art school graduates placed the photographic 



image — if not the idea of photography as an auton- 
omous, historicized, fine art medium — at center 
stage in Australian art. 

During the 1990s, with Denise Robinson as 
director, this new wave of art school graduates, 
such as Tracey Moffatt, Anne Zahalka, or Robin 
Stacey, were all featured in the gallery, which also 
became an important Sydney Biennale and Sydney 
Gay and Lesbian Mardis Gras venue. At the same 
time, however, the Workshop was languishing, 
Photofile was disappearing under a miasma of 
thick prose and arch imagery, and the ACP was 
falling into debt. 

Much of the tenure of the next director Deborah 
Ely, appointed in 1992, was involved with success- 
fully negotiating the re-financing and extension of 
the ACP's building, as well as upgrading and 
updating the Workshop and revitalizing Photofile. 
The gallery, although closed for refurbishment for 
long periods, continued the trend of exhibiting 
work in photographically related, particularly digi- 
tal, media. 

The current director, Alasdair Foster, faces an 
entirely different climate from the one into which 
the ACP was born. Photography is no longer a 
young medium impatiently knocking on the doors 
of art. As an art practice its edges have long since 
dissolved into digital media, film, performance, 
and installation. It is now a pervasive cultural and 
psychological phenomenon. The ACP is no longer 
the sole 'foundation' for photography in Australia, 
it is now just a small part of a vibrant and well 
established matrix of museums, libraries, galleries, 
magazines, and art schools across the continent. 

Martyn Jolly 



Further Reading 

Australian Centre for Photography Website: www.acp.au. 

com (accessed May 4, 2005). 
Ely, Deborah. "The Australian Centre for Photography." 

The History of Photography (Australia Issue) 23 (1999) 

no. 2. 
French, Blair, ed. Photo Files. Sydney: The Australian Cen- 
tre for Photography and Power Publications, 1999. 
Newton, Gael. Shades of Light: Photography and Australia 

1839-1988. Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 

1988. 
Willis, Anne-Marie. Picturing Australia: A History of 

Photography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1988. 



92 



B 



ROGER BALLEN 



South African 

Roger Ballen grew up with an awareness of photo- 
graphy as an art form. His mother, Adrienne Bal- 
len, worked at Magnum Photos from 1963 to 1967, 
when she founded Photography House, a gallery 
that showed the work of Andre Kertesz. 

In Ballen's first book of photography, Boyhood 
(1977), he describes how his mother's untimely death 
set him off on a four-year odyssey in search of his own 
boyhood, a recuperative journey that broadened into 
one of rediscovering himself. Boyhood searches for 
what is universal in boys: the Tom Sawyerish fantas- 
ies and bonding in their play, the stock characters 
among their peers, the "clown, Romeo, bully, sore 
sport, hothead, leader, weakling, braggart, tattletale, 
mope, do-nothing, nice guy, thickhead." Boys in tem- 
ples, in rags, in motion, in mourning, all are photo- 
graphed in spontaneous action or posed, often in a 
way Ballen favors for extracting an essence: com- 
pressed between the camera and a wall. 

Boyhood took Ballen to South Africa, where he 
settled in 1982 and married the painter Linda Mor- 
oss. Armed with a Ph.D. in Mineral Economics, he 
established a successful career in mining, which took 
him to remote and depressed parts of the country. 
Here he photographed the fabric of small towns, or 
dorps — the churches, main streets, stores, signs, and 



the grain of dilapidating Edwardian columns, rail- 
ings, and roof ornaments, which suggested to him "a 
nostalgia for a distant unattainable splendor." In his 
resulting book, Dorps: Small Towns of South Africa 
(1986), he relates a desire to freeze time, preserving 
these environments against modernization, much as 
Boyhood had sought to still the innocent timeless- 
ness of childhood. But it is the inhabitants and their 
habitations, particularly the interiors filled with per- 
sonal mementos, ornaments, and pinups, that loom 
larger than the towns in Dorps. Ballen likens his 
subjects to the hillfolk of Appalachia, frozen in an 
earlier era. Their poverty is evident, and the viewer 
suspects inbreeding in the cramped interiors, scan- 
dals in the dirty sheets between the peeling walls. 
Furthermore, beneath these surfaces lie the in- 
grained realities of apartheid. These are strictly seg- 
regated towns, conservative and racist, parison with 
American photographers of the rural South during 
the depression of 1930s, particularly Walker Evans, 
Margaret Bourke- White, and Dorothea Lange. 

The tensions that are subtle in Dorps come to the 
foreground in Ballen's next book, Platteland: 
Images from Rural South Africa (1995). (Platteland 
is a generic term that means "flatlands" in Afri- 
kaans, and applies to the dreary region of rural 
plains dotted with dorps) Ballen's introduction to 



93 



BALLEN, ROGER 



Platteland clarifies that South Africa's psychosis 
had now gripped him tighter than earlier, when he 
was still a relative newcomer. Also, time had not 
stood still. Between Dorps and Platteland, the apart- 
heid regime thrashed through the paroxysms of its 
death throes. First, in the late 1980s, when the gov- 
ernment was run by a shadowy clutch of hawks in 
the military, intelligence, and police forces, the state 
unleashed a viciously repressive state-of-emergency. 
When this failed to quash resistance, Nelson Man- 
dela was finally released in 1990, opposition politi- 



cal parties were unbanned, and negotiations began 
for a new constitution and a democratic election, 
which was held in 1994. In this transitional phase, 
the rural areas were particularly tense as conserva- 
tive whites tried to reverse the changes underfoot, 
engaging in sabotage and violence against black 
communities, while reactionary elements in the 
government simultaneously sponsored terrorism 
against urban black populations. 

In Platteland, the poor whites of the region have 
moved to center stage, assuming a new tragic dimen- 




Roger Ballen, Dresie and Casie, twins, Western Transvaal, 1993. 
[© Roger Ballen] 



94 



BALTZ, LEWIS 



sion as "ironic archetypes of alienation and immobil- 
ity, victims of both political forces and personal cir- 
cumstances, defending themselves against economic 
deprivation and psychological anguish in a hostile 
and unyielding environment." They witness the 
crumbling of a system specifically designed to ele- 
vate them over blacks and guarantee them govern- 
ment employment. Experiencing a backlash of 
increased crime and violence against them, guns 
are now visible in several homes. A few mixed re- 
lationships testify to the legalization of sex between 
the races. 

In Platteland, irony stiffens the tension between 
the subjects' hardscrabble poverty and the senti- 
mentality they attach to pets, pictures, possessions, 
family life, and toys. So too, between their battered 
bodies, the dross of their lives, and the gloss of 
consumer products and the glamour of pin-ups 
fixed to the wall — along with the subjects' shadows. 
This disjunction is also evident between the posed 
and composed subjects and the disarray of their 
homes, and between the humor some reveal and 
their sad circumstances. 

These are unsettling portraits in which one senses 
the horror of a horrible era. They are closer to the 
edgier strain of documentary that gained momen- 
tum after the depravity of World War II than to the 
sympathetic and optimistic humanism of much doc- 
umentary photography up to and including the 1955 
Family of Man exhibition. As Ballen remarks, "I 
believe that humanity is inherently more evil than 
good and part of my motivation is to force the 
confrontation of that." Ballen's use of hard flash 
and the overall grayness of the images, masterfully 
printed by his friend Dennis da Silva, formally 
strengthen his association with such photographers 



as Diane Arbus and, although Ballen's work is for- 
mally antithetical to street photography and the 
snapshot, Weegee and Jacob Riis. 

In Outland(200l), Ballen's subjects are not passive 
victims of the lens but expressive actors performing 
elaborately staged poses. This embroils them, the 
photographer, and the viewer in the bizarre tragedy 
of life in which we are all trapped. Graffiti and the 
wires that dangle haphazardly in these poorly elec- 
trified homes animate both moments and surfaces 
with anxious energy. Where in earlier pictures such 
elements may have been present by chance, now they 
are deliberately placed, formal elements that struc- 
ture the composition and intensify the allusions to 
Ballen's "universal and metaphorical scenarios." 
Some actors, too, are familiar subjects returning in 
varied guises with new props: none of us is ever the 
same from moment to moment. 

Through all of this, as in life, runs the latent charge 
that flows both in the flux between difference, and 
within the same. Arguably, it is more in this latter 
sense, of the diverse motivations that may stir within 
the self, ranging from the self-hatred of a flagellant to 
the self-love of a Narcissus, that these pictures hold 
up before us the mirror of our temporality. 

Gary Van Wyk 

See also: Documentary Photography; Photography 
in Africa: South and Southern 



Biography 

Born in New York City in 1950. Settled in 1982 in South 
Africa and married the painter Linda Moross. With a 
Ph.D. in Mineral Economics, he established a successful 
career in mining that took him to many small commu- 
nities where he photographed the fabric of the land. 



LEWIS BALTZ 



American 

Lewis Baltz is a leading figure in the New Topogra- 
phy movement. His large-scale photographic studies 
of commercial developments in the United States 
reflect a detached objectivity. Working within the 
tradition of the movement's iconography of realism, 
his photographs of these often minimalist structures 



comment on and reflect the corrosive destruction of 
the natural landscape by postwar American develop- 
ment. Baltz began his career photographing in the 
West and later worked abroad. In the late 1980s he 
moved away from subjects that formed the New 
Topographic genre, identified by a seminal 1975 ex- 
hibition, and into color and digital photography. A 



95 



BALTZ, LEWIS 



concern with the relationship among power, archi- 
tecture, and photography unites his work, as does a 
sense of temporal urgency. A theorist and writer as 
well as a photographer, Baltz is sought after as an 
expert on photographic realism and the integrity of 
the documentary image. Throughout his work he 
engages critically in issues that are essential to con- 
temporary urbanism and representation. 

Born in Newport Beach, California in 1945, Baltz 
was influenced by the rapid commercial development 
all around him as he was growing up, as farmland 
was transformed from landscape into real estate both 
commerical and residential. After study at the San 
Francisco Art Institute where he received his B.F.A. 
in 1969, he attended the Claremont Graduate School 
where he received his M.F.A. in 1971 and began his 
well-known series, The Tract Houses (1969-1971), 25 
images of an estate of newly erected standard houses 
that depict an architecture where individuality has 
been eliminated. This series led to Baltz's inclusion in 
the 1975 exhibition New Topographies: Photographs 
of a Man-Altered Landscape, at the George Eastman 
House in Rochester, New York, which united major 
international figures who shared similar photographic 
viewpoints, including Robert Adams, Stephen Shore, 
and Bernd and Hilla Becher. 

Baltz's next project continued in this genre, 
detailing the facades of 5 1 buildings in the second 
largest industrial park development outside of the 
Soviet Union in New Industrial Parks, Irvine Cali- 
fornia (1975). The photographs initially seem innoc- 
uous but become frustrating with their clean, 
technically precise images of factories with their 
impenetrable walls. Baltz also isolates details like 
openings that are utterly closed, adding a frighten- 
ing mystery to the series. "You don't know whether 
they're manufacturing pantyhose or mega death," 
Baltz explained. 

Baltz continued his intensely detailed, multi-pic- 
torial mapping of the alienating effects of commer- 
cial development through his prolific black and 
white studies throughout the 1970s and early 
1980s. These photographic documentations, most 
of which are accompanied by a publication, include 
The Tract Houses (1969-1971), Maryland (1976), 
Nevada (1977-1978). Nevada strikingly depicts of 
the wreckage caused by development in the Nevada 
desert. Park City (1980-1981) continues his inquiry 
into commercial development and includes 102 
8x10 inch photographs, documenting the develop- 
ment of the country's largest ski resort and the 
metamorphosis of a territory, from coal mining 
area to skiing complex. 

In the mid-1980s, Baltz became increasingly inter- 
ested in the marginal zones of urban planning, open 



areas where one sees both nature and the presence of 
industrialization. San Quentin Point (1982-1983) for 
example features 59 photographs of detritus and 
empty landscape with forensic detail as if investigat- 
ing a crime scene — a land scraped bare of almost all 
natural references. In this work, he increasingly 
moves away from a clear narrative trajectory or 
moral perspective, and from traditional perspective 
and realism by isolating details, ridding the land of 
recognizable markers, and reflecting the disorienta- 
tion caused by this junked space. Near Reno ( 1 986), 1 4 
photographs, also documents a terrain of scattered 
seemingly meaningless objects. For Candlestick Point 
(1984-1986) Baltz scans a hilly dumping site in a 
neighborhood of San Francisco. In the late 1980s, he 
settled in Europe, and began to work in color, often 
making larger prints for works, leading to muralistic 
studies of urban surveillance such as Rule Without 
Exception (1991) and in the spectacular Ronde de 
Nuit (1992), 12 large, unframed Cibachrome prints. 

His work in the 1990s uses digital photography to 
further investigate the representational ability of 
the photograph, juxtaposing various documetnary 
genres, sometimes even breaking down the image to 
unrecognizable parts, showing the limitations of 
photography to reveal truth, for example in the 
trilogy, Ronde du Nuit, Docile Bodies (1995), and 
Politics of Bacteria (1995). These works expand his 
critique of realism and maintain his emphasis on 
architecture and the architectural qualities of pho- 
tography while being increasingly interested in 
science and technology. In his more recent work, 
he has been inspired by cultural theorists Guy De- 
bord and Michel Foucault and urban theorist Paul 
Virilio, with their analysis of the politics of space, 
power, and spectacle in postmodernity. His works 
are also produced in other media besides photo- 
graphic installations. Deaths in Newport was pro- 
duced as a book and CD-Rom in 1995 and in many 
of his projects and productions, especially in the 
1990s, Baltz has become directly involved in plan- 
ning within a city or neighborhood. 

Although Baltz remains frequently defined by 
his inclusion in the New Topography group, he 
resists easy categorization given the diversity of 
his work since the 1970s. His work shares concerns 
shown by other documentarians of urban land- 
scapes including Charles Sheeler, Berenice Abbott, 
and Walker Evans. Links can also be made with 
conceptual photographic works of Ed Ruscha in 
the 1960s. Uniting the work, however, is an inquiry 
into photography's ability to reveal truth, regardless 
of quantity or scale of the work, a project not con- 
fined to the New Topographic, social documentary, 
or landscape traditions. 



96 



BALTZ, LEWIS 



At the Canadian Centre for Architecture in 2002, 
an exhibition of the New Industrial Parks, Irvine 
California series asserted a relationship between 
architecture and photography that Baltz has seen 
since the beginning of his career. Baltz's concept of 
architecture is that it is the most prominent and 
enduring material artifact produced by the dialectic 
of nature and culture, and his practice attempts to 
formalize this theoretical stance by producing 
architectural photographic experiences. 

Danielle Schwartz 

See also: Abbott, Berenice; Adams, Robert; Archi- 
tectural Photography; Becher, Bernd and Hilla; 
Evans, Walker; Sheeler, Charles; Shore, Stephen 



Biography 

Born in Newport Beach, California, September 12, 1945. 
San Francisco Art Institute, B.F.A. 1969; Claremont 
Graduate School, M.F.A. 1971. Begins association 
with Castelli Graphics, New York, 1971. Part-time 
Instructor, Pomona College, Claremont, 1970-1971; Vis- 
iting Lecturer in Art, University of California, Davis, 
1981; Regent's Visitor in Art, University of California, 
Santa Cruz, 1982; Visiting Artist, Rhode Island School 
of Design, Providence 1983; Visiting Associate Pro- 
fessor of Art, University of California Riverside and 
Santa Cruz, and University of Victoria, British Colum- 
bia, 1984; Visiting Artist, California Institute of the Arts, 
Winter 1992 and 1998; Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut, Spring 1992 and 1999; Ecole nationale 
superieure des Beaux-arts, Paris, Fall 1992; Hochschule 
fur Gestaltung, Zurich, Switzerland, Fall 1993; Ecole 
superieure d'Art et de Design, Reims, France, 1994- 
1995; Academy of Fine Arts, Helsinki, April, 1995; Uni- 
versity of Goteburg, Sweden, 1995; Royal College of Art, 
London, 1998 and 1999; Visiting Professor, Hochschule 
fur Gestaltung, Offenbach am Main, 1999-2001 Profes- 
sor, Instituto Universitario di Architecture de Venezia. 
Recipient of National Endowment for the Arts Fellow- 
ship 1973, 1977; John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Fellowship, 1977; Professor of Photography, European 
Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, 2002. Living 
in Paris and Zagreb, Croatia. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1971 Castelli Graphics, New York, New York 

1972 George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

1974 Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

1975 Philadelphia College of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 

1976 Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, Corcoran Ga- 
llery of Art, Washington, D.C, Baltimore Museum of 
Art, Baltimore, Maryland, La Jolla Museum of Con- 
temporary Art, La Jolla, California 

1985 Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. 

1986 Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, California 

1987 Galerie Espace L'Orient, Paris, France, Tokyo Insti- 
tute of Polytechnics, Tokyo, Japan 



1991 Rule Without Exception: P.S. 1, Long Island City, New 
York 

1992 La Ronde de Nuit: Seibu Contemporary Art, Tokyo, 
Japan; Centre Pompidou, Paris, France; Stedelijk Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 

1995 Works 1979-1994: Lousiana Museum of Modern Art, 
Humlebaek, Denmark 

1998 Lewis Baltz: the Politics of Bacteria, Docile Bodies, 
Ronde de Nuit: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los 
Angeles, California 

2002 Lewis Baltz: Park City, Contemporary Photographs: 
Yale University Art Museum, New Haven, Connecticut 
New Industrial Parks, Irvine California: Canadian 
Centre for Architecture, Montreal, Canada 

Lewis Baltz: Nevada and Other Photographs: Prince- 
ton Art Museum, Princeton, New Jersey 



Group Exhibitions 

1975 New Topographies: Photographs of a Man- Altered 
Landscape; International Museum of Photography and 
Film, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

1977 La Photographic creatrice au XXe Steele; Musee 
national d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, France 

1978 Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 
1960. Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, 
and toured the United States, 1978-1980 

1979 American Images: Cocoran Gallery of Art, Washing- 
ton, D.C, and traveling to the International Center of 
Photography, New York, New York; Museum of Fine 
Arts, Houston, Texas: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Indianapolis Museum of 
Art, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1980; American Academy, 
Rome, Italy, 1981 

1982 Slices of Time: Oakland Art Museum, California, and 
traveling to the Security Pacific National Bank, Los 
Angeles, California 

1984 Photography in California 1945-1980: San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, and 
traveling to the Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio; Cor- 
coran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C; Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, Los Angeles, California; Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York; High Museum of Art, 
Atlanta, Georgia; Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany; 
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France; Museum of 
Photographic Art, San Diego, California 

1985 American Images: Barbican Art Gallery, London, 
England, and toured Britain 

1986 The Real Big Picture: Queens Museum of Art, Queens, 
New York 

1987 Photographs and Art 1946-1986: Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 

1990 Signs of Life: Process and Materials, 1960-1990: ICA, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

1992 Wasteland: Rotterdam Biennial III, Rotterdam, the 
Netherlands 

1993 Critical Landscapes: Metropolitan Museum of Photo- 
graphy, Tokyo, Japan 

1999 The American Century: Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, New York 

2000 Visions from America: Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, New York 

2003 Cruel and Tender: The Real in the Twentieth-century 



97 



BALTZ, LEWIS 



Photograph: The Tate Modern, London, England, and 
the Museum Ludwig, Koln, Germany 



Selected Works 

The Tract Houses, 1969-1971 

The New Industrial Parks Near Irvine, California, 1975 

Maryland, 1976 

Nevada, 1978 

Park City Utah, 1980 

San Quentin Point, 1986 

Candlestick Point, 1986 

Rule Without Exception, 1991 

Ronde de Nuit, 1992 

Docile Bodies, 1995 

Politics of Bacteria, 1995 



Further Reading 

Baltz, Lewis. The New Industrial Parks Near Irvine, Califor- 
nia. New York: Castelli Graphics, 1974; 2nd edition 
Baltz, Lewis. Baltz, Lewis. The New Industrial Parks 
Near Irvine, California, 2nd Edition. Los Angeles: Ram 
Publications, 2001. 

Baltz, Lewis, ed. Contemporary American Photographic 
Works. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1977. 

Baltz, Lewis. Nevada. New York: Castelli Graphics, 1978. 

Baltz, Lewis, and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel. Lewis Baltz. 
Paris: Editions de la Difference, 1993. 

Baltz, Lewis, and Gus Blaisdell. Park City. Albuquerque: 
Artspace Press, 1980. 

Butler, Connie. The Politics of Bacteria, Docile Bodies, 
Ronde de nuit. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary 
Art and Ram Publications, 1998. 




Lewis Baltz, South Corner, Riccar America Company, 3184 Pullman, Costa Mesa, 1974, 
gelatin silver print, 15.1 x 22.8 cm, Gift of the photographer. 
[Photograph courtesy of George Eastman House, © Lewis Baltz] 



BARR, JR., ALFRED H. 



Green, J. American Photography: A Critical History 1945 to 
the Present. New York: 1984. 

Turrell, Julia Brown, ed. Lewis Baltz: Rule Without Excep- 
tion. Des Moines: Des Moines Art Center, and Albu- 
querque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991. 



Weinberg, Adam, and Lewis Baltz. The New Industrial 
Parks Near Irvine, California. Los Angeles: Ram Pub- 
lications, 2001. 



ALFRED H. BARR, JR. 



American 

Widely regarded as an eloquent writer on the sub- 
ject of modern art, Alfred H. Barr Jr. became the 
first director of the Museum of Modern Art, New 
York (MoMA) in 1929. This appointment was the 
product of the labors of the so-called "adamantine 
ladies," wealthy patrons Abby Rockefeller, Lillie P. 
Bliss, and Mary Quinn Sullivan, who began plan- 
ning for the first museum devoted to contemporary 
art the previous year. After preliminary meetings, 
the women enlisted the expertise of Harvard Uni- 
versity Fogg Art Museum Director Paul J. Sachs, 
who in turn recommended 27 year-old Barr, a for- 
mer student from Sachs's famed "museum course" 
at Harvard. 

Though initially Alfred Barr deferred, contend- 
ing that Sachs himself would make a better inau- 
gural director, Barr was excited at the prospect and 
ultimately convinced of his own readiness to direct 
the Museum, which quickly became a reality in the 
months immediately preceding the devastating 
stock market crash of 1929. In fact, Barr was 
both well prepared and well compensated for his 
newly awarded position, which commanded the 
then giant salary of $10,000 per year with a 
$2,500 stipend. 

Prior to taking the position for which he is so 
associated, Barr taught at Vassar College in Pough- 
keepsie, New York, before going to Europe in 1924. 
For the 1925-1926 academic year Barr was a- 
warded an associate professorship at Wellesley Col- 
lege in Massachusetts where he taught the first-ever 
official course in Modern Art, a subject first cano- 
nized in the aftermath of the Armory Show of 1913 
held at the 69th-regiment armory in New York 
City. One of the most historic American exhibi- 
tions, the Armory Show aroused a great deal of 
emotion — much of it outrage — for the avant-garde 
artwork it displayed. 



After pioneering the Vassar course in modern art, 
Barr again headed to Europe. He visited married 
artists Alexsandr Rodchenko and Varvara Stepa- 
nova in Russia and then the Bauhaus in Dessau, 
Germany, before returning to Vassar with a wider 
range of reference for modern art scholarship, 
which would be his lifetime vocation. 

Besides being a popular young professor at the 
women's colleges, Barr was introduced to the Ame- 
rican public when he was asked to write an article 
for Vanity Fair magazine based on tests incorpo- 
rated into his modern art curriculum: his 50-ques- 
tion "Modern Art Questionnaire" was published 
in August 1927. While Barr noted in the intro- 
duction that "there are no spellbinders such as: 
Name four important artist-photographers whose 
names begin with St---," the questionnaire 
included items on Saks Fifth Avenue, James 
Joyce, and The Barnes Collection of Pennsylvania. 
This article can be seen against the backdrop of 
philistine criticism of abstract art. With his pench- 
ant for formal analysis, Barr is perceived as having 
had a one-man mission to convert the public into 
modern art believers. 

Born the eldest son to a prolific Presbyterian 
preacher's family and reared in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, Barr received his B.A. in 1922 and his M.A. 
in 1923 from Princeton University in New Jersey. 
His rigorous and analytical art historical training, 
largely under the tutelage of Professor Charles 
Rufus Morey, cultivated his interest in the disci- 
pline, and provided an antecedent for the way 
Barr would configure the institution of the 
MoMA. While in school, Barr made frequent trips 
to New York City, where he saw exhibitions of late 
nineteenth-century French painting at the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, consisting of works repre- 
sentative of the seeds of modern art. Barr also 
visited the 291 Gallery, also known as the Little 



99 



BARR, JR., ALFRED H. 



Galleries of the Photo-Secession, run by photogra- 
pher Alfred Stieglitz. 

From its beginning the Museum of Modern Art 
was a major force in contemporary American art, 
unique in its incorporation of living artists into 
its program. The first of the seven exhibitions 
of the first year of the MOMA, consisting of 98 
works by French painters, opened at the end of 
1929 on the 12th floor of the Heckscher Building 
on Fifth Avenue in New York. The walls, erected 
within the extant space under the direction of Barr, 
were covered in light-hued monk's cloth to pro- 
vide an appropriate base for the display of modern 
art. The inaugural exhibitions at MoMA, widely 
informed by the collections and collecting habits 
of the museum patrons and trustees, showcased 
both European and American art, of which the 
European examples were hugely favored over 
the American ones. 

In 1930, before the full effects of the stock mar- 
ket crash of the previous year and ensuing depres- 
sion were felt, which in any case had little bearing 
on families such as the Rockefellers and Blisses, 
Alfred Barr married Italian Margaret Scolari-Fitz- 
maurice in Paris at a church on Quay D'Orsay. 
Marga, or Daisy as Mrs. Barr was also known, 
spoke many languages and was an indispensable 
travel partner and general administrator for her 
husband. From the outset, Barr's role as director 
was a professorial rather than administrative one, 
evident in the way he generously compiled summer 
reading lists for trustees including titles by Thor- 
sten Veblen. 

In his introduction to the catalogue for "Art In 
Our Time, an exhibition to celebrate the tenth anni- 
versary of the Museum of Modern Art and the 
opening of its new building (11 W. 53rd Street) 
held at the time of the New York World's Fair, 
1939," Barr wrote that MoMA "is a laboratory: in 
its experiments the public is invited to participate." 
Barr's concept of the laboratory incorporated an 
interdisciplinary vision of the museum, which 
included the establishment of departments of film, 
photography, design, and architecture. 

The first ten years of MoMA constituted Barr's 
most influential in terms of programming. In 1932, 
Barr's colleagues and friends, architects Henry- 
Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, curated 
the seminal exhibition Modern Architecture: Inter- 
national Exhibition, which established the active 
relationship between the modern and contempor- 
ary art. In 1934 Barr mounted the Machine Art 
exhibition showcasing the design collection among 
other things. Late that same year Dorothy Miller, a 



talented art historian, began a long tenure at 
MoMA with an appointment as her friend Alfred 
Barr's assistant. In 1936, Barr organized one of his 
most respected shows, Cubism and Abstract Art, 
the catalogue of which contained the famous 
Barr-authored diagram on The Development of 
Abstract Art. 

Photography always played a central role in 
Barr's modern art and was exhibited as early as 
1932. In the mid- 1930s Beaumont Newhall, also 
from Sachs's museum course at the Fogg, was 
hired as the first MoMA librarian. In addition, he 
served as official photographer. Newhall told 
MoMA biographer Russell Lynes: 

Barr had long wanted an exhibition of photographs on a 
scale with the biggest of the painting exhibitions and 
given the same importance as had been given them. 

With all haste, Newhall and his new wife Nancy 
were sent by Barr to Europe to get material for the 
historic Photography, 1839-1937, a traveling exhi- 
bition of European and American photographic 
work and equipment. In addition to his formative 
years as director, Barr's major contribution to the 
field of modern art came in the form of his volume 
of writings and his dedication to the permanent 
collections of MoMA. In 1943, following the 1941 
appointment of Nelson A. Rockefeller as museum 
president and the museum's increased relationship 
with the U.S. government, Barr was officially dis- 
missed as director, though he never gave up his 
office on the premises. Five years later, the same 
year Edward Steichen became the director of De- 
partment of Photography, Barr was appointed 
director of the newly formed Museum Collections 
department, a post which he held for the next 20 
years, building the museum's world-renowned col- 
lection until his retirement in 1967. 

Sara Greenberger 

See also: Modernism; Museum of Modern Art; New- 
hall, Beaumont; Steichen, Edward; Stieglitz, Alfred 



Biography 

Born Alfred Hamilton Barr, Jr. in Detroit, Michigan, 1902. 
Art History, Princeton, B.A., 1922. Art History, Prince- 
ton, M.A., 1923. Attended Harvard University, Art His- 
tory and Museum Studies, with Paul J. Sachs, 1924. 
Taught Art History Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New 
York, 1924 and Princeton University, Princeton, New 
Jersey, 1925. Assistant Professor, Wellesley College, Well- 
esley, Massachusetts, 1925-1927. Director of the Museum 
ofModern Art, New York, 1929-1943. Director, Museum 
Collections, Museum ofModern Art, New York 1947- 
1967. Died in Salisbury, Connecticut, 15 August 1981. 



100 



BARTHES, ROLAND 



Further Reading 

Barr, Alfred H. Jr. and the Museum of Modern Art. Cubism 

and Abstract Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 

1936. 
Barr, Alfred H. Jr., ed. Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism. 

New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936. 
Barr, Alfred H. Jr., ed. Machine Art, March 6 to April 30, 

1934. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1934. 
Barr, Alfred H. Jr. Painting and Sculpture in the Museum of 

Modern Art, 1929-1977. New York: Museum of Modern 

Art, 1977. 



Kantor, Sybil Gordon. Alfred H. Barr, Jr. and the Intellec- 
tual Origins of the Museum of Modern Art. Cambridge, 
MA, and London: The MIT Press, 2002. 

Lynes, Russell. Good Old Modern: An Intimate Portrait of 
the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Atheneum, 1973. 

Marquis, Alice Goldfarb. Alfred H. Barr Jr.: Missionary for 
the Modern. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc., 1989. 

Sandler, Irving, and Amy Newman, eds. Defining Modern 
Art: Selected Writings of Alfred H. Barr, Jr. New York: 
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986. 



ROLAND BARTHES 



French 

Until his death in 1980, Roland Barthes' professional 
writing career spanned more than three decades, 
during which he sporadically offered commentary 
about the medium of photography. Most prominent 
among Barthes' writings on photography are three 
essays — The Photographic Message (1961), Rhetoric 
of the Image (1964), and The Third Meaning (1970) — 
and one book, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photo- 
graphy (1980). Associated at first with the structur- 
alism of Claude Levi-Strauss) and the semiology of 
Ferdinand de Saussure, Barthes is also considered 
a poststructuralist, that is, one of many, such as 
Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida, who offer a 
radical critique of structuralism's faith in the stabi- 
lity of linguistic structures and its capacity to provide 
the analytical grid by which a new synthesis of all the 
human sciences could be established. Barthes' writ- 
ings on photography, therefore, emphasize different 
issues at different times; all, however, depend on the 
nomenclature of structuralism and semiology. 

In the 1950s Barthes assumed a position that 
perceived the photographic work as a sign capable 
of being decoded. A "sign" comprises a "signifier" 
and a "signified." The signifier is the physical en- 
tity, such as a word, used to communicate the 
signified, the conceptual meaning or message. The 
relationship between the signifier and signified is 
arbitrary according to Saussure: there is nothing 
about a dog that demands that it be called a "dog," 
and it is, in fact, called "un chien" in French. By 
the 1960s Barthes deepens his analysis of the struc- 



ture of communication. In The Photographic Mes- 
sage he first posits that the photograph holds a 
privileged relation to literal reality: it is its perfect 
analogon. He argues that although the photograph 
is a reduction in proportion, perspective, and color 
of the object captured on film, it is not a transfor- 
mation (in the mathematical sense of the term). 
Barthes' structural methodology, therefore, does 
not fully apply. Although a photographic image 
may function as a sign (a message that can be 
decoded), it remains a medium of communication 
that is not truly arbitrary, the way that language 
is. He draws two conclusions: the photographic 
image is a message without code and the photo- 
graphic message is a continuous message. The 
working hypothesis, however, of The Photographic 
Message is that the photographic message in press 
photography is also connoted, and the remainder 
of the essay articulates the main levels of analysis of 
photographic connotation, including trick effects, 
pose, selection of objects or content, photogenia, 
aestheticism, and accompanying text. All indicate 
something about how content, composition, or use 
can be manipulated in the photograph. 

In Rhetoric of the Image, an essay that focuses 
on images used in advertising, Barthes repeats his 
statement that the photograph is a "message with- 
out code" or "a continuous message"; he also 
states that the photograph does not simply convey 
a consciousness of the object or subject "being- 
there" (which any copy might provoke), but a con- 
sciousness of the thing's "having-been-there." The 
principal argument of this essay is that the rhetoric 



101 



BARTHES, ROLAND 



of the image comprises three messages: linguistic, 
denoted, and symbolic (cultural or connoted). It 
is essentially in explicating the denoted message 
that Barthes must address the inherent difference 
between a photograph and, for example, a drawing. 
At the structural level of denotation the photo- 
graph presents an "uncoded" message, while the 
drawing's message subsists as coded. The literal 
message of the photograph derives not from a trans- 
formation between signifieds and signifiers but 
from a registration that is mechanical. The re- 
gistration of a drawing, on the other hand, arises 
through human intervention. 

The Third Meaning concerns the Soviet avant- 
garde filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein, but the focus 
of the essay is not the moving pictures that Eisen- 
stein has created but rather the movie stills that 
have accompanied his works. The first two mean- 
ings that Barthes ascribes to the photographic still 
are (1) informational, which serves the realm of 
communication and (2) symbolic, which functions 
on at least four levels — referential, diegetic, Eisen- 
steinian, and historical — and which represents the 
still's signification. Yet to such seemingly complete 
categories with regard to "meaning" in the photo- 
graph, Barthes feels compelled to add a third, for, 
quite simply, the first and second meanings are 
"obvious." To the stratification and understand- 
ing of meaning Barthes inserts the proposition 
that something may remain in the analysis of the 
photographic still that transcends conventional or 
obvious meaning, something that he cannot be 
certain is justified or can be generalized. The third 
meaning possesses a theoretical individuality, and 
Barthes distinguishes this meaning as "obtuse," 
that which supplements and cannot be absorbed 
by intellectual analysis — a meaning both persistent 
and fugitive, apparent and evasive, and beyond 
culture, knowledge, and information. 

In Camera Lucida, a text commissioned by Cah- 
iers du cinema, Barthes offers not only his longest 
critique on the medium of photography but also 
his most controversial and compelling. Comprising 
two parts, Barthes begins by attempting to quantify 
and qualify the medium's unique essence (its 
noeme). To this end he employs methodological 
tools and schemata that inform his structural ana- 
lysis. By Part Two his attempt at an impartial, 
scientific investigation is fully abandoned for a 
highly personal reflection on the medium and its 
noeme. He begins this inquiry by looking through 
family photographs, where he discovers an image 
of his mother and her brother when they were 
children (known as the Winter Garden photo- 



graph). The power of this one photograph to cap- 
ture and convey to him the unique individual who 
was his mother (she had recently died) suggested 
to Barthes that what distinguishes the photo- 
graphic medium from any other is its ability to 
authenticate "that-has-been." He offers as new 
terms to the critical discussion of the medium stu- 
dium and punctum, the former referring to the field 
of cultural information that a photograph may 
possess and that is generally available for analysis 
and the latter referring to the undefinable and 
varying aspect that overtakes an individual viewer. 
Studium relates to the field of connoted messages 
articulated in earlier essays; punctum can be linked 
to the obtuse meaning described in The Third 
Meaning but exceeds that notion by Barthes's in- 
vocation of the punctum's ability not only to dis- 
turb but also to wound. Among the most radical 
assertions that he makes in Camera Lucida is that 
photography's noeme has nothing to do with ana- 
logy (a feature it shares with all kinds of represen- 
tations): the photograph is not a copy of reality but 
rather an emanation of past reality. Barthes now 
suggests that to ask whether a photograph is ana- 
logical or coded is not a good means of analysis. 
The book concludes that photography's madness 
and its ecstasy is its essential link with intractable 
reality, obliging the viewer to return to the very 
letter of time. 



Nancy M. Shawcross 



See also: Semiotics 



Biography 

Born in Cherbourg, France, 12 November 1915. Attended 
the University of Paris, where he received degrees in 
classical letters (1939) and grammar and philosophy 
(1943). Taught at lycees in Biarritz, France (1939), 
Bayonne, France (1939-1940), Paris, France (1942- 
1946), at the French Institute, Bucharest, Romania 
(1948-1949), University of Alexandria, Egypt (1949- 
1950), and Direction Generale des Affaires Culturelles, 
Paris (1950-1952); research appointments with the Cen- 
tre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris (1952- 
1959); director of studies at the Ecole Pratique des 
Hautes Etudes, Paris, (1960-1976); visiting professor at 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (1967-1968); and 
chair of literary semiology at the College de France, Paris 
(1976-1980). Died in Paris, France, 26 March 1980. 



Selected Works 

Mythologies, 1957; Mythologies, selected and translated by 

Annette La vers, 1972 
Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes, 1975; Roland Barthes by 

Roland Barthes. Translated by Richard Howard. 1977 



102 



BAUHAUS 



La Chambre claire: Note sur la photographic, 1980; Camera 
Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Translated by 
Richard Howard. 1981 

"LTmage" ("Image"). In L'Ohvie et Vobtus: Essais critiques 
III. (1982): 9-61; The Responsibility of Forms: Critical 
Essays on Music, Art, and Representation. Translated by 
Richard Howard. 1985: 3-62 



Further Reading 

Barthes apres Barthes: une actualite en questions: actes du 
Colloque international de Pau, 22-24 novembre 1990 
(Barthes after Barthes: Current Issues, Acts of the Pau 
International Conference, 22-24 November 1990). Pau, 
France: Publications de l'universite de Pau, 1993. 



Knight, Diana, ed. Critical Essays on Roland Barthes. New 

York: G.K. Hall, 2000. 
Rabate, Jean-Michel, ed. Writing the Image after Roland 

Barthes. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 

1997. 
Rylance, Rick. Roland Barthes. New York: Harvester 

Wheatsheaf, 1994. 
Shawcross, Nancy M. Roland Barthes on Photography: The 

Critical Tradition in Perspective. Gainesville: University 

Press of Florida, 1997. 
Stafford, Andy. Roland Barthes, Phenomenon and Myth: An 

Intellectual Biography. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univer- 
sity Press, 1998. 



BAUHAUS 



The Bauhaus, founded and directed by architect 
Walter Gropius, is renowned as the landmark Ger- 
man modernist school of the early twentieth century 
in which the integration of the arts and design with 
technology was first explored and practiced. The 
school was composed of workshops in painting, 
furniture design, typography, and other fine and 
practical arts courses, each taught by a master. 
Each Bauhaus student commenced hands-on train- 
ing with a study of the elements of design common to 
all modern design endeavors. Established in 1919 
and arising out of the combining of two pre-existing 
schools, the Weimar Art Academy and the Weimar 
Arts and Crafts School, in Gropius' words the Bau- 
haus, strove for "unity in diversity" in function, 
design, and thought and reflected the influence of 
the Werkbund movement on its founder. 

The Werkbund called for integration among the 
arts and the economic realities of capitalism, and 
looked favorably upon emerging technologies of the 
early twentieth century to assist this aim. The Bauhaus 
was a surprising success at what might seem a Utopian 
aim. Best known for producing well-designed yet 
practical furniture, household items, including dish- 
ware and cutlery, graphic arts, typography, and train- 
ing teachers, in the area of photography the Bauhaus 
had a profound and lasting impact. 

In the strict sense, photography as an independent 
medium came rather late to the Bauhaus. It was not 
introduced into the curriculum of the school until 



1929, four years after the establishment of the Des- 
sau Bauhaus (1925-1933) and a full decade after the 
earlier Weimar school (1919-1925). Laszlo Moholy- 
Nagy, the multi-talented abstract artist and the mas- 
ter of the design foundation course, was the first to 
recognize the value of photography not only to 
document the Bauhaus, but as an independent art 
form. His modern teachings validated the signifi- 
cance of the photograph for generations of Bauhaus 
students, from Germany to America, first in his 
teaching, and later via his directorship of the New 
Bauhaus in Chicago (1936-1938). Number 8 of the 
famous Bauhausbucher series, Painting, Photography, 
Film, by Moholy-Nagy, is devoted to this medium. 

Bauhaus photography tends toward the artisti- 
cally self-referential: Bauhaus photographers pho- 
tographed Bauhaus buildings, Bauhaus designs, 
and Bauhaus personages, including fellow Bauhaus 
photographers. Though Walter Gropius and the 
Bauhaus masters repeatedly denied the existence 
of any "Bauhaus style," Bauhaus photographers 
nonetheless invented and shared an experimental 
method that today is readily identifiable. The hall- 
mark of Bauhaus photography and its aesthetic 
strength is in its abstract qualities. Intense contrasts 
of blacks and whites, or strongly cast shadows in 
shades of gray, predominate. The compositions are 
most often structured by geometry, either the hori- 
zontals and verticals of Cubism or De Stijl, or else 
slashed through via the raking diagonals of Futur- 



103 



BAUHAUS 



ism. Like the Bauhaus itself, photography at the 
school was dominated by a Teutonic coolness of 
form, an anti-Romantic, New World view, known 
as die Neue Sachlichkeit, or New Objectivity. 

The New Objectivity, particularly as expressed 
by Bauhaus photography, is a world of stark 
images and abstract white cubic buildings, inhab- 
ited by impersonal males and languid females. It 
is a world of pure Platonic form. Bauhaus masters 
claimed that their inspirations were to be found 
not in art photography, but in technology and 
science. Thus distortions such as scale and angle 
produced abstract photographs influenced by views 
the eye could actually encounter only through the 
technology of a microscope or from an airplane. 
Even the commonplace objects of everyday life 
could become abstractions: human hands, for 
example, could be seen as sculptural abstractions 
in Bauhaus photographs. 

The utilization of technology to create designs 
free of the strictures of the past was crucial to the 
Bauhaus. In fact, history courses were not part of 
the curriculum. Only through removing or reducing 
the capriciousness of human emotion could a mod- 
ern purity of design emerge, although paradoxically, 
the Bauhaus foundation courses stressed hands-on 
activities through the creation of hand-made ob- 
jects. The goal was an egalitarian one: to improve 
the lives of ordinary people. A secondary goal was to 
introduce new ways of seeing, technology under- 
standably being at the forefront of this endeavor. 
Purity of image, however, became so important to 
Bauhaus photographers that technology was in 
fact eschewed. The direct contact of the subject 
with the treated paper, removing even the camera 
from the process of photography, was developed by 
Moholy-Nagy in the form of the photogram, a 
photographic image made without the use of a cam- 
era (also known as light graphics). Even though the 
form had been explored earlier by practitioners 
including Man Ray, the perfection and dissemina- 
tion of the photogram can be seen as a seminal 
contribution to photography by the Bauhaus. 

Moholy-Nagy was also a sculptor, and the amal- 
gam of his sculptural abstraction with the flat image 
of the photograph was innovative. His imposition of 
three-dimensional objects, casting their shadows di- 
rectly onto the two-dimensional flat surface of the 
treated photographic paper, created a wholly new 
formal type of composition. Ambiguous spatial 
effects are evident in these works, as unidentifiable 
objects seem to float within the empty space of a 
black background. One excellent example of such a 
photogram is found in the collection of the Busch- 
Reisinger Museum, Harvard University (BR 



2004.18). Just as we think we grasp Moholy-Nagy's 
hard-edged abstraction, however, he astounds us 
with his sensuous, erotic art photograph of 1927, 
'Two Torsos' (1949, 214). 

Moholy-Nagy's first wife, Lucia, was also one of 
the photographic innovators of the Bauhaus. Lucia 
is renowned for the dramatic architectural portraits 
of the Gropius-designed white cubic and glass Bau- 
haus buildings. Her photographs provide the iconic 
images of the Bauhaus complex, and the visual 
memories by which the world recalls the Bauhaus. 
A selection of her documentary architectural pho- 
tographs, also in the collection of the Busch-Rei- 
singer Museum, attests to Lucia Moholy's formal 
sense of composition, her abstract love of form, her 
dramatic vision of architecture devoid of people, 
her profound stillness (see, for example, BR 
GA.20.57). 

Other masters of the Bauhaus applied photogra- 
phy with varying and interesting perspectives. 
Typography master Herbert Bayer integrated pho- 
tographs into his montages for posters, book jack- 
ets, and advertisements. The poster Bayer designed 
for master Marcel Breuer's 'Metallmobel' design 
exhibition is a classic. T. Lux Feininger contributed 
an informal use of photography to the Bauhaus re- 
pertoire, creating the most naturalistic, snapshot- 
like pictures of other Bauhaus students and masters, 
often unexpectedly at play. Documentary portraits 
of some of the major figures in the history of mod- 
ernism, who visited the Bauhaus, were made by 
Bauhaus photographers, including formal pictures 
of architects Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and 
painters Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Amedee 
Ozenfant, and El Lissitzky, to name but a few. Pho- 
tographers associated with the German Bauhaus 
include Walter Peterhans, Florence Henri, and 
Ellen Auerbach. 

Achievement in photography at the Bauhaus was 
not restricted to those primarily associated with the 
medium. Josef Albers, known for his "homage to 
the square" paintings, created photographs that 
come the closest of all Bauhaus artists to what can 
be called art photography, surprising in that they 
indicate the painting master gave himself a freedom 
in photography that he denied himself in his pri- 
mary medium. In a series of abstract landscapes of 
fields and fences, and views of sea foam on sand, for 
example, Albers let his camera paint freely. 

The great educational experiment came to a close in 
1933 when the Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis. 
Bauhaus photography continues to be valued and 
appreciated not just for its rigorous aesthetics and 
design innovations, but as a document of a seminal 
period in the development of modernism created out 



104 



BAYER, HERBERT 



of the Utopian visions of a handful of artists. The 
legacy of the Bauhaus continues in photography 
today through the influence of Moholy-Nagy's Insti- 
tute of Design (New Bauhaus) and the dozens of 
teachers who trained there in the mid and late twen- 
tieth century. 

Leslie Humm Cormier 

See also: Architectural Photography; Auerbach, 
Ellen; Bayer, Herbert; Feininger, T. Lux; Formal- 
ism; Futurism; Henri, Florence; History of Photo- 
graphy: Twentieth-Century Developments; Institute 



of Design; Lissitzky, El; Manipulation; Modernism; 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Photography in Europe: Ger- 
many and Austria 

Further Reading 

Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University Art Mu- 
seums, Photography Collection, Bauhaus Archives and 
Gropius Archives. For original images, documentation, 
and works of Bauhaus design. 

Mendelshohn, Harvey L., trans. Bauhaus Photography. 
Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Press, 1985. 



HERBERT BAYER 



Austrian 

Herbert Bayer considered himself a painter, but he is 
recognized as a prolific artist who worked success- 
fully in a variety of media including sculpture, typo- 
graphy, graphic design, and photography. During 
his long, multifaceted career, he designed furniture 
and tapestries, executed murals, and was an archi- 
tect and photographer. Bayer discovered photogra- 
phy in the 1920s while a student at the Bauhaus in 
Germany. In an atmosphere of experimentation and 
reverence for industrial society and the machine age, 
Bayer embraced the camera as a means to create 
imagery suitable for the modern era. He went on to 
develop an innovative body of photographs includ- 
ing a series photomontages in addition to a series he 
called fotoplastiken that included still life and geo- 
metric objects. 

Herbert Bayer was born on April 5, 1900, in 
Haag am Hausruck, a small village near Salzburg 
in Northern Austria. As a child he developed an 
interest in skiing, mountaineering, and drawing. 
Bayer's interest in art grew throughout his youth, 
but plans for Bayer to attend art school in Vienna 
were curtailed by the unexpected death of his father, 
leaving his family few financial resources. After 
serving in the military during the last years of 
World War I, he became the apprentice of artist 
Georg Schmidthammer of Linz, Austria, in 1920. 
Bayer designed letterheads, posters, and advertise- 
ments. He left Schmidthammer' s workshop and 
settled in Darmstadt, Germany, where he worked 



for Viennese architect Emmanuel Margold at the 
Darmstadt Artists Colony. 

In Darmstadt, Bayer was trained in the Art Nou- 
veau styles. He became interested in the aesthetic 
philosophies of Walter Gropius after reading his 
book Bauhaus-Manifest . Gropius had founded the 
Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany in 1919. He based its 
curriculum around the principals of the Arts and 
Crafts movement, specifically the incorporation of 
art and industry. After an interview with Gropius, 
Bayer was admitted to the Bauhaus school in 1921. 
He left Darmstadt moving to Weimar, and for the 
next four years studied with the school's great pro- 
fessors concentrating on design and typography. He 
later joined Wassily Kandinsky's mural workshop. 

When Bayer completed his studies, he was ap- 
pointed by Gropius to head the printing and ad- 
vertising workshops for the school. He moved to 
Dessau, Germany, where the school had relocated 
in 1925. Bayer taught graphic design and typogra- 
phy until 1928. He instituted the lowercase alphabet 
as the style for all Bauhaus printing and founded the 
now common type style variously called universal or 
univers. He also designed the signage for the Bau- 
haus's new building complex, which has become an 
icon of twentieth century design. 

Bayer's earliest exposure to photography was in 
the 1920s while studying with Bauhaus instructor 
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. Influenced by many of the 
innovative visual techniques characteristic of 
Moholy-Nagy's work, Bayer shot with a hand- 



105 



BAYER, HERBERT 



held camera and favored unusual cropping and 
composition techniques, including extreme close- 
ups and angles as well as presenting scenes from 
unusually high or low vantage points. His work 
set him at the forefront of avant-garde photography 
in the early twentieth century. 

In 1929 Bayer left the Bauhaus and became the 
art director of Vogue magazine in Berlin. The per- 
iod marked a distinct change in his approach to 
photography. Influenced by the surrealist move- 
ment and fascinated by the human subconscious, 
Bayer used the technique of photomontage to create 
psychologically compelling and fantastic images. In 
one of his signature images from this period, Self 
Portrait, 1932, Bayer looks into a mirror while re- 
moving his arm at the shoulder to his own amaze- 
ment. This photograph was one of a series for use in 
a picture story called Man and Dream, which was 
never completed. 

Although Bayer's photomontages were reminis- 
cent of work by other surrealist artists, his photo- 
graphs demonstrated a refined sense of design as a 
result of his training at the Bauhaus. Through skill- 
ful arrangement of objects, composition, and light- 
ing, Bayer exploited the illusionary aspects of the 
photographic medium recreating otherworldly sce- 
narios for his 1936 series of photographs he called 
fotoplastiken. One of the works, Metamorphosis, is 
regarded as Bayer's most successful treatment of 
spatial manipulation and symbolism. In the fore- 
ground, he arranged basic geometric forms — the 
sphere, the cone, and the square — that appear to 
converge upon a distant horizon of sky, clouds, and 
forest to suggest the sublime contrast of culture and 
nature or more deeply, the confrontation of reason 
and emotion. 

Bayer fled Nazi Germany and immigrated to the 
United States in 1938. His career in the arts contin- 
ued to proliferate. He designed exhibitions at the 
Museum of Modern Art including Bauhaus 1919- 
1928, Road to Victory, Airways to Peace, and Art In 
Progress. Following the end of World War II, Bayer 
was a consultant for the Container Corporation of 
America, whose president was the visionary execu- 
tive Walter Paepcke, who had funded the Chicago 
manifestation of the Bauhaus, and later chaired the 
corporation's design department. Relocating to 
Aspen, Colorado in 1946, Bayer became the design 
consultant for the development of Aspen as a ski 
resort and cultural center, and was appointed archi- 
tect for the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies, 
also funded by Paepcke, who had a second resi- 
dence in the mountain town. Bayer also completed 
the first recorded "earthwork" environment en- 
titled Grass Mound in 1955. From 1966 until his 



death, Bayer was a design consultant for the Atlan- 
tic Richfield Company. 

After suffering a heart attack in 1970, Bayer and 
his wife, Joella, moved their residence from the high 
elevation of Aspen to Santa Barbara, California, 
where the artist maintained an active studio until 
his death in 1985. Herbert Bayer's contributions to 
the world of art and design are unique and are 
demonstrated in an outstanding career that touched 
nearly every field of the arts from architecture to the 
fine arts, as well as photography and graphic design. 
During his lifetime, he had over 1 50 one-man exhibi- 
tions and seven traveling museum retrospectives 
throughout the United States and Europe. Over 
100 books, articles, and films exist that deal exclu- 
sively with Bayer's extensive creative oeuvre. His 
work is included in major museums throughout 
worldwide. In addition, there are substantial 
archives of his work in the Bauhaus archive in Ber- 
lin, Germany, and the Bayer archive at the Denver 
Art Museum in Colorado. 

Nancy Barr 

See also: Bauhaus; Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Montage; 
Museum of Modern Art; Photography in Europe: 
Germany and Austria; Surrealism 



Biography 

Born in Haag, Austria, 5 April 1900. Apprenticeship in ar- 
chitecture with G. Schmidthammer, Linz, Austria, 1919. 
Studied in Darmstadt with Emanuel Margold, 1920. Stu- 
dent at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany, 1921-1923. 
Also studied mural painting with Wassily Kandinsky, 
1921. Master at the Bauhaus in Dessau teaching typo- 
graphy, 1925-1928. Art Director at the Dorland Studio, 
1928-1938 and at Vogue, 1929-1930 in Berlin. Consul- 
tant at the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies, 1949. 
Chairman of the department of design of the Container 
Corporation of America, 1956-1965. Recipient of 
numerous awards including: the Ambassador's Award 
for Excellence in London in 1968; the Kulturpreis for 
photography in Cologne in 1969; and Adalbert Stifter 
Preis fur Bildende Kunste in Austria in 1971. Employed 
as a consultant in architecture, art, and design by Atlan- 
tic Richfield Company, 1965-1985. Appointed Honorary 
Fellow of the Royal Academy of Fine Art in The Hague 
in 1975 and of the Hochschule fur Kunstlerische und 
Industrelle Gestalung of Linz, Austria in 1978. Recipient 
of the Austrian Honor Cross for Art and Science in 1978. 
Awarded an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the Art 
Center College of Design in Pasadena, California in 1979. 
Died in Montecito, California, 30 September 1985. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1929 Kunstlerbund Marz; Linz, Austria Galerie Povolozky; 

Paris, France 
1931 Bauhaus; Dessau, Germany 



106 



BAYER, HERBERT 



1936 Kunstverein; Salzburg, Austria 

1937 Herbert Bayer: Austrian; London Gallery, London, 
England 

1939 Black Mountain College; Black Mountain, North 
Carolina 

1940 Yale University Gallery of Art; New Haven, Connecti- 
cut 

1947 Retrospective: The Way Beyond Art; Brown Univer- 
sity, Providence, Rhode Island, and traveled to Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Institute of 
Design, Chicago, Illinois; Joslyn Art Museum Omaha, 
Nebraska; Boise Art Museum, Boise, Idaho; Boseman 
Museum, Boseman, Montana; Portland Art Museum, 
Portland, Oregon; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, 
Washington; San Francisco Museum of Art, San Fran- 
cisco, California 

1955 Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies; Aspen, Color- 
ado 

1956 Retrospective: Herbert Bayer: 33 Jahres Seines Schaf- 
fens; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, Ger- 
many, and traveled to Die Neue Sammlung, Munich, 
Germany; Kunstgewerbenmuseum, Zurich, Switzerland; 
Hochschule fur Bildende Kunste, Berlin, Germany; 
Stadtisches Museum, Braunschweig, Germany 

1958 Recent Works of Herbert Bayer; Fort Worth Art Cen- 
ter, Fort Worth, Texas, and traveled to Walker Art 
Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; University of Okla- 
homa, Norman, Oklahoma 

1960 Stadtische Kunsthalle; Dusseldorf, GermanyMuseum 
am Ostwall; Dortmund, Germany 

1961 Bauhaus-Archive; Darmstadt, Germany 

1962 Herbert Bayer, Retrospective; Stadtisches Kunstmu- 
seum, Duisberg, Germany, and traveled to Roswell 
Museum and Art Center, Roswell, New Mexico; Color- 
ado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, Color- 
ado; The Art Gallery, University of California at Santa 
Barbara, Santa Barbara, California; La Jolla Museum of 
Art, La Jolla, California; Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, 
Nebraska; Memorial Art Gallery of the University of 
Rochester, Rochester, New York 

1969 University of California, Santa Barbara Art Gallery; 
Santa Barbara, California 

1970 Germanishces Nationalmuseum; Nuremberg, Germa- 
ny Osterreichisches Museum fur Angewandte Kunst; 
Vienna, Austria 

1973 Herbert Bayer: Fotografien, Fotomontagen 1926-1937; 
Landesbildstelle, Hamburg, Germany Herbert Bayer: A 
Total Concept; Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado 

1976 Herbert Bayer: Beispiele aus dem Gesamtwerk 1919— 
1974; Die Neue Galerie, Linz, Austria 

1978 Herbert Bayer: Photographs, Paintings, Drawings. 
Goethe-Institut, Munich, Germany 

1980 Inaugural Exhibition of the Herbert Bayer Archive; 
Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, and traveled 
to Neue Galerie, Linz, Austria; Galerias Mer-Kup, Mex- 
ico City, Mexico 

1986 Herbert Bayer, Kunst und Design in Amerika 1938- 
1985. Bauhaus-Archiv, Museum fiir Gestaltung, Berlin, 
Germany 



1997 The Aspen Years; Kent Gallery, New York, New York 

1999 Herbert Bayer: The Total Artist; Smallworks Gallery, 
Las Vegas, Nevada 

2000 Herbert Bayer 1900-1985; Neue Galerie, Linz, Austria 



Group Exhibitions 

1923 Kunst and Technik: eine neue Einheit; Bauhaus und 
Staatliches Landesmuseum, Weimar, Germany 

1929 Film und Foto: Internationale Ausstellung des 
Deutschen Werkbundes; Ausstellungshallen und Konig- 
baulichtspiele, Stuttgart, Germany 

1931 Fotomontage; Kunstgewerbemuseum Domela-Nieu- 
wenhuis, Cologne, Germany 

1932 Surrealisme; Julien Levy Gallery, New York, New 
York 

1932 Modern Photography at Home and Abroad; Albright Art 

Gallery, Buffalo, New York 
Modern European Photography; Julien Levy Gallery, 

New York, New York 
1936 Entartete Kunst; Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Munich, 

Germany 
1951 Subjektive Fotografie; Staatlichen Schule fiir Kunst, 

Germany 
1959 V Bienal; Sao Paulo, Brazil 

1966 Les Annees 25; Musee de Art Decoratifs, Paris, France 

1967 50 Jahre Bauhaus; Wurttembergische Kunstverein, 
Stuttgart, Germany 

1977 Diez Grandes Fotografos: Bernice Abbott, Eugene 
Atget, Diane Arbus, Richard Avedon, Herbert Bayer, 
Bill Brandt, Brassai, Robert Frank, Irving Penn, Maurice 
Tabard; Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Caracas, 
Caracas, Venezuela 

1978 Paris-Berlin 1900-1933; Centre Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, France 

1979 Fabricated to be Photographed; San Francisco Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 

1980 Avant-Garde Photography in Germany 1919-1939; San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia 

1985 Self-Portrait: The Photographer's Persona 1840-1985; 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1989 LTnvention d'un Art; Centre Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, France 

1992 A Confrontation with Photography: Photographs Are 
for Seeing: Herbert Bayer, Philippe Halsman, Roman 
Vishniac, Edward Weston; London Regional Art & His- 
torical Museums, London, Ontario 



Selected Works 

Pont Transbordeur, over Marseilles, 1928 

Look into Life, 1931 

Self Portrait, 1932 

Lonely Metropolitan, 1932 

Nature Morte, 1936 

Metamorphosis, 1936 



107 



BEATON, CECIL 



CECIL BEATON 



British 

One of the best-known portrait photographers of 
the twentieth century, Cecil Beaton was a consum- 
mate arbiter of style and elegance. He passionately 
chronicled women, the social set, celebrities, and 
many aspects of World War II, documenting these 
through photography, writings, and illustrations 
over the course of half a century. Although known 
chiefly for his photography, he also received great 
acclaim for his set and costume designs, among 
them the legendary overstated Ascot hats and 
gowns for My Fair Lady and the beautifully evo- 
cative costumes for Gigi. Enormously prolific, his 
artistic roles were extraordinarily varied, however, 
and complexly interwoven, with style and culture 
always at the heart of the matter. Beaton intuitive- 
ly understood the power of the press and media 
and defined how it could create and celebrate the 
notion of "celebrity," his own included. The Paris 
editor of Vogue in the 1950s, Bettina Ballard, wrote 
he was "forever improvising." Philippe Garner of 
Sotheby's London wrote, "Beaton was an impre- 
sario who used fashion to colour the scenario of 
the play that he made of his life, and in which he 
himself starred as production photographer and 
principal player." 

Beaton's interest in photography came quite 
early. While attending Harrow, he received from 
his parents a folding Kodak No. 3A Autographic, 
which produced postcard-sized negatives. He 
started taking pictures of his sisters, Baba and 
Nancy, dressing them up in various fantastic cos- 
tumes under the direction of his nanny. He used 
mirrors or cellophane or painted backdrops to cre- 
ate a theatrical effect, and would pose family mem- 
bers dressed in elegant costumes, as seen in Baba 
Beaton: A Symphony in Silver, 1925. Self-taught in 
photography, he gradually developed a style of arty, 
stylized portrait photographs, inspired by such 
illustrious contemporaries as Baron de Meyer and 
Edward Steichen, the master fashion photogra- 
phers of the early twentieth century. The roots of 
his fantasy of beauty lay in his comfortable Edwar- 
dian childhood, while his fashion pictures were con- 
structed with elaborate artifice reflecting a kind of 
loosely derived, drawing room Surrealism. 



Beaton began a career as a portraitist, where he 
was "taken up" by poet and society figure Edith 
Sitwell, of whom he took a number of memorable 
studies, and introduced to high society and the 
world of high fashion in the late 1920s. His first 
photographic exhibition, in 1927 in London, was a 
great success that eventually led to a contract with 
Conde Nast's Vogue magazine. First hired by Brit- 
ish Vogue as a cartoonist, he soon was photograph- 
ing for the magazine as well as for the American and 
French editions. He worked for Vogue into the mid- 
1950s. That Beaton was the sole British exhibitor at 
the landmark 1929 Film Foto exhibition of moder- 
nist photography in Stuttgart indicates the consid- 
eration given to his earliest work. Beaton first 
visited the United States in 1929 where he photo- 
graphed various stars for Vanity Fair. 

Conde Nast, the irascible publisher of Vogue, 
loved to inspire his photographers by having them 
compete against each other to see who could create 
the most striking and exciting fashion photos. Beaton 
therefore found himself competing against one of the 
men upon whom he had modeled himself, the well- 
established Edward Steichen in New York as well as 
George Hoyningen-Huene in Paris. Although Bea- 
ton's style did not change radically from that of his 
earliest, highly theatrical set-ups, it was refined, and 
his ability to make his "interesting, alluring, and 
important people.. .look stunning," in the words of 
his biographer Hugo Vickers, was his real key to 
success. His unique, if eccentric style was richly varied 
with enough visual references to Surrealism to make 
the photographs inventive, witty and stylish. 

Beaton would pose society women as well as 
mannequins in the most flamboyant Greek tragedy 
poses or as if in ecstatic mystical states, such as his 
1935 portrait of actress Marlene Dietrich in which 
she poses as a "mirror image" of a classical bust. In 
many of his works, his human subjects became 
elements of an entire decorative tableau. The only 
stipulation that infringed on Beaton's happiness at 
Vogue was Conde Nast's insistence that he give up 
his "little" Kodak and replace it with an 8 x 10 
camera that would provide the quality of prints the 
Vogue readers expected. The small camera had en- 
abled Beaton to crawl around on ladders and get at 



108 



BEATON, CECIL 



things from odd angles, reflecting his belief that 
amusement, innovation, and shock were essential 
to fashion. But Beaton adjusted to the larger for- 
mat, which gave better quality images, and used it 
consistently except when on travels. 

Beaton himself was of as much interest as his 
photographs. He had turned his back on middle 
class conventions and entered the aristocratic world 
of High Bohemia with his wide-brimmed hats, flow- 
ing cravats, and natty suits, which became his trade- 
marks. Articulate and creative, he was accepted 
into many artistic and social circles, including roy- 
alty. He served as Wallis Simpson's official pho- 
tographer at her wedding to the Duke of Windsor 
in 1937, is credited with helping create the beloved 
image of the Queen Mother after her husband's 
ascent to the throne, and photographed in exquisite 
color the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth in 1953. 
His color photographs of Elizabeth just before 
becoming Queen and of the young Princess Mar- 
garet are subtle, delicate, and simply beautiful ren- 
derings of women. Of Beaton's photographs of the 
Queen the Illustrated noted in 4 November 1950, 
"It has caught her radiance... that elusive quality 
of light and fairy book charm surrounding her." 
His compulsive work habits and discerning eye 
speeded up the process of trend setting. 

Beaton moved easily through the worlds of high- 
fashion photography, Hollywood, and the theatre, 
and became a member of the glamorous world of 
money and celebrity that he flattered with his cam- 
era. His love of beauty and glamour worked su- 
perbly in the Hollywood of the 1930s, where he 
created portraits of film stars such as Greta Garbo 
in somewhat surreal settings. 

With the gathering of war in the late 1930s, Bea- 
ton's flamboyant style fell somewhat out of favor. 
During the Second World War, he became a war 
correspondent for the British Ministry of Informa- 
tion. He was made an official photographer for the 
Royal Air Force and late in 1942 sent Vogue photo- 
graphs of a burned-out German tank and other 
eerie "abstractions of destruction" from the North 
African desert. These photographs were as much an 
aesthetic exploration as a document. He traveled in 
the East and was with Lord Mountbatten, the Vice- 
roy of India, in New Delhi. 

The experience gained during the war years in- 
fluenced the style of his portraits, which became 
less whimsical, more direct. In December 1945 he 
was reporting on what there was left of French 
fashion, using the crumbling walls of Paris as a 
backdrop for models wearing Balmain coats and 
Bruyere gowns. Beaton said of these shoots 



There have been very great technical difficulties. How- 
ever, in some cases I think the cutting of electricity and 
other drawbacks have resulted in our getting some pic- 
tures that are outside the usual fashion sphere — in parti- 
cular, one, of a girl standing in an artist's backyard in a 
flannel Chinese blouse, in which I tried for some of the 
lighting of a Corot portrait. I think it one of the best I have 
ever taken. 

Following the war, and still under contract to 
Vogue, Beaton returned to fashion photography, 
adapting some of the more restrained scenarios (in- 
cluding women dressed in high fashion but sur- 
rounded by everyday situations) typical of the 
"new realism" that was pervasive during this era. 
But new stars in fashion photography began to 
emerge in the 1950s, and the photographs of Ri- 
chard Avedon and Irving Penn made Beaton's pic- 
tures seem outdated. His contract with Vogue was 
terminated. The later 1950s and 1960s led to his 
increased involvement with theater and cinema. 
Beaton designed the sets and costumes for both 
Gigi and My Fair Lady and won Oscars for both. 
In 1956 he began photographing for Harper's Ba- 
zaar such personalities as actress Marilyn Monroe, 
and writers Carson McCullers and Evelyn Waugh. 
These portraits were more personal and consider- 
ably more direct, showing that Beaton's ability to 
create a great portrait did not lie solely in his talent 
as a set decorator. He was knighted in 1972. In 1974 
he suffered a stroke, and was not able to photo- 
graph for several years. 

Beaton was unique in the variety of roles he took 
upon himself. He was not only fashion and celebrity 
photographer but also a chronicler of twentieth cen- 
tury fashion and a photographic historian whose 
contributions to these subjects include most notably, 
The Glass of Fashion, published in 1954 and The 
Magic Image, published in 1975 and written in colla- 
boration with Gail Buckland. In it Beaton's pure love 
and clear understanding of the evolution of photo- 
graphy is eloquently and authoritatively set forth. 
Beaton's descriptions of individual photographer's 
contribution to the development of the medium are 
among the best writings on photography especially 
by a practicing photographer. He also was a tireless 
diarist, filling 145 volumes with words and pen and 
ink sketches from 1922 to 1974. Facing his own mor- 
tality, in 1977, Beaton sold his entire archive of over 
1 50,000 photographs, and hundreds of thousands of 
negatives and transparencies to Sotheby's London, 
which remains the principal holder of his works. In 
1979, however, Beaton began photographing again, 
and continued to do so until the time of his death. 

Diana Edkins 



109 



BEATON, CECIL 

See also: de Meyer, Baron; Fashion Photography Por- 
traiture; Hoyningen-Huene, George; Nast, Conde; 
Steichen, Edward; Surrealism 



Biography 

Born in January 14, 1904, Hampstead, London. Attended 
Heath Mount School, London: attended St. Cyprian's 
School, Eastbourne, 1916-1918; entered Harrow School 
in 1918 and is encouraged in his interests in art by E. 
Edgerton Hine; St. John's College, Cambridge, 1922 to 
1925, leaving without a degree. Publishes theatrical car- 
icatures in Granta. Self-taught in photography. Free- 
lance portrait and fashion photography 1926-1930. 
Photographs Edith Sitwell for the first time in 1926. 
Starts regular work for British Vogue, Visits New York 
and works for the first time for American Conde Nast. 
Portrays Hollywood stars for Vanity Fair, 1929. Pub- 
lishes The Book of Beauty, November 1930, a mix of 
society heroines and entertainment stars. Takes lease on 
Ashcombe House, Wiltshire. 1931-1938 settles into a 
pattern of trans-Atlantic professional commuting for 
Vogue. 1932 Meets Greta Garbo for first time. 1933 visits 
Paris meets Cocteau, Christian Berard, and Pavel Tche- 
litchew and travels to North Africa with fellow Vogue 
fashion photographer and portraitist, George Hoynin- 
gen-Huene. 1935 designs costumes and decor for the 
Walter-Sitwell ballet, The First Shoot. 1938 forced resig- 
nation from Vogue following his addition of anti-Semitic 
scribbles on the cover of one of his decorative illustra- 
tions. Also completes Cecil Beaton's New York. 1940 
receives commissions from the British Ministry of Infor- 
mation to photograph Churchill and War Cabinet mem- 
bers. Documents Blitz victims and damage to historic 
buildings in London. He is re-employed by Vogue. 1941 
undertakes further official governmental propaganda 
photography for the Royal Air Force. These images are 
widely reproduced and later gathered into two books, Air 
of Glory and Winged Squadrons. 1942 joins the RAF as 
photographer and documents the Mid East theatre of 
war in Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. 

He turned to stage and costume design in the 1940s 
and continued through the 1970s. Receives two Acad- 
emy Awards for My Fair Lady, 1965, and one for Gigi in 
1959. Curates his own retrospective exhibition at the 
National Portrait Gallery at the behest of its director, 
Roy Strong. Knighted at Buckingham Palace in 1972, 
suffers stroke, 1974. Vogue commissions to photograph 
the Paris collections, 1979. Dies January 18, 1980. 



Selected Books by Cecil Beaton 

Beaton, Cecil. The Magic Image: The Genius of Photogra- 
phy from 1839 to the Present Day. London: Weidenfeld 



and Nicolson, 1973. American edition: Boston: Little, 
Brown & Company, 1975 

Beaton, Cecil. Cec/7 Beaton's Diaries 1944-1948 The Happy 
Years. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972. American 
edition: Memoirs of the 40s. New York: McGraw-Hill, 
1972. French edition: Les Annees Heurreuses. Paris: 
Coedition Albin Michel-Opera Mundi, 1972 

Beaton, Cecil. The Best of Beaton. London: Weidenfeld & 
Nicolson, 1968 

Beaton, Cecil. Cecil Beaton's Diaries 1939-1944 The Years 
Between. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1965 

Beaton, Cecil. Royal Portraits. London: Weidenfeld & 
Nicolson, 1963. American edition: New York: Bobbs 
Merrill, 1963 

Beaton, Cecil. Images. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 
1963. American edition: New York: Bobbs Merrill, 1963 

Beaton, Cecil. Cecil Beaton's Diaries: 1922-1939, The Wan- 
dering Years. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1961 

Beaton, Cecil. The Glass of Fashion. London: Weidenfeld & 
Nicolson, 1954. American edition: New York: Double- 
day, 1954. French edition: Cinquante Ans d'Elegances et 
d'Art de Vivre. Paris; Amiot-Dumont, 1954. Japanese 
edition: Tokyo: Kern Associates, 1954 

Beaton, Cecil. Photohiography. London: Odhams, 1951. 
American edition: New York: Doubleday, 1951 

Beaton, Cecil. Ashcombe. London: Batsford, 1949 

Beaton, Cecil. Cecil Beaton's India Album. London: Bats- 
ford, 1945 

Beaton, Cecil. Cecil Beaton's Chinese Album. London: Bats- 
ford, 1945 

Beaton, Cecil. Far East. London: Batsford, 1945 

Beaton, Cecil. British Photographers. London: Collins, 1944 

Beaton, Cecil. Time Exposure. With Peter Quennell. Lon- 
don: Batsford, 1941 

Beaton, Cecil. Portrait of New York. London: Batsford, 
1938 

Beaton, Cecil. Cecil Beaton's Scrapbook. London: Batsford, 
1937 

Beaton, Cecil. The Book of Beauty. London: Duckworth, 
1930 



Selected Books on Cecil Beaton 

Danziger, James. Beaton. London: Seeker & Warburg, 1980 
Garner, Philippe, and David Alan Mellor. Cecil Beaton. 

London: Jonathan Cape, 1994 
Mellor, David Alan. Cecil Beaton. London: Barbican and 

Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1986 
Spence, Charles. Cecil Beaton: Stage and Film Designs. 

London: Academy; New York: St. Martin's, 1975 
Vickers, Hugo. Cecil Beaton: A Biography. New York: 

Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1985 



110 



BECHER, BERND AND HILLA 



BERND AND HILLA BECHER 



German 

The documentary works of Bernd and Hilla Becher 
contributed substantially to the public recognition 
of photography as an art form in Germany and are 
the foundation for much of the acceptance of 
straight photography in the late twentieth century 
on a par with painting, sculpture, or other tradi- 
tional forms. The Bechers are best known for their 
Typologien (Typologies), which document the van- 
ishing industrial architecture of the nineteenth and 
early twentieth centuries. Their series of chiefly 
black-and-white photographs feature frontal views 
of factories, blast furnaces, gas storage tanks, cool- 
ing towers, tipples, mineheads, water towers, and 
other industrial structures. Over the years, they 
have constructed approximately 200 comprehen- 
sive documentary collections, each consisting of 
50 to 100 images according to each structure's com- 
plexity and size. In displaying these photos in exhi- 
bitions, the Bechers presented serial arrangements 
of nine to fifteen photographs, creating grids of 
imagery. Series include Zeche Zollern 2, Dort- 
mund-Bovinghausen; Zeche Hannibal, Bochum- 
Hofstede; and Gutehoffnungshutte, Oberhausen. In 
books, the photographs were published in a dis- 
tinctly conceived typological design, with each 
photo the same size and presented in sequence. 
Among these are Fachwerkhduser des Siegener 
Industriegebietes (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1977); 
Fabrikhallen (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1994); and 
Gasbehdlter (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1993). 

The Bechers' collaboration began in 1959 at the 
Staatliche Kunstakademie (Academy of Art) in 
Dusseldorf, where Hilla, nee Wobeser, was em- 
ployed in the department of photography. Bernd, 
who had studied printmaking, painting, and litho- 
graphy at the Staatliche Kunstakademie Stuttgart 
from 1953 to 1956, was studying typography at 
Dusseldorf from 1957 to 1961. Hilla who had had 
contact with the medium at a very early age through 
her mother, studied photography until 1961, the 
year she married Bernd Becher. After finishing 
school, she completed a three-year photography 
apprenticeship in her hometown, Potsdam, with 
Walter Eichgrun, a member of a famous family 
dynasty of photographers. Her training included 
architectural photography, a genre that already fas- 



cinated her, and she learned the basic principles that 
would later serve her well in her first collaborative 
work with Bernd Becher, photographs of the 
mining complex Alte Burg in the area of Germany 
called Siegerland. 

The Siegerland area was home to Bernd Becher, 
who was born in the city of Siegen in 1931. The 
industrial landscape of this ore-rich region, with its 
iron and steel production and the half-timber con- 
struction of the worker housing complexes, became 
central to the drawings and painting that Bernd 
undertook upon finishing his training at Stuttgart. 
But the speed at which change was occurring to this 
largely nineteenth century architecture, with much 
of it being dismantled, prompted Becher to move 
from the time-intensive art of drawing to photogra- 
phy. Although he had initially taken up the camera 
as an aid in creating his paintings, through photo- 
graphy he could record and thus preserve the indus- 
trial landscape in a more efficient manner with 
more accurate detail. 

The Bechers' collaboration is unique in that they 
share all aspects of making their art, from locating 
sites, negotiating with property owners and local 
authorities, setting up the camera to making the 
exposures and printing the final works. It was as 
collaborators that they developed the characteristic 
"Becheresque" visual language, which assumes the 
frontal focus captures the most objective view possi- 
ble of their subjects. These straight-on perspectives 
are taken from an elevated vantage point that avoids 
as many distractions as possible, and removes ele- 
ments that could designate a specific place in time. 
The centered viewpoint presents the subject occupy- 
ing the middle of the final print, largely filling the 
picture. The light — always natural — is diffuse and 
shadowless, as the couple photographs under over- 
cast skies during hours of the day and seasons of the 
year — spring and fall — that are most amenable to 
capturing such light. Because most situations they 
photograph do not permit an isolated view of the 
individual architectural elements within a complex 
of industrial structures, the Bechers frequently 
enlarge details from larger groupings and present 
them as stand-alone images. 

Although the lighting is flat and without strong 
contrast, the images they capture are unfailingly 



111 



BECHER, BERND AND HILLA 



precise and sharp, which can be attributed to work- 
ing with a large-format Plaubel plate camera (13 x 
18 cm) and utilizing relatively long exposure 
times — generally 10 to 20 seconds, but occasionally 
as long as 10 minutes. As a consequence, the struc- 
tures seem both far and near, appearing three- 
dimensions and extending out of the picture, but 
also seeming unapproachable and at a timeless dis- 
tance from the viewer. This combination of distant 
absorption and concrete presence of the subject is 
found historically in the painters, draftsmen, and 
architects who, for example, sought to memorialize 
ancient Rome. Like these artists, the Bechers are 
concerned with preserving the images of buildings 
threatened with destruction; but, uniquely, the 
Bechers' work focuses on practical architecture 
and everyday, useful structures that are choreo- 
graphed as monuments that should remain arrested 
in memory. Without, they say, "making relics of old 
industrial relics," the Bechers would like "to create 
a nearly perfect chain of distinctly manifested 
forms" (Becher 1969). They are not concerned 
with preserving buildings that have lost their eco- 
nomic and social function; rather, they aim to take 
stock of the passing world of heavy industry and 
mining — with its blast furnaces, winding towers, 
silos, factory buildings, gasometers, cooling towers, 
and workers' housing. Although such vernacular 
architecture, whose function gave it its form — a 
form for which engineers and factory operators 
were largely responsible — has been documented by 
others in both the nineteenth century and the early 
years of the twentieth century, the Bechers' 
approach has proven to be unique. For the Bechers 
such themes serve as sources for new ideas about 
photography and contemporary art, whereas in the 
work of Albert Renger-Patzsch and Werner Mantz 
in the 1920s, the objective was merely to document. 
Inspired by the objective, encyclopedic, inventory- 
like photography of the 1920s (such as August San- 
der), the Bechers also borrowed elements codified in 
nineteenth century architectural photography by 
survey photographers working to preserve histori- 
cal monuments: central focus, temporal neutrality, 
elevated vantage point, monochrome, gray sky, and 
the exclusion of human work and other signs of life. 
Another important precursor of the Bechers' 
work is that of Eugene Atget. Spurred by his perso- 
nal desire, Atget set out to document old Paris as it 
was facing rapid change around the turn of the 
twentieth century. Another antecedent is the work 
of Karl Blossfeldt. A professor of arts and crafts, 
Blossfeldt made detailed close-up photos of parts of 
plants and flowers centered on a neutral, illumi- 
nated background. This made them appear concrete 



and at the same time seem like abstracted orna- 
ments. The origins for Blossfeldt's photo-herbarium 
can be found in Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der 
Natur (1899-1904) or even in the descriptive botany 
of Carl von Linne and gave rise to the kind of spatial 
sorting of images adopted by the Bechers. This pre- 
sentation allows a vivid tableau of the object that, 
upon multiple viewings, preserves the individual 
characteristics of various types of things yet creates 
a typology. An example is the Bechers' presentation 
of gas storage tanks (Gas-holders [Germany, Bel- 
gium, France, Britain, United States, 1966-1993]) 
in a grid five across and three deep, which creates a 
tableaux of forms: spirals, telescoping shapes, disks, 
and spheres. Characteristically presented in blocks 
of nine, twelve, or fifteen photos, the Bechers' clus- 
ters of images enable the viewer to register them 
simultaneously while still giving thorough attention 
to each individual image. 

Bernd Becher describes the path to typological 
serialization of photos as a personal engagement 
with the objects, which, when compared, reveal 
their distinctive character. This process also conveys 
the regional and national characteristics of certain 
types of structures (Becher 1999, 2). In addition to 
photographing in Germany, the Bechers worked in 
England, Scotland, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, 
and the United States. Mixing together the topogra- 
phical and the narrative, the resulting series remove 
the historical context for the various individual 
structures, depriving them of their functional asso- 
ciations and presenting them in isolation. By pre- 
senting various categories of structures in sets of 
photographs, most 16 x 12 inches or smaller, their 
individual architecture is made distinct and their 
unique aesthetic qualities are revealed at the same 
time that their similarities can be noted. The place 
and the name of the industrial plant and the date of 
the photograph are added as information that ame- 
liorates against the tendency encouraged by this 
mode of presentation to see these images as pure 
plastic forms. 

The Bechers' critical reception in a purely artistic 
context began in 1968 with a solo exhibit in the 
Stadtisches Museum in Abteiberg, Monchenglad- 
bach, Germany. This was a year after their partici- 
pation in the Leverkusen exhibit Konzeption — 
Conception dedicated to conceptual art. Co-curator 
of this exhibit was a gallery owner from Diisseldorf, 
Konrad Fischer, whose program concentrated 
heavily on minimal and conceptual art. Through 
him the Bechers came to know American minimal 
sculptors Carl Andre and Sol LeWitt, California- 
based conceptual artist and photographer John 
Baldessari, and Richard Long, among others. The 



112 



BECHER, BERND AND HILLA 



rhetoric of the static image and the Bechers' interest 
in typology proved compatible with the existing 
currents in art, something Carl Andre confirmed 
in "A Note on Bernd and Hilla Becher" published 
in the December 1972 issue of Artforum, in which 
he situates the Bechers' grids of anonymous indus- 
trial structures within the context of the serial pro- 
duction found in contemporary art of that era. The 
Bechers' work was also associated with what was 
called Spurensicherung (securing traces), a move- 
ment that deals with fragments and traces of his- 
tory in which artists attend to their private histories 
and the ever-quickening changes of life. This ten- 
dency was explored at the 1972 Documenta 5, orga- 
nized by leading Swiss curator Harald Szeemann, 
which included works by the Bechers. Under the 
slogan "individual mythologies," their works were 
shown together with pictures depicting both private 
and collective histories. In 1975 they were the only 
European photographers to participate in the 
ground-breaking exhibition New Topographies: 
Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape, at the 
George Eastman House in Rochester, New York. 
In the beginning the Bechers framed individual 
typologies together, but later changed to framing 
each individual picture. This allowed the construc- 
tion of images on the wall that is not only larger 
than a typical painting but has a sculptural pre- 
sence; in fact their work Typologien {Typologies) 
was awarded the prize for sculpture at the 1990 
Venice Biennial. 

In 1976 Bernd Becher secured a post as professor 
of photography at his alma mater, the Kunstakade- 
mie Diisseldorf. It was the first official photography 
professorship anywhere in Germany. Because it was 
legally impossible to grant a couple one position, the 
professorship went to Bernd, with Hilla also working 
with students. Among the first were Candida Hofer, 
Axel Hiitte, Andreas Gursky, Thomas Ruff, and 
Thomas Struth, who have gone on to be highly influ- 
ential contemporary photographers. The Bechers' 
teaching methods included familiarizing students 
with the entirety of art, while expecting them to 
work systematically and rigorously on a theme of 
their choice. The Bechers' influence is obvious on 
the early works of their students, which show a 
clear, unmanipulated view of nearby surroundings, 
yet strict typological serialization is found in only a 
few of the students' works (for example, Thomas 
Ruffs large-format frontal portraits). Students 
were also schooled in the meaning of the presentation 
of their works. 

After the first and thoroughly successful genera- 
tion of Becher students, the success of Jorg Sasse, 
Boris Becker, Claus Goedicke, Elger Esser, among 



others, testifies to the Bechers' vision in tap- 
ping into the social desire for a language of ima- 
ges that is peaceful, clear, and seemingly objective, 
and unmanipulated. 

In 1996 the Bechers entered into a cooperative 
relationship with the photography collection of the 
SK-Stiftung Kultur, Cologne, which focuses on 
objective documentary photography, to archive 
and publish their documentation industrial plants 
and structures. 

Maren Polte 

See also: Architectural Photography; Atget, Eugene; 
Documentary Photography; Gursky, Andreas; Hiitte, 
Axel; Photography in Europe: Germany and Austria; 
Renger-Patzsch, Albert; Ruff, Thomas; Schools of 
Photography: Europe; Struth, Thomas; Typology 



Biography 

Hilla Becher born Hilla Wobeser in 1934 in Potsdam, Ger- 
many. Schooling as photographer, 1953-1957; employed 
as commercial and aerial photographer, 1958-1961. 
Meets Bernd Becher 1959; employed in the photography 
department and studied photography at Staatliche Kun- 
stakademie Diisseldorf; marriage to and collaboration 
with Bernd Becher; 1961. 

Bernd Becher born in 1931 in Siegen, Germany; 1947-1950 
apprenticeship as decorative painter in Siegen; 1953- 
1956 studied painting at the Staatliche Kunstakademie 
Stuttgart; 1957-1961 studied typography at the Staa- 
tliche Kunstakademie Diisseldorf; and marriage to 
Hilla Wobeser; 1961; 1959-1965 photography primarily 
of Siegen, the Ruhr area, The Netherlands; 1963 begin- 
ning of photography of the mining industry in The Ruhr 
area, cement industry in southern Germany, lime-mining 
industry in The Netherlands; 1964 beginning photogra- 
phy of the industrial areas of Belgium, France, and 
Luxembourg; 1965 beginning photography of the mi- 
ning industry of England, Wales, and Scotland; 1966 
stipend in England; 1966-1967 photography in France 
and Luxembourg; 1968, 1974 photography in the United 
States; 1970 photography in Belgium; 1990 together they 
received the Golden Lion, the prize for sculpture at the 
Forty-fourth Venice Biennial; 1994 awarded the Kaiser- 
rings in Goslar, Germany. Erasmus Prize for European 
Culture, 2002. Retires as Professor at the Diisseldorf 
Academy of Art; 1999. They live and work in the town 
Kaiserswerth near Diisseldorf. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1963 Galerie Ruth Nohl, Siegen, Germany 

1966 Staatliche Kunstakademie, Diisseldorf, Germany 

1967 Industriebauten, 1830-1930, Die neue Sammlung — 
Staatliches Museum fur angewandte Kunst, Munich, 
Germany 

1968 Stadtisches Museum, Abteiberg, Monchengladbach, 
Germany 

1969 Anonyme Skulpturen, Stadtische Kunsthalle, Diissel- 
dorf, Germany 



113 



BECHER, BERND AND HILLA 



1970 Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden 

1972 Sonnabend Gallery, New York, New York 
International Museum of Photography and Film, 

George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

1973 Galerie Konrad Fischer, Dusseldorf, Germany 
1974-1975 Arts Council of Great Britain, London, Eng- 
land, and traveling 

1975 Fotografien, 1957-1975, Rheinisches Landesmuseum, 

Bonn, Germany 
1978 Milwaukee Art Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
1981 Bernd und Hilla Becher, Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 

Eindhoven Westfalisches Landesmuseum, Minister, 

Germany 

1985 Forderturme, Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany, 
and traveling 

1986 Architekturmuseum, Basel, Switzerland 
1989 Palais des Beaux- Arts, Brussels, Belgium 

1991 Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

1994 Bernd und Hilla Becher: Industriearchitektur, Kunst- 
sammlung der Ruhr-Universitat, Bochum, Germany 

1995 Bernd und Hilla Becher: Typologien, Westfalisches 
Landesmuseum, Miinster, Germany 

1999 Bergwerke, Photographische Sammlung, SK-Stiftung 

Kultur, Cologne, Germany 
2001 Fachwerkhduser, Museum fur Gegenwartskunst, Sie- 

gen, Germany 



Group Exhibitions 

1969 Stadtisches Museum, Leverkusen, Germany 

1970 Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1971 Stadtische Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, Germany 

1972 Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany 

1974 Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 
Photokina, Cologne, Germany 

1975 New Topographies: Photographs of a Man- Altered Land- 
scape, International Center of Photography and Film, 
George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 

1976 Centre d'Arts Plastique Contemporains, Bordeaux, 
France 

1977 Documenta 6, Kassel, Germany 
XIV Biennale, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

1978 Louisiana Museum, Humlebaeck, Denmark, and tra- 
veling 

1981 Ahsage an das Einzelhild, Fotografische Sammlung 
Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany 

1982 Documenta 7, Kassel, Germany 

1983 Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New 

York 
1988 Centre National des Arts Plastiques, Paris, France, 

and traveling 
1989-1990 Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg, Germany 

1990 XLIV Biennale, Venice, Italy 

The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan 

1991 Aus der Distanz, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, 
Dusseldorf, Germany 



1992 Photographie in der deutschen Gegenwartskunst, Mu- 
seum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany, and traveling 

Distanz und Ndhe, Institut fur Auslandsbeziehungen, 
Stuttgart, Germany 

1993 Deutsche Kunst mit Photographie, Deutsches Architek- 
turmuseum, Frankfurt, Germany, and traveling 

1997 Vergleichende Konzeptionen, Photographische Samm- 
lung, SK-Stiftung Kultur, Cologne, Germany 

Deutsche Fotografie: Macht eines Mediums, Kunst-und 
Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 
Bonn, Germany 

2000 How You Look at It, Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 
Germany, and traveling 



Selected Works 

Typologie von Fachwerkhdusern, 1959-1974 
Zeche Zollern 2, 1977 
Forderturme, 1983 

Wassertiirme (Water Towers) U.S., 1988 
Gashehdlter (Gas-holders) Germany, Belgium, France, Brit- 
ain, U.S., 1966-1993 



Further Reading 

Andre, Carl. "A Note on Bernd and Hilla Becher." Art- 
forum (Dec. 1972): 59-61. 

Becher, Bernd, Hilla Becher, Hans Giinther Conrad, and 
Eberhard G Neumann. Zeche Zollern 2: Aufhruch zur 
modernen Industriearchitektur und Technik: Entstehung 
und Bedeutung einer Musteranlage in Dortmund um die 
Jahrhundertwende. Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1977. 

Becher, Bernd, and Hilla Becher. Die Architektur der For- 
der- und Wassertiirme. Heinrich Schdnherg und Jan 
Werth, Die technische Entwicklung, Munich: Prestel-Ver- 
lag, 1971. 

Becher, Bernd, and Hilla Becher. Kunst-Zeitung nr. 2 (Jan- 
uary 1969). 

Becher, Bernd. Frankfurter Rundschau Zeit und Bild (No- 
vember 6 1999); 2. 

Dobbe, Martina. Bernd und Hilla Becher: Fachwerkhduser. 
Siegen: Museum fur Gegenwartskunst, 2001. Herzogen- 
rath, Wulf. ed. Distanz und Ndhe. Stuttgart: Institut fur 
Auslandsbeziehungen, 1992. 

Lange, Susanne, ed. Vergleichende Konzeptionen. SK-Stif- 
tung Kultur Koln, Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1997. 

Lange, Susanne. Die Industriefotografien von Bernd und 
Hilla Becher: Eine monographische Untersuchung vor 
clem Hintergrund entwicklungsgeschichtlicher Zusammen- 
hdnge. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1999. 

Rowain, Lothar, and Detlef Bluemler, eds. Kiinstler: Kri- 
tisches Lexikon der Gegenwartskunst. 7. Munich: Welt- 
kunst und Bruckmann, 1989. 

Steinhauser, Monika, and Kai-Uwe Hemken, eds. Indus- 
triefotografie: Im Spiegel der Tradition. Kunstgeschich- 
tliches Institut der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Dusseldorf: 
Richter,1994. 



114 



BECHER, BERND AND HILLA 




/ 



J*S^ 











Bernd and Hilla Becher, Water Towers 1965-1982. 

[© Bernd and Hilla Becher. Courtesy Die Photographische SammlungjSK Stiftung Kultur — 

August Sander Archiv, Cologne] 



115 



BELLMER, HANS 



HANS BELLMER 



German 

Although his primary identity is as a Surrealist 
draftsman and painter, Hans Bellmer created such 
a provocative series of images in that of his dolls, he 
was awarded a singular place in photographic his- 
tory. Often described as a poet of the erotic obses- 
sion, his fetishistic creations have been found by 
many to be disturbing in their extreme manipula- 
tion of the female form. More recent scholarship 
ties his choice of subject matter to opposition to the 
rise of Nazism during the late 1920s, which had as 
its ideal the perfection of the body. To make his 
photographs, Bellmer built his own models. He 
augmented his photographs, many of them hand- 
toned, with prose and published the images and text 
in various magazines or books. 

Born in the Upper Silesian area of Germany in 
1902, Bellmer initially studied as an engineer in 
Berlin in 1924. He met artists Otto Dix and George 
Grosz, both associated with the German Expressio- 
nist movement; they taught him the fundamentals 
of art and design. After marrying in 1927, he sup- 
ported himself with an industrial advertising studio, 
but by 1938, denounced, as were many other artists, 
as "degenerate," and grieving over the death of his 
wife, Bellmer left Germany for Paris. Even before 
his arrival he had made contact with the Surrealists 
but maintained a rather marginal position amid 
Andre Breton's circle of artists. 

The doll Bellmer first constructed between 1932 
and 1933 had a complex genealogy. Toys and ob- 
jects from his childhood that had been returned to 
him upon his father's death commingled with other 
events, such an erotic obsession with a young cou- 
sin, and his inspiration by a performance of The 
Tales of Hoffman, which features a lifelike doll. 
This doll was a metal and wood skeleton covered 
in plaster that resembled a robot or puppet. But the 
construction itself was not the object; it existed only 
through the medium of photography. In his book 
Die Puppe (1934) (The Doll), Bellmer collected 10 
selected black and white photographs. Preceding 
the photographs is a prose poem that details the 
idea of tearing apart the mannequin and putting it 
together again. Serving as an aesthetic counterpart 
to the text, the series of photographs shows the 
constant shift between construction and decon- 



struction with no final creation left at the end of 
the series, only a fragment. 

In these photographs the female figure surrenders 
to the voyeuristic gaze; in the paperback format of 
the book this gaze is readily made available to all. 
Bellmer also demonstrates an alternating play bet- 
ween interior and exterior views. The exterior skin 
fosters the expectation of seeing a natural body, but 
the sight of the interior, of the constructed elements, 
reveals a hopeless artificiality; an ever indeterminate 
shifting between deception and disappointment 
begins. The doll, both near to the grasp and un- 
reachable, is what Bellmer has described as "an in- 
citement to poetry." 

A characteristic of this first construction is what 
has been called a panorama of the female torso 
made from a barrel-like structure fitted with objects 
of "bad taste," as Hans Bellmer's brother has re- 
marked. With stress placed on the left nipple of the 
mannequin the panorama of the torso is set into 
motion and one observes it in the figure's navel. 
With the ostensibly knowing gaze into the recesses 
of the female body, the viewers own projection is 
reflected back onto the male and female observer. 
This kind of panorama of a female torso, however, 
is never truly realized, but only in the construction's 
outlines does the idea suggest itself and thus it 
remains in the viewers realm of fantasy. 

Bellmer engages a fascination with the figure that 
viewed in some of his works raises the question of 
whether the figure is living or artificial. The photo- 
graphic image stands as an analog in its capacity to 
mortify the photographed object while at the same 
time supplying a medium allegedly possessing more 
authenticity than any other ever has. The photo- 
graphed doll is in many ways a confusing creation 
between art and nature, life and death. 

From image to image Bellmer created various 
combinations of body parts for the doll. They were 
conceived in potentially limitless combinations and 
in the photographs of the second doll his combining 
of body parts continued. In building the second doll 
in 1935, Bellmer sought to force a greater sense of 
metamorphosis and volubility. An innovation in 
this second doll was the torso's ball-and-socket 
joint — a construction inspired by a wooden jointed 
puppet. The remarkable characteristic of the second 



116 



BELLMER, HANS 



figure was how its two stomachs were placed in 
mirror-image opposition on the stomach joint that 
circled the mid-section of the body. Individual limbs 
were interchangeable. Bellmer then staged the 
enhanced variability of poses in 100 photographs 
from 1935 to 1937 that he colored by hand. In 
1949, Bellmer published 14 selected images together 
with accompanying texts and poems from Paul 
Eluard in the volume titled Les Jeux de la Poupee. 

The construction of the second doll left open the 
ways one could read the image of the body, making 
a kind of "anagram" in Bellmer's sense of the word. 
The photographs of this second model demonstrate 
the floating meaning of the body's various parts: 
the vulva is double in size and is set in place of the 
mouth, breasts have wandered to the position of 
the lap, and so this act could go on ad infinitum. 
No top or bottom of the doll's anatomy is clearly 
defined. Already in the photographic portraits of 
the first doll, Bellmer created a being that seemed 
posed between realities, a principle of crossing 
boarders that refuted polarization, and Bellmer fur- 
thered this principle in the construction of the body 
of the second doll. 

Bellmer's sculptures also focus on the theme of 
dolls. With a bronze sculpture of the second model 
(1965) Bellmer released the body of the doll into 
"reality" — outside the medium of photography. In 
his sculpture, La mitrailleuse en etat de grace (1937), 
Bellmer connected elements of both his doll crea- 
tions. He fit the mechanical leverages of the robotic 
looking first doll to the smooth bodily form of the 
second. In 1972, Bellmer constructed his final man- 
nequin figure, La demi poupee, which was not cre- 
ated to be photographed. As the name suggests, this 
doll had only one arm, one leg, and one breast. 

Following the writing of Georges Bataille (L'his- 
toire de I'oeil, 1 946) — a theme of which is the multiple 
meanings of sexual signs — Bellmer created photo- 
graphic series that featured bodies in twisted posi- 
tions but not featuring the use of a doll. In 1958 the 
poet Unica Ziirn posed for photographs in which the 
anagrammatic element was raised to a governing 
principle. The photographs show Ziirn's body con- 
stricted by wires in a way suggesting the anatomy, 
much like a doll quilted from an actual body. The 
automatic generation of biological and artificial 
body parts also suggests the reproduction process 
of the photographic medium itself. 

After giving up his photographic work with dolls 
Bellmer turned to graphic art, and these works also 
focus on variations of composite bodies. Drawing as 
a medium provided the possibility of interfusing var- 
ious formations of anatomic parts. Bellmer could 
now move totally within the world of fiction in con- 



trast to photography. He abandoned the subtle play 
between the real and the virtual that results from the 
"believability" inherent in the photographic med- 
ium. Bellmer presented his works not only in book 
form, but also in Surrealist exhibitions (e.g., 1938 in 
Paris) and in surrealist journals (e.g., in Minotaur e 
1935). In 1972 the first major retrospective of the 
photographs was mounted in Paris (Centre national 
d'art contemporain) and for the first time the dolls 
were also displayed. 

Bellmer's works are shown in numerous exhibits. 
With her representation of artificial body frag- 
ments, Cindy Sherman (Sex Pictures, 1992) refers 
directly to Bellmer's creations. Bellmer executes a 
mediated notion of "female" in two simultaneous 
ways: in the medium of the doll and in photography. 
Thus he is of interest to gender studies as well as to 
discussions of virtual worlds and of body produc- 
tion through gene technologies. 

Birgit KAufer 

See also: Erotic Photography; History of Photogra- 
phy: Interwar Years; Photography in Europe: France; 
Photography in Europe: Germany and Austria; Re- 
presentation and Gender; Surrealism 

Biography 

Born in 1902 in Kattowitz (Oberschlesien). Studied engi- 
neering in Berlin, 1923-1924. Broke off his studies to 
become a graphic artist for book illustrations. A self- 
taught artist, he had contact with artists such Otto Dix 
and George Grosz. First trip to Paris, established con- 
tacts with the Surrealists, winter 1924-1925. Constructed 
the first doll and photographed the model, 1932-1933. 
Constructed second doll, 1935 and photographed the 
second model, 1935-1937. Moved to Paris, 1938. Deten- 
tion in southern France with Max Ernst, 1940. Stayed 
until 1948 in southern France and produced series of 
graphic artworks. Returned to Paris, 1948. Met the poet 
and life-long companion Unica Ziirn in Berlin, 1953. In 
the 1960s he produced primarily graphic works. First 
major retrospective in Centre national d'art contempor- 
ain in Paris, 1971. Bellmer died in 1975 in Paris. 



Selected Works 

Note: The following are titles of Bellmer's original publica- 
tion of his images; individual images from each series are 
titled with the series name. 

Die Puppe (The Doll), 1934 

Les Jeux de la Poupee (The Joy of the Doll), 1949 
L'Anatomie de Vimage (translated to English as Little Anat- 
omy of the Physical Unconscious), 1957 



Individual Exhibitions 

1967 Hans Bellmer Photographe; Kestner-Gesellschaft, 
Hannover, Germany 



117 



BELLMER, HANS 



1970 Hans Bellmer; Stedeliijk Museum, Amsterdam, Nether- 
lands 

1971 Hans Bellmer, Centre national d'art contemporain, 
Paris, France 

1975 Hans Bellmer, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

1983 Hans Bellmer Photographic; Centre Georges Pompi- 
dou, Paris, France 

1983 Bellmer Peintures Gouaches Collages; L'autre Musee, 
Paris, France 



1984 Hans Bellmer Photographe; Kestner-Gesellschaft, 
Hannover, Germany 

1999 Hans Bellmer, Photographs and Drawings from the 30s; 
Ubu Gallery, New York, New York; and Galerie Ber- 
inson, Berlin, Germany 

2001 Behind Closed Doors: The Art of Hans Bellmer; In- 
ternational Center of Photography, New York, New 
York 




Hans Bellmer, The Joy of the Doll, Page No. 9 of the maquette. Photo: Philippe Migeat. 
[CNAC/MNAM/Dist. Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, New York] 



118 



BERGER, JOHN 



Group Exhibitions 

1938 Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme; Galerie 

Beaux-Arts, Paris, France 
1985 L 'Amour fou. Photography & Surrealism; Corcoran 

Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and traveling 

1994 Bunuel! Auge des Jahrhunderts; Kunst-und Ausstellung- 
shalle der Bundesrepublik Germany, Bonn, Germany 

1995 Feminin/masculin. Le sexe de I'art; Centre Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, France 

1999 Puppen Korper Automaten. Phantasmen der Moderne; 
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Diisseldorf, Ger- 
many 

2000 Die verletzte Diva. Hysterie, Korper, Technik in der 
Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts; Kunstverein, Miinchen, Ger- 
many; and Siemens Kulturprogramm, Miinchen, Ger- 
many; and Stadtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, 
Miinchen, Germany; and Galerie im Taxispalais, Inns- 
bruck, Austria; and Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden- 
Baden, Germany 

2000 Surreale Welten; Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany, and 
traveled to Von der Heydt-Museum, Wuppertal; Kunst- 
halle, Tubingen; Neue National Galerie, Berlin, Ger- 
many 

2000 Der anagrammtische Korper und seine mediate Kon- 
strukton; ZKM - Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientech- 
nologie, Karlsruhe, Germany 



Further Reading 

Dourthe, Pierre. Bellmer. Le Principe de perversion. Paris: 

Jean Pierre Faure editeur, 2000. 
Gauthier, Xaviere. "Das Werk Bellmers. Die Perversion." 

In Surrealismus und Sexualitdt. Inszenierung der Wei- 



hlichkeit. Edited by Xaviere Gauthier; translated by Hei- 
ner Noger: Medusa Verlag Wolk + Schmid Berlin, 1980 
(Editions Gallimard, Paris 1971). 

Gorsen, Peter. "Das Theorem der Puppe." In Der Korper 
und seine Sprachen. Edited by Hans-Jiirgen Heinrichs, 
Frankfurt am Main; Paris: Qumran, 1985. 

Gorsen, Peter. "Die Erotik des hermaphroditischen Bildes. 
Hans Bellmer und die Puppe." In Sexualdsthetik. Grenz- 
formen der Sinnlichkeit im 20. Jahrhundert. Edited by 
Peter Gorsen, Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowolths enzyk- 
lopadie, 1987. 

Kaufer, Birgit. "Hans Bellmer und das Double der Wirk- 
lichkeit." In Surreale Welten. Edited by Kunsthalle. 
Hamburg: SKIRA Editore Mailand, 2000. 

Krauss, Rosalind, and Jane Livingston. "Corpus delicti." 
In L Amour fou. Photography & Surrealism. Washing- 
ton, DC: The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1985. 

Lichtenstein, Therese. Behind Closed Doors: The Art of 
Hans Bellmer. Berkeley: University of California Press, 
2001. 

Masson, Celine. La Fahrique de la Poupee chez Hans Bell- 
mer. Le "feure-oeuvre perversif" une etude clinique de'oh- 
jet. Paris, Montreal: L'Harmattan, 2000. 

Schade, Sigrid. "Hans Bellmer — Die Posen der Puppe." 
Kairos 4, no. 1 and 2 (1989). 

Taylor, Sue. The Anatomy of Anxiety. Cambridge, MA: 
MIT Press, 2000. 

Taylor, Sue. "Hans Bellmer in the Art Institute of Chicago: 
The Wandering Libido and the Hysterical Body." In 
Museum-Studies vol. 22, no. 2 (1996). 

Webb, Peter, and Robert Short. Hans Bellmer. London: 
Quartet Book, 1985. 



JOHN BERGER 



British 

Painter, novelist, screenwriter, poet, critic, and oc- 
casional photographer, John Berger was known 
initially as the leading member of a group of post- 
World War II painters dubbed "the Kitchen Sink 
School" for their commitment to an unvarnished 
working-class realism. Berger later gained fame as 
a Marxist-oriented critic for The New Statesman 
and as the author of several novels, including G, 
which won the prestigious Booker Prize in 1972. In 
the range of his interests and abilities (he has writ- 
ten on topics as different as the life of Pablo Picasso 
and the writings of the Mexican political activist 
Subcommandante Marcos), he has few equivalents 



among English-speaking writers. Unlike his Amer- 
ican and European counterparts, he has worked 
outside a university umbrella. The closest compar- 
ison is with the late Michael Ayrton, an English 
sculptor, essayist, and novelist. In the case of both, 
their literary careers and recognition gradually 
usurped their importance as artists, but their experi- 
ence of art making has given tremendous force and 
personality to their insights. 

Although Berger has always been most attentive 
to painting and drawing, his interest in photogra- 
phy is longstanding and profound. It has produced 
numerous essays, four book-length collaborations 
with the French photographer Jean Mohr, includ- 
ing the seminal Another Way of Telling (1982), a 



119 



BERGER, JOHN 



commentary in letters on the work of photographer 
Martine Franck, Marline Franck: One Day to the 
Next (1999), and a stunning revision of his own 
work, the novella Once In Europa (1987/99), which 
he transformed into a dialogue of text and images 
with the photographer Patricia Macdonald. In spite 
of Berger's trenchant criticism of photography — he 
has famously dubbed it a "quotation of reality" and 
like Susan Sontag indicted it for robbing us of the 
ability to remember — he has been compelled by the 
rich particularity of photographs, especially their 
ability to convey social, political, physical, and even 
environmental information. As one who believes 
deeply in the rootedness of art in its historical and 
political situation, Berger cannot help celebrating 
and exploring photography's fundamentally docu- 
mentary nature. 

Berger's reputation as a critic of photography 
rests largely on three texts: his first collaboration 
with Jean Mohr, A Fortunate Man (1967, as of this 
writing in its 54th printing), the essay Why We 
Look at Photographs (1978), and another Mohr 
collaboration, Another Way of Telling (1982). His 
fundamental insight, the ramifications of which he 
explores in all three writings, is that photography is 
essentially overdetermined in terms of information 
and undetermined in terms of meaning. Just as 
reality per se cannot explain itself, so the images 
captured by the camera can convey an enormous — 
indeed, often an uncontrollable — amount of detail 
but remain ambiguous and always in need of inter- 
pretation. To drive this point home, in Another 
Way of Telling Mohr shows to a group of people 
various photographs he has taken and asks them to 
explain what they see. In only a few cases do their 
conjectures approach the original circumstance of 
the image, and in some instances completely con- 
tradict it. 

Such ambiguity poses significant problems. First, 
outside their originating contexts, photographs risk 
almost complete meaninglessness. So Berger at- 
tempts to anchor their interpretation in a visual 
"grammar" that is little more than the fact of an 
image's coherence in an instant of time and in space. 
The "art" of a photograph consists in the complex 
of correspondences or relationships it frames. These 
correspondences within an image articulate ideas 
that include but reach beyond the particulars of 
the moment. As Berger puts it, "In the expressive 
photograph, appearances cease to be oracular and 
become elucidatory." For one so sensitive to the life 
of photographs with in communities of interpreta- 
tion, this is a strikingly formalist approach, placing 
great weight on the graphic and iconographic struc- 
tures of the image. 



Nevertheless, photographic images can be used 
for any purpose, from propaganda to testimony to 
advertising, and as soon as a private image, with 
direct and clear significance to some viewer, be- 
comes severed from this viewing context, it loses its 
anchor (but not necessarily its poignancy). This 
suggests another way that photographs can be 
made to "mean" — as elements of a narrative. Cou- 
pling image and text can limit and direct the photo- 
graph's waywardness and even restore it as an agent 
of memory. As Berger puts it in Why We Look at 
Photographs, "A radial system has to be constructed 
around the photograph so that it may be seen in 
terms which are simultaneously personal, political, 
economic, dramatic, everyday and historic." 

Berger had already embodied this idea of story- 
telling in A Fortunate Man, his collaboration with 
Mohr detailing the life of the rural English doctor 
John Sassall. More narrowly political and psycho- 
logical than its journalistic predecessors Let Us Now 
Praise Famous Men by James Agee and photogra- 
pher Walker Evans or the photo stories of W. 
Eugene Smith for Life magazine, Berger's book 
preserves their traditional relation between image 
and the explicating, polemical text. Not so Once In 
Europa, his story of love, death, and industrial 
exploitation in rural France. Here it is the images 
that comment on, contextualize, and expand the 
framework of the written story and its characters. 

Another Way of Telling takes yet a third ap- 
proach, eschewing commentary at the end of the 
book in favor of an extended suite of images, which 
leave it to the reader to reconstruct a "story" of 
French peasant life. This follows the line of Ber- 
ger's didactic and highly successful art history text, 
Ways of Seeing (1972), which provides readers var- 
ious ways of interrogating art images and objects, 
and then gives them images to work on. In truth, 
Berger's photomontages aspire to the condition of 
cinema, a form that can fully reap the suggestive 
benefits of juxtaposition, explore the texture of 
duration and history, and unfold a set of terms 
for its own interpretation. 

Yet in the end, Berger is drawn to the single 
image as the bearer of existential and historical tes- 
timony. Where critic Roland Barthes scans pho- 
tographs like a visual flaneur, Berger scrutinizes 
images for their lived realities and fugitive insights. 
He is at his best as an interpreter, discovering 
through his responses to what he sees, broader sig- 
nificance, whether in August Sander's image of 
three country boys in suits or in Paul Strand's pho- 
tographs. Perhaps what Berger is ultimately seeking 
is the core of memory within himself, not sup- 
pressed but released by the photograph. These 



120 



BERLINISCHE GALERIE 



encounters provoke him, as he said in a 2002 inter- 
view, to "tell the story of being here at this moment 
in time." 

Lyle Rexer 

See also: Barthes, Roland; Evans, Walker; Franck, 
Martine; Image Theory: Ideology; Life; Photographic 
Theory; Photographic "Truth"; Sander, August; Son- 
tag, Susan; Strand, Paul; Visual Anthropology 



Biography 

Born London, November 26, 1926. Educated St. Edward's 
School, Oxford. Won scholarship to Central School of 
Art, London, but education interrupted for two year's 
military service, 1944-1946. Resumed education for three 
years at Chelsea School of Art, London. Exhibiting pain- 
ter throughout the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Writer 
for weekly Tribune. Appointed art critic for the New 
Statesman, 1951, provoking controversy for his Marxist 
views and defense of realism. First novel, A Painter of 
Our Time, published in 1958 and withdrawn from pub- 
lication under pressure from the CIA. Throughout the 
1960s published poems, novels, criticism, translations, 
and first photographic collaboration with Jean Mohr. 



Won Booker Prize in 1972 for novel G and donated half 
the prize money to U.S. radical group Black Panthers. 
Developed ground-breaking BBC television series on art, 
Ways of Seeing, aired in 1972. Moved permanently to 
small village in Haut Savoie in the French Alps, 1974. 
Subsequently collaborated on scripts for three films with 
director Alain Tanner and published a series of novels on 
peasant life, Into Their Labors. Continues to write arti- 
cles, essays, poems, and novels. 



Further Reading 

Berger, John. The Look of Things. New York: Viking, 1971. 
. The Success and Failure of Picasso New York: 

Pantheon, 1980 (1965). 

. About Looking. New York: Pantheon, 1980. 

. The Sense of Sight. New York: Pantheon, 1985. 

Berger, John, and Patricia Macdonald. Once In Europa. 

London: Bloomsbury, 1999. 
Berger, John, and Jean Mohr. A Fortunate Man. New York: 

Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. 

. Another Way of Telling. New York: Pantheon, 1982. 

Baker, Kenneth. "Q & A John Berger: The Moment of 

Truth is Now." San Francisco Chronicle (January 6, 

2002). 



BERLINISCHE GALERIE 



On November 21, 1975, the Berlinische Galerie was 
opened as a private society by fifteen patrons and 
interested citizens of the city of Berlin, Germany. 
The society stated 

The Berlinische Galerie is a museum which collects art 
works and material concerning the artistic and cultural 
history of Berlin from the fields of visual art, architec- 
ture, artistic photography, applied art and design, carry- 
ing our research into these and making them available to 
the public. 

(Quoted in Jorn Merkert, "Berlin or the Round 
Head", in the Berlinische Galerie visits Dublin, Dublin 
1991, p. 12.) 

As the founding director, Eberhard Roters 
envisioned a museum that would highlight Berlin 
art history in all fields from 1870 to the present, 
which no other museum in the city was doing. 
Such an endeavor in a then divided city was no 
easy task. 



From the beginning there had been financial pro- 
blems, but Roters' early vision was well targeted 
and persistent, resulting in an interdisciplinary col- 
lection of Berlin art from 1870 to the present that 
included painting, graphic arts, sculpture, video, 
photography, architecture, and the archives and 
papers of various artists. Roters chose to stay in 
the public eye by mounting changing thematic or 
monographic exhibits, rather than a permanent 
exhibition of the growing collection, and by conti- 
nually announcing new acquisitions. A primary 
benefactor for the new museum, as for a number 
of the other Berlin museums was the Foundation 
Deutsche Klassenlotterie in Berlin. 

In 1986 the fledgling museum moved to the pres- 
tigious Martin-Gropius Bau, designed by Martin 
Gropius and constructed in 1881. Designed in a 
style similar to an Italian Renaissance palace, the 
building contained beautiful mosaics, reliefs illus- 
trating the different arts and crafts, and crests at 



121 



BERLINISCHE GALERIE 



various German cities. Left in ruins after World 
War II, the building was not to reopen until 1981, 
with minimal alteration, to house large exhibitions. 
The Berlin Wall stood behind the building. The 
Galerie used this space until 1997. The building 
was further renovated for large exhibitions in 1999. 

The Galerie then used space in the Lapidarium, 
once Berlin's pumping station from 1873-1876 and 
also home to magnificent large sculptures that once 
decorated the Avenue of Victory in Berlin's Tier- 
garten. The Galerie also sponsored exhibits in dif- 
ferent sections of the city of particular significance 
were its Ldngschnitte (sections) and Querschnitte 
(cross sections) held at Jebenstrasse near the Zoo 
Station, in space previously used by the Gallery of 
the Twentieth Century. From February 2002 to 
April 2003, the Berlinische Galerie sponsored a ser- 
ies of five exhibits, "ZwischenspieF' at the Berlin 
Grundkreditbank. In 2003 the Berlinische Galerie 
finalized a contract to purchase and renovate a 
former glass warehouse at 124-128 Jakobstrasse, 
10969 Berlin-Kreuzberg, near the Jewish Museum 
designed by Daniel Liebeskind. Scheduled to open 
in October 2004, the new Berlinische Galerie space 
with its wide expanses would be able to mount sig- 
nificant and innovative exhibitions that celebrated 
and examined the richness of Berlin's art from 1870 
to the present. The new museum space would also 
include a library, study rooms, workshop space for 
restoration projects, office space, and a restaurant. 

Two large initial goals for the Galerie were to bring 
renewed recognition to those artists who had been 
termed "entartet" or degenerate under Hitler's rule 
and to establish respect for contemporary artists. 
Examples of the Galerie's early exhibits include: Ber- 
lin Artists of the Twenties: Feldberg Collection 
(1978); Art in Berlin from 1960 to the present 
(1979); Art in Berlin 1930-1960, (1980); George Tap- 
pert, A Berlin Expressionist, (1980); Berlin Realism, 
1890-1980 (1981); Dada Montage, (1982); Aus Ber- 
lin Ernigriert (Artists forced to leave Berlin after 
1933), (1983); Berlin at 1900, (1984). Later the Gale- 
rie sponsored exhibits including, Self Portraits of the 
Twenties (2004), Russians in Berlin from the Twenties 
(2003), and Menschen untereinander (Men together) : 
Graphics and Photography 1918-1933, (2002). A 
major exhibit that the Galerie mounted with the 
Pushkin Museum in Moscow was "Berlin-Moscow/ 
Moscow-Berlin 1 900" that was shown in Berlin in the 
Martin Gropius Bau in 2003. 

The museum's collection now includes approxi- 
mately 7,000 paintings, 1,500 sculptures, 150,000 
works on paper, and 250,000 photographs. In addi- 
tion to its focus on Berlin art, the collection also 
includes major international works of modern art, 



such as the avant garde of Eastern Europe. The col- 
lection reflects the revolutionary experiments in 
Expressionism, Dadaism, Constructivism, the Bau- 
haus, and so on. and the larger historical currents 
that accompanied two world wars, the social crisis 
between the wars, the reign of National Socialism, 
the Cold War, and a divided Germany and Berlin, as 
well as current trends since the fall of the Berlin Wall. 

In 1979 a major acquisition to the permanent 
collection was the Hannah Hoch Archive with its 
collection of paintings, collages, and graphics. 
Hoch's Dada experiments, her scrapbooks, etc. 
provide a window on a stimulating and active per- 
iod of German and European cultural and art his- 
tory. Celebrating the 100th anniversary of Hoch in 
1989, the Galerie produced "Hannah Hoch — Eine 
Lebenscollage," volume I, containing significant 
archival material. 

The photographic collection is an important part 
of the museum's holdings. Under the initiative of 
Janos Frecot, the collection has grown to contain 
major holdings in the history of photography. The 
oldest materials are portrait daguerreotypes from 
various Berlin ateliers in the 1840s. The oldest archi- 
tectural photographs include images of the magni- 
ficent synagogue on Orangienburger Strasse, taken 
in 1866. Architectural photographs by Max Panc- 
kow later in the nineteenth century show new build- 
ings representing the rise of industry and villas in 
new suburbs of Berlin. Further, one finds images of 
F. Albert Schwartz, the urban photographer, show- 
ing landscape scenes, iron works, and general city 
views. Heinrich Zille, working between 1900 and 
1910, shows a darker side of Berlin, the working 
class, broken down dwellings, rubbish piles, etc. 
The fashionable and elite were recorded in the Art 
Nouveau portraits of Nicola Perscheid, who 
worked summers in Baden-Baden and winters in 
Berlin. Experiments with geometry and abstraction 
in photographs, photo-grams, and photo-montages 
are seen in the collection's holdings of El Lissitzky, 
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Heinz Hajek-Halke. The 
great Weimar Republic photojournalism Erich Sal- 
omon, is well represented with glass and film nega- 
tives, slides, and vintage prints. One can see, for 
example, the English prime minister, Ramsay Mac- 
Donald in conversation with Albert Einstein, along 
with Max Planck, and Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, Julius Curtius, in 1931, or Marlene Dietrich 
with her daughter in Berlin in 1930. Salomon's illu- 
strated reports on sessions of the Reichstag, on 
conferences in Berlin, Paris, the Hague, London, 
Geneva, etc. were greatly respected and widely 
read. Other photojournalists represented in the col- 
lection include: Felix H. Man, Martin Munkacsi, 



122 



BERNHARD, RUTH 



Erich Comeriner, Fritz Eschen, and Umbo (Otto 
Umbehr). The great portrait photographers such 
as Lotte Jacobi, who photographed those involved 
in the arts and sciences before escaping to the Uni- 
ted States, or August Sander, the recorder of a va- 
riety of levels of society, are represented here. 
Experiments in advertising photography such as 
that of Fritz Brill or Herbert Bayer or the archives 
of the popular magazine Volk und Welt are to be 
found in the collection. 

From 1955 to 1965 Berlin was an important fash- 
ion center. Photographs by the Hamburger, F.C. 
Gundlach present an atmosphere of a city trying to 
rise out of the ashes of World War II. Michael 
Schmidt, the founder of the Berlin Werkstatt fur 
Photographie (Photographic Workshop) fostering 
emerging photographers is represented by his early 
work such as his Kreuzberg and Wedding series 
(1978 and 1980), and from the exhibit Waffenruhe 
(cease-fire). 

In 1990 the East-Berlin collection of the photo- 
graphic history of East Germany was obtained by 
the Berlinische Galerie. This collection includes ap- 
proximately 1,500 images by seventy photogra- 
phers, including work by Sibylle Bergemann, Arno 
Fischer, Thomas Florschuetz, Helga Paris, Evelyn 
Richter, and Ulrich Wiist. 

The Berlinische Galerie continues to collect in a 
variety of areas. Its photography is probably one of 



the strongest aspects of its collections. With its new 
building, its future appears to promise increased 
acquisitions, exhibitions, and study areas for Berli- 
ners and the world at large, fulfilling much of the 
vision of its 1975 founders. 

Katherine Hoffman 

See also: Dada; Hajek-Halke, Heinz; Hoch, Han- 
nah; Jacobi, Lotte; Lissitzky, El; Museums: Europe; 
Photography in Europe: Germany and Austria; 
Schmidt, Michael; Umbo (Umbehr, Otto) 



Further Reading 

Dawson, Barbara. Berlin!: The Berlinische Galerie Art Col- 
lection Visits Dublin 1991. Berlin: Berlinische Galerie, 
1991. 

Heinrich Zille. Photograph der Moderne: Verzeichnis des 
Photographischen Nachlasses. Berlin: Berlinische Galerie 
und Munich: Schmirmer/Mosel Verlag, 1995. 

Photographie als Photographi: Zehn Jahre Photographische 
Sammlung 1979-1989. Berlin: Berlinische Galerie, 1989. 

Salomon, Erich. Leica Fotografie 1930-1939. Berlin: Berli- 
nische Galerie, 1986. 

Situation Berlin — Fotografien-Photographs 1953-1960. Ber- 
lin: Berlinische Galerie, 2001. 

Sprung in der Zeit. Bewegung und Zeit als Gestaltungsprin- 
zipien in der Photographie. Berlin: Verlag Ars Nicolai, 
1992. 



RUTH BERNHARD 



German 

Ruth Bernhard is known for her "radiant" photo- 
graphs of female nudes that have been described as 
"hauntingly sensual but classically reserved." She 
is also known for her doll images and her meticu- 
lous photographs of commonplace objects such as 
lifesavers, an egg sheer, and a teapot, for which she 
has been acknowledged as a "a master of the still 
life genre," by art critic Ilee Kaplan. 

Born in Berlin, Bernhard was the daughter of 
famed poster artist Lucian Bernhard. In 1927 she 
emmigrated to New York where her father then 
lived. She learned the rudiments of photography 
while using an 8 x 10 view camera when she work- 



ed briefly at The Delineator, a popular woman's 
magazine. After she was fired for lack of motiva- 
tion, she began to freelance as a fashion and adver- 
tising photographer. 

Her first published image was Lifesavers (1930). 
Her still lifes are at times reminiscent of the work of 
avante-garde photographers associated with the 
Bauhaus school, for example Hein Gorny's rows 
of men's collars and Grete Stern's dolls and use of 
light "as the defining element in the image." Bern- 
hard has said "It's not the object that is beautiful, 
its the light in which we see it." 

In 1934 while on assignment for the Machine Art 
exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New 
York, she photographed her first nude. A visiting 



123 



BERNHARD, RUTH 



friend noticed the large stainless steel bowls she was 
shooting, and Bernhard asked her to pose in one of 
them and she agreed. Bernhard produced a series of 
these photographs, and they soon became her sig- 
nature images. 

Her meeting with Edward Weston in 1935 was a 
turning point in her life. Inspired by his work, she 
began to regard photography as art. A year later, she 
set up a studio in Los Angeles and had her first solo 
exhibit at bookseller Jake Zeitlin's gallery, which 
received good reviews. One image was described as 
"leaves [that] quiver with subtle changes of light that 
we had never noticed before." Her doll images were 
the first photographs she took after meeting Edward 
Weston. This series was made between 1936 and 
1939 in Bernhard's Hollywood studio when she 
made portraits of children. She says she regards the 
dolls in her photographs as children. 

She returned to New York in 1939 and continued 
working on commercial assignments. Two years 
later, she sold some of her images of seashells at 
an exhibit in Florida and produced a series of sea- 
shell images that were published in a special edition 
of Natural History Magazine. The influence of Wes- 
ton was still strong and can be seen if one compares 
her Classic Torso and his Nude by the Door. 

Bernhard says that she later grew critical of Wes- 
ton's nudes seeing in his images "his interest in 
seduction and connection," while her "quest" was 
"abstraction and sculpture. ..I wanted to achieve and 
ideal harmony... with the universal idea of the body 
as a work of art. I wanted to convey innocence... the 
innocence of a tiger or a cloud in the sky." 

During World War II Bernhard joined the Wo- 
men's Land Army and spent her time at a working 
farm in New Jersey. After the war, she returned to 
California and continued her association with Edward 
Weston, known for his many love affairs, visiting him 
at his home in Carmel. She maintains that although 
there was a mutual romantic attraction, she preferred 
not to risk the loss of the friendship. 

In 1953, she moved to San Francisco where she 
eventually became part of a circle of photographers 
that included Ansel Adams and Imogen Cunning- 
ham. She began teaching photography in 1966 and 
throughout the years has felt that her teaching "is 
more important than my photos." In 1970, the first 
book containing her images, The Eternal Body: A 
Collection of 50 Nudes, was published. Several years 
later, she produced two limited edition portofolios: 
The Eternal Body (1976) and The Gifts of the Com- 
monplace (1976). Both sold out quickly. During 
that time, and due to inhaling fumes from a faulty 
heater, she lost her ability to concentrate for long 
periods of time, and has made no new negatives 



since then. In spite of this limitation, Bernhard, 
now in her 90s, retains her joi de vivre. In Between 
Art and Life, she lists eight factors contributing to 
long life, including "never get used to anything," 
"hold on to the child in you," and "say 'yes' to life 
with passion." 

While Bernhard has enjoyed acclaim for the 
sheer artistry of her images, on another level, her 
photographs of nude women, including women of 
color, and her relationships with several men, sug- 
gest unexamined issues related to gender and ethnic 
perspectives. The new biography by Margaretta 
Mitchell is forthcoming about Bernhard's bisexual- 
ity. She considered Eveline Phimister, an artist and 
designer as "the love of her life." Bernhard also 
maintained long relationships with Edward Wes- 
ton, an older man, and with a former Tuskegee 
airman, Price Rice, a younger man. In order for 
Bernhard's complex aesthetic to be better under- 
stood, her work deserves critical examination on 
levels hitherto ignored. 

YOLANDA RETTER 

See also: Adams, Ansel; Cunningham, Imogen; Wes- 
ton, Edward 



Biography 

Born in Berlin, October 1 4, 1 905 . Education at The Akademie 
der Kunste, Berlin, 1926-1937. Emigrated to the United 
States, 1927. Career (selective): Freelance photographer, 
New York, 1927-1935; Los Angeles, 1936-1953; San 
Francisco since 1953; Instructor: University of California 
Extension, Berkeley and San Francisco, 1966-1975; 
Columbia University, New York. Recipient: National 
Urban League Award, 1961; San Francisco Art Commis- 
sion, 1984; Cyril Magnin Award, San Francisco, 1994. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1941 Little Gallery, San Francisco, California 
1958 Institute for Public Relations, Mexico City, Mexico 
1973 Chicago Center for Contemporary Photography, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 
1982 Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon 
1996 The Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, 

New Jersey 
2000 Friends of Photography, San Francisco, California 



Group Exhibitions 

1968 Light 7; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts 

1975 Fifty Women of Photography; San Francisco Museum 
of Art, San Francisco, California 

1984 Photography in California, 1945-1980; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, San Francisco, California 

1996 History of Women Photographers; New York Public 
Library, New York, New York 



124 



BEUYS, JOSEPH 



Further Reading 

Bernhard, Ruth. The Eternal Body. Text by Margaretta 
Mitchell. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1986. 

Corinne, Tee. "Ruth Bernhard." In Claude Sommers, ed. 
The Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgender Online Encyclo- 
pedia. Forthcoming. 



Kaplan, Ilee, Marina Freeman, and Constance Glenn. Ruth 
Bernhard: Known and Unknown, Long Beach, CA: Cali- 
fornia State University Art Museum, 1996. 

Mitchell, Margaretta. Ruth Bernhard: Between Art and Life. 
Chronicle Books: San Francisco, 2000. 



JOSEPH BEUYS 



German 

Joseph Beuys was not a photographer; however, as a 
conceptual artist, he exploited the promotional capa- 
city of photographs, using them to document his 
performances and disseminate his ideas, greatly 
influencing the development of photography in the 
1970s as he influenced virtually every other area of 
contemporary art practice. Beuys infused his art with 
his persona, establishing his own image as the central 
icon in his oeuvre. To achieve this, Beuys consis- 
tently wore the same uniform: felt hat, fisherman's 
vest, white work shirt, blue jeans, and black boots. 
As a result, Beuys' s photographic image registered 
instant recognition informing the production of star- 
tling, compelling images of himself as a political and 
spiritual leader during the Cold War era. Although 
Beuys created art in traditional forms, most notably 
drawings and sculptures, he is best known for his 
socially-oriented didactic performances and political 
activities. Photographs recording these events are 
central to understanding his diverse oeuvre. 

Beuys avoided traditional art media and adopted 
such materials as fat, felt, honey, and other organic 
substances in a personal symbolism for his theoretic- 
ally complex work. A tireless promoter of his pe- 
dagogical concept, "Social Sculpture," Beuys drew 
extensively from his life experiences to underscore 
his central belief that humans are creative beings and 
that only by harnessing this power could a true 
democracy be fully realized. Beuys did not remain 
isolated in the realm of art; he established several 
political organizations in West Germany, including 
the German Student Party and the Organization 
for Direct Democracy through Referendum, and he 
was a co-founder of the Green Party. These ventures 
enabled him authentically to fuse art with politics 
and gain access to a wider audience. Harnessing the 
propagandistic force of photographs, Beuys infil- 



trated the political arena to publicize his aesthetic 
ideology. He famously proclaimed: 

Every human being is an artist who — from his state of 
freedom — the position of freedom that he experiences at 
firsthand — learns to determine the other positions in the 
total artwork of the future social order. Self-determina- 
tion and participation in the cultural sphere (freedom); in 
the structuring of laws (democracy); and in the sphere of 
economics (socialism)." 

(Cuoni 1990, 21) 

As a young adult, Beuys considered medicine for 
a profession but was drafted by the German military 
in 1940. He became a dive-bomber in the Luftwaffe 
and, in 1943, his plane was shot down in the Crimea. 
He claimed to have been found, unconscious, by 
Tartars who smothered his body with animal fat 
and covered him with felt (animal pelts) to keep 
him warm. For 12 days, he drifted in and out of 
consciousness before being found by a search party, 
ultimately regaining full consciousness in a German 
hospital. It is unclear if his recounting of this event is 
fact or the creation of a personal myth; Beuys's 
hospital records indicate the crash occurred in 
1944 and that Russian civilians delivered him to 
the Germans. In an effort to support his account 
of this wreck, Beuys provided photographs of (re- 
portedly) his damaged Stutka. Regardless of Be- 
uys's accuracy in recall, this trauma was a key 
episode that transformed the development of his 
iconography and aesthetics. 

After the war, Beuys studied at the Kunstakade- 
mie Dtisseldorf with Ewald Matare, working as 
Matare's master student until 1954. Throughout the 
1950s, Beuys produced countless works on paper and 
later claimed that his aesthetic ideology and personal 
iconography were initially established during this 
phase. After undergoing a severe depression that 
lasted several years, Beuys was appointed Professor 



125 



BEUYS, JOSEPH 



of Monumental Sculpture at the Kunstakademie in 
1961, and, by the mid 1960s, his political convictions 
were the core of his artistic endeavors. At this time, 
Beuys cast himself as a modern shaman whose pri- 
mary mission was to enable the spiritual redemption 
of the German people after the traumas inflicted by 
Hitler and the Nazis. Focusing on the student 
population, Beuys recognized that his greatest 
skill was as a pedagogue. Most of his performances 
culminated in prolonged question-and-answer ses- 
sions in which he lectured for as long as his audi- 
ences would listen. 

Participating in several Fluxus — a loose associa- 
tion of performers and Dada-influenced artists- 
instigators — concerts, Beuys viewed performance 
art as a means for translating his artistic ideas into 
theatrical presentations. The initial importance of 
photography in Beuys's career can be traced to stun- 
ning images taken of his performance at a Fluxus 
event at the Aachen Technical College in 1964. At 
this concert, Beuys's performance was disrupted by 
conservative students who stormed the stage, and 
one of them punched the artist in the nose. Resolute 
and determined to proceed, Beuys was photo- 
graphed by Heinrich Riebesehl with his nose blood- 
ied, his right arm raised, his left hand carrying a 
crucifix, his visage exuding concentration and con- 
fidence. This photograph radiates with a resolute 
power that supercedes the time-based constraints 
of the performance itself, operating as an art work 
in its own right. Drawing on this experience, Beuys 
recognized the power of theater and, just as impor- 
tantly, the documentary authority of photography. 

Shortly thereafter, Beuys began to conceive of 
performances (Actions as he called them), with a 
keen awareness of how the camera would capture 
isolated moments. In the following year, Beuys 
organized an action, entitled How to Explain Pic- 
tures to a Dead Hare, that occurred on the opening 
night of his first major solo exhibition at the Galerie 
Schmela in Diisseldorf in 1965. At this event, Beuys 
coated his face with honey and gold leaf, presenting 
himself as a sun god. In his arms, the artist cradled a 
dead hare. During much of the performance, Beuys 
sat in a chair, lecturing to the animal. No visitors 
were allowed in the exhibition space; rather, the 
public was only allowed to watch the performance 
through the gallery's front window. Beuys explained 
his drawings to the dead rabbit, animatedly gesticu- 
lating and eventually carrying the corpse through- 
out the exhibition space. The resulting photos by 
Ute Klophaus conferred the status of a mythologi- 
cal figure on Beuys. Although the performance 
occurred long ago, these photographs remain 
haunting images that underscore Beuys's aesthetic 



philosophy and the central role of photography in 
his oeuvre. 

After this performance, Beuys consciously recog- 
nized that his choice of symbols and the aura of his 
personae could resonate within photographic images; 
co-opting the photo as a work of art in its own right, 
Beuys began to use photographic reproductions as one 
of numerous resources that promoted his "expanded 
concept of art." Beuys's 1974 performance, Coyote: I 
Like America, America Likes Me, further implicated 
this artist's reliance on photographic images. Respon- 
sible for producing an installation at the Rene Block 
Gallery's inaugural exhibition in New York, Beuys 
created a week-long action documented by many oft- 
reproduced photos. In this event, Beuys cohabitated 
the gallery space with a wild coyote flown in from 
New Mexico. Beuys intended his interaction with the 
animal to symbolize a reconciliation between Europe 
and America. 

Beuys's interest in photography was not con- 
cerned with technical proficiency. Rather, his ap- 
proach to the image was to use photos that violated 
common technical conventions of framing, lighting, 
and printing. For the traveling exhibition Arena: 
What I Would Have Achieved If I Had Been Intelli- 
gent, first shown in Naples in 1972, Beuys selected 
more than 400 photographs of himself and his art, 
which were displayed in aluminum containers. 
Beuys reworked the images, covering them with di- 
verse substances such as wax, grease, honey, and 
gelatin. Although the photographs documented his 
prior activities, Beuys's reworking of them created 
unique works of art. In the following year, Beuys 
made Enterprise, a sculpture in an edition of 24, 
which incorporated a photograph of Beuys's family 
watching television. The sculpture consisted of a 
zinc box with a print of the photograph glued to 
the lid's interior; the box itself contained a box 
camera with a round piece of felt covering the lens. 
Later, Beuys turned to using manipulated photo- 
graphs to create a series of postcards that promoted 
his aesthetic ideology. Although best known as a 
performance and installation artist, Beuys routinely 
exploited the documentary nature of photographic 
images to promote his aesthetic theories and poli- 
tical ideology. 

Brian Winkenweder 

See also: Body Art; Conceptual Photography; Post- 
modernism 



Biography 

Born in Krefeld, Germany, 12 May 1921. Served in the 
German military as a combat pilot and radio operator, 



126 



BEUYS, JOSEPH 



1941-1946. Studied at the Staatliche Kiinstakademie, 
Diisseldorf, 1947-1951. Worked as Ewald Matare's mas- 
ter student, 1952-1954. Professor of Monumental Sculp- 
ture, Staatliche Kiinstakademie, Diisseldorf, 1961-1972. 
Founded the German Student Party with Johannes 
Stiittgen, 1967. Founded the Organization for Direct 
Democracy through Referendum, 1971. Initiated legal 
proceedings for wrongful dismissal for trespassing from 
the Staatliche Kiinstakademie, 1972 (won case 2 March, 
1978). Founded the Free International University with 
Heinrich Boll, 1974. Granted honorary doctorate from 
Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1976. Awarded 
Lichtwark Prize, Hamburg, 1977. Received Thorn Prik- 
ker Plaque of Honor of Krefeld, 1978. Nominated as 
member of the Akademie des Kunst, Berlin, 1978. 
Awarded Goslar Art Prize, 1979. Candidate of the 
Green Party to the European Parliament, 1979. Nomi- 
nated as member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 
Stockholm, 1980. Awarded the Wilhelm Lehmbruck 
Prize, Duisberg, 1986. Died in Diisseldorf, Germany, 
23 January 1986. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1961 Joseph Beuys; Das Stadtisches Museum Haus Koek- 
koek, Kleve, Germany 

1967 Beuys; Stadtisches Museum, Monchengladbach, Ger- 
many, and traveling 

1968 Joseph Beuys: Work in the Collection of Karl Strdher; 
Neue Pinakothek, Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany, 
and traveling 

1970 Block Beuys; Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, 
Germany 

1971 We Are the Revolution; Modern Art Agency, Naples, 
Italy 

1972 Arena; Modern Art Agency, Naples, Italy, and traveling 
1975 Richtkrdfte 74; Rene Block Gallery, New York, New 

York, and traveling 

1978 Joseph Beuys: Drawings and Objects; Bremerhaven, 
Germany, and traveling 

1979 Joseph Beuys; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York, New York 




Joseph Beuys, Homogenous Infiltration for Grand Piano (Infiltration homogen fur 

Konzertfliigel). Piano covered in felt and fabric. 

[CNAC/MNAM/Dist. Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, New York © ARS, New York] 



127 



BEUYS, JOSEPH 



1980 Joseph Beuys: Multiples, 1965-1980; Dusseldorf, Ger- 
many, and traveling 

1984 Joseph Beuys; Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan 

1987 Joseph Beuys; Dia Arts Foundation, New York, New 
York 

1987 Beuys on Beuys: Early Works in the van der Grinten Col- 
lection; Ministerium fur Bundesangelegenheiten des Lan- 
des Nordrhein-Westfalen, Bonn, Germany, and traveling 

1987 Bits and Pieces: A Collection of Work by Joseph Beuys 
from 1957-1985; Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and traveling 

1988 Joseph Beuys: Ideas and Actions; Hirschl & Adler 
Modern, New York, New York 

1989 Joseph Beuys: Drawings, Objects and Prints; Institute 
for Foreign Cultural Relations, Stuttgart, Germany, and 
traveling 

1990 Joseph Beuys; Kestner Gesselschaft, Hannover, Ger- 
many, and traveling 



Group Exhibitions 

1963 Festum Fluxorum Fluxus; Dusseldorf, Germany 

1964 Documenta 3; Kassel, Germany 

1964 Festival for New Art; Aachen, Germany 

1968 Documenta 4; Kassel, Germany 

1969 Live in Your Head: When Attitudes Become Form; 
Kunsthalle, Bern, Switzerland, and traveling 

1972 Venice Biennale; Venice, Italy 

1972 Documenta 5; Kassel, Germany 

1972 Reality, Realism, Reality; Von der Heydt Museum, 
Wuppertal, Germany, and traveling 

1974 Art into Society — Society into Art: Seven German Art- 
ists; Institute of Contemporary Art, London, England 

1976 Venice Biennale; Venice, Italy 

1977 Documenta 6; Kassel, Germany 

1979 Matare and his Students; Academy of Art, Berlin, 
Germany, and traveling 

1980 Venice Biennale; Venice, Italy 
1982 Documenta 7; Kassel, Germany 

1985 Art in West Germany, 1945-1985; National Gallery, 
Berlin, Germany 



1985 German Art in the 20th Century, Painting and Sculpture 
1905-1985; Royal Academy of the Arts, London, Eng- 
land, and traveling 

1987 Warhol/ Beuys jPolke; Milwaukee Art Museum, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, and traveling 



Selected Works 

The Chief 1964 

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, 1965 

The Pack, 1969 

Arena, 1970-1972 

We Are the Revolution, 1972 

Enterprise, 1973 

Coyote: I Like America and America Likes Me, 1974 

Show Your Wound, 1977 



Further Reading 

Adriani, Gotz, Winfried Konnertz, and Karin Thomas. 
Translated by Patricia Lech. Joseph Beuys: Life and 
Works. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 
1979. 

Beuys, Joseph, Manfred Leve, and Eugene Blume. Leve 
Sieht Beuys: Block Beuys, Photographs. Gottingen: 
Steidl, 2004. 

De Dominizio Durini, Lucrezia. Joseph Beuys: The Image of 
Humanity. Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2001. 

Kuoni, Carin, ed. Energy Plan for the Western Man: Joseph 
Beuys in America. New York: Four Walls Eight Win- 
dows, 1990. 

Rosenthal, Mark. Joseph Beuys: Actions, Vitrines, Environ- 
ments. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004. 

Schirmer, Lothar, ed. The Essential Joseph Beuys. Cam- 
bridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1997. 

Schneede, Uwe. Joseph Beuys: Dio Aktionen. Stuttgart: G 
Hatje, 1994. 

Stachelhaus, Heiner. Joseph Beuys. Translated by David 
Britt. New York: Abbeville Press, 1991. 

Tisdall, Caroline. Joseph Beuys. New York: Thames and 
Hudson, 1979. 



BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE 

FRANCE 



Starting with royal collections that became national 
collections after the French Revolution, Bibliotheque 
nationale de France (BnF or French National Lib- 
rary) has evolved through many forms and locations 
before its present manifestation, reflecting the evolu- 
tion of French culture and socio-political structure 



through the centuries. Today, the BnF is the major 
national repository of French and international 
photographic work, and serves as the principal source 
for many modern French photography exhibitions. 

The library's royal collection was transient for the 
first generations of its existence, until Louis XI 



128 



BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE 



(1461-1483) issued decrees that stabilized the library. 
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as Louis XIV's controller and 
minister of finance, moved some of the royal library 
contents to rue Vivienne in Paris, which is the present 
day site for the BnF Richilieux site. 

The library continued to expand, and during the 
twentieth century, faced lack of space for collections, 
ever more acute problems of conservation, and 
rapidly increasing demand by readers and research- 
ers. At the end of the century, the need for additional 
space was addressed by the construction of an addi- 
tional site for the BnF, consisting of an esplanade and 
four impressive towers. The public reading rooms in 
this new Bibliotheque Francois-Mitterrand at Tol- 
biac in the 13th arrondissement Paris opened in 
December 1996, and in October 1998, the opening 
of the research library finally brought this major 
project to completion. 

The abundant material in the special collections of 
the BnF — manuscripts, engravings, photographs, 
maps and plans, music, coins, medals, antiquities, 
and material on the performing arts — remains with- 
in the Richelieu library, to be reorganized with larger 
stockrooms and reading rooms. All special collec- 
tions have been reorganized into five departments, 
including prints and photographs. 

It is generally considered that the Cabinet Photo- 
graphique, or Prints and Photographs Department 
of the BnF, thusly named in 1976, was founded in 
1667, with 120 engravings and drawings from the 
Abbe de Marolles collection. The department began 
to receive legal deposit prints in 1638, while succes- 
sive gifts, bequests, and purchases steadily increased 
the size and importance of the collection, numbering 
at the turn of the twentieth century from 2 to 3 
million photographs. The department's mission is 
to conserve images that can be reproduced in multi- 
ple copies, and thus photographs are but one of 
many mediums that are collected. 

Dating from a 1537 decree by Francois I, "depot 
legal," or legal deposit, required that all printers and 
booksellers deposit a copy of any printed matter with 
the royal library as a legal or copyright deposit. Legal 
deposit provisions were considerably improved and 
reinforced in 1925, applying this obligation to both 
printers and publishers, which was successively 
extended to cover imported books and other materi- 
als including photographs. Thus, with certain stipu- 
lations, French photographers are required by law to 
have a copy of their photographs in the BnF collec- 
tion. Obviously, the sheer volume of photographic 
production in France prohibits the democratic appli- 
cation of this law. In practice, the Curator of Photo- 
graphy at the BnF must monitor and solicit work 
deemed appropriate for the national collection. 



Photography has been in the forefront of the 
collection from an early date, when photographers 
began voluntarily depositing legal deposit copies 
in 1851. Most initial attention to photography did 
not concern itself with the photograph as a work 
in its own right, but with the photograph only as 
a subject matter information source. This policy 
for collecting continued until the 1940s when a 
growing awareness of the photograph as art 
allow new approaches to photographic collection 
and exhibition. 

The department holds an impressive collection, 
including collections of nineteenth century masters, 
as well as works by Eugene Atget. The work of 
contemporary photographers is particularly well 
represented with a collection of 100,000 prints. 
Chief curator for prints and photographs from 
1963-1998, Jean-Claude Lemagny, acquired works 
by contemporary photographers through dona- 
tions, purchases, and under the terms of "depot 
legal." Largely due to his diligent work, the BnF 
houses one of the most important photography col- 
lections in the world. After Lemagny's retirement in 
1 999, Phillippe Arbaizar was appointed chief curator 
of photography. 

Significant twentieth century acquisitions include 
50,000 prints from the Nadar study collection that 
were purchased in 1949. In 1961, 200,000 prints 
from four major French press agencies were ac- 
quired (Rol, Meurisse, Mondial, SAFARA). The 
department acquires works from two to three hun- 
dred contemporary photographers a year. From 
1986 to 1996, for example, the collection grew by 
over 46,000 photographs. As a library and not a 
museum collection, the department is able to collect 
from the general and vast world of photography, 
building a diverse body of work by both French and 
international photographers. 

The Prints and Photographs department at the 
BnF has a reading room where original photo- 
graphs from the collection can be accessed. Staff is 
available for guidance and, as a matter of library 
policy, even principle curators are available for con- 
sultation to the public on a regular basis. Addition- 
ally, works from the collection are exhibited on a 
regular basis in the Galerie Colbert, Passage Col- 
bert 2 rue Vivienne. Named after the seventeenth 
century minister who shaped the BnF, the Galerie 
Colbert has been an experimental exhibition venue, 
striving to establish an appropriate setting for the 
exhibition of contemporary photography. The gal- 
lery has one wall of windows that face directly onto 
the Passage Colbert. The exhibitions are accompa- 
nied by a text usually written by the Curator of 
Photography. Photography exhibitions at Galerie 



129 



BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE 



Colbert strive to balance the best qualities of both 
public and private institutions: free access, impar- 
tial selections, and direct contact with the public 
with freedom of initiative and flexible activities. 
More than one hundred exhibitions have filled the 
gallery walls since its inception. 

The photography collection at the BnF is often 
the principal source of images for many major 
exhibitions. The 1977 exhibition of creative twen- 
tieth century photography at the National Mu- 
seum of Modern Art in the Georges-Pompidou 
Center was built from the BnF collection. Also, 
works from the BnF were exhibited at the Pavi- 
lion des Arts in 1984 titled, "Creative Photogra- 
phy." The 1994-1995 exhibition and book, La 
matiere, Vombre, et la fiction, grouped 279 photo- 



graphs by 104 authors in a major look at works 
from the collection. 

Bruce McKaig 



Further Reading 

Bibliotheque nationale de France homepage. http://www. 
bnf.fr/ (accessed May 4, 2005). 

Bibliotheque nationale de France, ed."Bonjour Monsieur 
Lemagny." in Nouvelles de la photographic, Paris: 1996. 

Delage de Luget, Marion. Jean-Claude Lemagny, maitre 
d'oeuvre, D.E.A. d'Arts Plastique Universite Paris VIII, 
U.F.R. Arts Plastique, Research Director Francois Sou- 
lages, June 2001. 

Lemagny, Jean-Claude. La Matiere, Vombre, la fiction 
(Matter, Shadow, Fiction), Paris: Nathan and the Bib- 
liotheque nationale de France, 1994. 



RICHARD BILLINGHAM 



British 

Richard Billingham does not consider himself 
strictly a photographer. He began taking snapshot 
photographs as part of a wider effort to gather pre- 
paratory source materials for his paintings when he 
started his degree in fine art at the University of 
Sunderland in 1991. Over the course of the next 
five years, using a simple auto-exposure camera 
and cheap film, Billingham photographed his family 
in their council flat home in the Midlands of Eng- 
land. The resulting color images are garish in tech- 
nique and content. They seem to break all the classic 
formal rules of photography and suggest amateur- 
ism; many images are out of focus, overexposed, 
haphazardly framed, or display an extremely grainy 
print quality. But Billingham's candid portraits of 
his parents, Ray and Liz, his brother Jason, and va- 
rious family pets, are an intimate and unapologetic 
depiction of the artist's working class home life. 
Their amateurism can perhaps be overlooked in 
light of their honesty. 

In this collection of photographs, distressing 
images of addiction and violence are juxtaposed 
with captured moments of comedy and tender affec- 
tion. Ray's alcoholism is a consistent theme. Bill- 
ingham's grey-haired, gaunt, middle-aged father is 
pictured in various states of sobriety; falling over, 



seated next to a vomit-spattered toilet, tucked up in 
bed with the covers to his chin, or just staring back 
at the camera through vague, uncertain eyes. Bill- 
ingham captures his mother's expressive range also. 
Liz, a large rounded woman with vibrant tattooed 
arms, is pictured vehemently arguing with Ray, and 
then joyfully cuddling a tiny kitten. Her presence is 
felt throughout the home as various feminine knick- 
knacks decorate the grubby walls and furniture of 
the flat. 

Initially Billingham's photographs of his family 
were not intended for exhibition or to form a cohe- 
sive series, and most still remain untitled. But a 
selection of images was first publicly shown in 
1994 in Who's Looking at the Family? at the Barbi- 
can Art Gallery in London, and from there, Bill- 
ingham's career quickly flourished. By 1995 his 
work was being represented by Anthony Reynolds 
Gallery in London and his first book of photo- 
graphs, Ray's a Laugh, was published in 1996. Over- 
night the book brought him notoriety and critical 
acclaim as critics were at odds about the photo- 
graphs. Admirers applauded his snapshot aesthetic 
and the vernacular quality of the spontaneous 
images. They commended his critique of traditional 
social documentary practices by using gaudy color 
and avoiding a customary discreet or impartial dis- 
tance from his subject. In this respect Billingham's 



130 



BILLINGHAM, RICHARD 



work was likened to that of other contemporary 
British photographers, Martin Parr and Nick Wap- 
lington. But other critics accused Billingham of sen- 
sationalism. Their polemic revolved around moral 
questioning and the notion that the work irrespon- 
sibly commodified the private reality of the artist's 
family, providing spectacle for the popular entertain- 
ment of others in the style of a reality television show. 

It is quite ironic then that the next major public 
venue for Billingham's work was the controversial 
show Sensation; Young British Artists from the Sa- 
atchi Collection in 1997. This group exhibition was 
likely truly responsible for establishing Richard Bill- 
ingham's place in the British art scene and launching 
his international career, with concurrent solo shows 
in New York, Los Angeles, and Paris. His first major 
commissioned work came the following year from 
Artangel (London) in conjunction with the British 
Broadcasting Corporation. For this assignment Bill- 
ingham produced Fishtank (1998), a 45-minute film 
comprised of Hi-8 video footage. Rather than a 
narrative, the piece functions more as a cinematic 
vignette of the artist's series of family photographs, 
depicting everyday actions such as Ray feeding the 
goldfish or Liz playing with her pets. 

Fishtank aired to mixed reviews on BBC2 in 
December 1998. Again, the arguments for and 
against the power of Billingham's out-of-focus fa- 
mily scenes revolved around the question "is this art 
or social commentary?" Critics suggested it was 
difficult for an audience to understand the film 
because there is no voiceover or introductory narra- 
tion; a criticism which echoed earlier claims that 
Billingham's photographs were difficult to under- 
stand because they were not captioned like tradi- 
tional documentary images. Was the artist seriously 
challenging his audience or merely exploiting his 
own family and their miserable living conditions? 
Billingham later made other films in this vein; Plays- 
tation (1999) features a close-up of his brother hands 
while playing a video game. His nail-bitten fingers 
dart over the controls of the game in a mundane, 
repetitive, yet mesmerizing fashion. 

Billingham received further critical attention in 
2001 when he was nominated for the Turner Prize, 
a prestigious annual award given by the Tate Gal- 
lery to a British artist for a significant body of work. 
Billingham was shortlisted on the strength of his 
major solo exhibition at the Ikon Gallery in Bir- 
mingham (2000), which featured his now infamous 
series of family-based photographs and videos. 
Although he did not win the prize, he was a notable 
candidate because it was rare for a photographer to 
even be nominated. Since then Billingham's more 
recent work has engaged concerns of landscape aes- 



thetic. Even though he has photographed land- 
scapes since the early 1990s, this component of his 
work has been largely overshadowed by the contro- 
versial family pictures. 

Billingham's series of untitled landscapes from 
1992-1997 depict semi-urban places; odd forgetta- 
ble spaces located between rural land and housing 
estates. But these places were not forgotten by Bill- 
ingham, who associates these mundane landscapes 
of derelict playground areas and grassy industrial 
wastelands with the rites of passage of his boyhood. 
By contrast, landscape images included in the ex- 
hibition New Pictures (2003) at Anthony Reynolds 
Gallery introduced a new perspective of Billing- 
ham's longstanding yet overlooked interest in 
beau-ty and nature. Experimenting with using a 
medium format camera for the first time, the new 
photographs depict various natural landscapes 
where the artist's emphasis is about experiencing a 
place for the first time, rather than documenting a 
specific or personal space. Formal concerns of pat- 
tern, texture, and space override any apparent 
social comment Billingham may wish to convey, 
and this new work is obviously a concerted effort 
by a young artist trying to expand his range in style 
and technique. 

Sara-Jayne Parsons 

See also: Ethics and Photography; Family Photo- 
graphy; Parr, Martin; Vernacular Photography 



Biography 

Born in Birmingham, England, 1970. University of Sunder- 
land, B.A. (Hons) Fine Art, 1991-1994; Felix H. Man 
Memorial Prize, 1995; The Citibank Private Bank Photo- 
graphy Prize, 1997; Turner Prize Shortlist, Tate Gallery, 
London, 2001; Glen Dimplex Artist Award Shortlist, 
IMMA, Dublin, 2001; Sargent Fellowship, British School 
in Rome, 2002; Prince of Wales Bursary for the Arts, 
Athens, 2003; ArtSway Residency, New Forest, Hamp- 
shire, 2003; Artist in Residence, VIVID, Birmingham, 
2004. Living in Stourbridge, England. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1996 Anthony Reynolds Gallery; London, England 
1996 National Museum of Film and Photography; Brad- 
ford, England 

1996 Portfolio Gallery; Edinburgh, Scotland 

1997 Luhring- Augustine; New York, New York 
1997 Regen Projects; Los Angeles, California 

1997 Galerie Jennifer Flay; Paris, France 

1998 Anthony Reynolds Gallery; London, England 

1999 Galerie Monica Reitz; Frankfurt am Main, Germany 

1999 British School at Rome; Rome, Italy 

2000 Ikon Gallery; Birmingham, England and touring to 
Douglas Hyde Gallery, Dublin, Ireland; Brno House of 
Arts, Brno, Czech Republic; Hasselbad Centre, Gote- 



131 



BILLINGHAM, RICHARD 



borg, Nikolaj, Sweden; Copenhagen Contemporary Art 
Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark 

2002 Fishtank; Temple Bar; Dublin, Ireland 

2003 New Pictures; Anthony Reynolds Gallery, London, Eng- 
land; House of Contemporary Arts, Budapest, Hungary 

2004 New Forest, ArtSway Galleries; Hampshire, England 
2004 Sintlukas; Brussels, Belgium 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1994 Who's Looking at the Family? Barbican Art Gallery, 
London, England 

1996 New Photography 12; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

1997 Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi Col- 
lection; The Royal Academy, London, England 

1997 The Citibank Private Bank Photography Prize; Royal 
College of Art, London, England 

1998 Wounds. Between Democracy and Redemption in Con- 
temporary Art; Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden 

1999 Close-Ups-Contemporary Art and Carl Th. Dreyer; 
Nikolaj, Copenhagen Contemporary Art Centre, Co- 
penhagen, Denmark 

1999 Common People; Fondazione Sandretto Re Rebau- 
dengo, Guarene, Venezuela 

2000 Quotidiana; Castello di Rivoli, Turin, Italy 

2001 Turner Prize Exhibition; Tate Britain, London, England 
2001 49 th Venice Biennale; Venice, Italy 



2002 Lifesize — International Photography Festival; National 
Gallery of Art, Rome, Italy 

2003 Social Strategies: Redefining Social Realism; Univer- 
sity of California, Santa Barbara, California 

2003 Love Over Gold; Gallery of Modern Art, Glasgow, 
Scotland 

2004 Stranger than Fiction; City Art Gallery, Leeds, Eng- 
land 

2004 Tape 291; 291 Gallery, London, England 



Selected Works 

* photographs are untitled. 

The family photographs (color series), 1990-1996* 

The family photographs (black & white series), 1990-1996* 

Triptych of Ray, 1991 

The landscapes, 1992-1997* 

Fishtank, video, 1998 

Liz Smoking, video, 1998 

Ray in Bed, video, 1999 

Playstation, video, 1999 

New Pictures (color landscape series), 2003* 



Further Reading 

Billingham, Richard. Black Country. London: The Public, 
2004. 




Richard Billingham, Untitled, 1995, original in color. 
[Image courtesy of eyestorm, copyright Richard Billingham] 



132 



BISCHOF, WERNER 



Billingham, Richard. Ray's a Laugh. Zurich: Scalo, 1996. 

Buck, Louisa. "I only make pictures... everything else is a 
bonus." Art Monthly 13 (March 2003). 

Colin, Anne, and Charles Penwarden. "Turner Prize 2001: 
Tate Britain." Art Press 277 (March 2002). 

Corbetta, Caroline. "Billingham's TV Fishtank." Flash Art 
(International Edition) 32, no. 205 (March/April 1999). 

Cork, Richard. "At Home with Ray and Liz." The Times 
(June 9, 2000). 

Estep, Jan. "Ha Ha, Ray's a Laugh." New Art Examiner 27, 
no. 1 (September 1999). 

Godfrey, Tony. "Birmingham and Dublin: Richard Billing- 
ham." The Burlington Magazine 142, no. 1170 (Septem- 
ber 2000). 

Lewis, Jim. "No Place Like Home: The Photographs of 
Richard Billingham." Artforum International 35 (Janu- 
ary 1997). 



Haworth-Booth, Mark. "Shooting Stars, Richard Billing- 
ham." British Journal of Photography 17 (January 1996). 

Home, Stewart. "Richard Billingham: Ikon Gallery, Bir- 
mingham." Art Monthly no. 238 (July/August 2000). 

Hornby, Nick. "Life Goes On: Richard Billingham." Mod- 
ern Painters 10 (Winter 1997). 

Pagel, David. "Family Portraits." Los Angeles Times 
(March 14, 1997). 

Richard Billingham. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery, 2000. 

Roth, Nancy. "Closeness as Metaphor." Afterimage 28, no. 2 
(September/October 2000). 

Smith, P.C. "Richard Billingham at Luhring Augustine: 
New York." Art in America 85 (May 1997). 

Turner, Grady, T. "Richard Billingham: Luhring Augus- 
tine." Flash Art (May/June 1997). 



WERNER BISCHOF 



Swiss 

Although relatively young when he died, Werner 
(Werner Adalbert) Bischof was one of the most influ- 
ential international photojournalists of the period 
following World War II. His most well-known pic- 
tures combine intense observations of his subjects 
and a technical perfection out of which arises a strik- 
ing beauty. His documentary photographs especially 
set a new standard for the genre. 

Born in Zurich, April 26, 1916, Bischof was 
raised in Waldshut, Germany, where he received 
his basic and secondary education. He returned to 
Switzerland to attend the Kunstgewerbeschule in 
Zurich (Zurich School for Applied Arts), where he 
took a newly established photography course from 
Hans Finsler, one of the most important advocates 
of the technically-oriented photography of the Ger- 
man "New Vision" (Neue Sehen) school. Under 
Finsler's influence, Bischof photographed large 
numbers of plants, shells, and various other sub- 
jects in a dispassionate, technical style. After his 
studies, Bischof worked as an independent designer 
and photographer in the fields of fashion and 
advertising in Zurich- Leiten, 1936. In 1938, he 
took a position at a Zurich publishing house, but 
also worked as a graphic and interior architectural 
designer. In 1939, he designed a pavilion for gra- 
phic design and worked for the fashion pavilion at 
the Swiss National Exposition. 



During a stay in Paris in the same year, he decided 
to suspend his photographic activities to concen- 
trate on painting. The beginning of hostilities in 
1940 forced his return to Switzerland where he 
served in the military until 1942 and during this 
time he returned to photography. In 1942 Bischof 
began experiments with light and shadow effects, 
publishing the results in the magazine Du. He soon 
became a regular contributor and began to work as 
a photojournalist, choosing a path that was basi- 
cally in opposition to his object-oriented education 
and experience to date. Artificial arrangements in 
the studio were left behind. The ravages of war 
caused him to take up what would become his pri- 
mary subject: people. His subjects were not specta- 
cular catastrophes or atrocities, but the devastating 
effects of war both internalized by those who sur- 
vived it, and expressed by the environments in 
which they had to survive. Bischof controlled the 
forcefulness of his statements by use of subtle fram- 
ing of what might first appear to be casual snap- 
shots. In 1944-1945 Bischof, as a member of the art 
group Allianz, published his first reportages. Dur- 
ing this time his photo essays, Der Zirkus (The 
Circus) and Die Invaliden {The Invalids) — early 
examples of the form in color — were published. In 
1945 after he spent time with Italian partisans who 
had sought refuge in the Swiss state, Tessin. Die 
Fluchtlinge (The Refugees) was a result of this 



133 



BISCHOF, WERNER 



sojourn. He also traveled to France, Germany, and 
Holland to capture the devastation caused by the 
war. In his candid photographs Bischof demon- 
strated that this technique, more than any other 
type of war photography, is best able to describe the 
inconceivable consequences of war. In December 
1 945 and May 1 946, some of these pictures appeared 
in Du, shocking many with a photograph showing 
the mutilated face of a Dutch boy on the title page. 
There was public consternation at this imagery, and 
as a result, Bischof s projected book about the con- 
sequences of the war was never realized. 

After the war Bischof became increasingly in- 
volved in the making of photographs and picture 
stories for the international press. From 1946 to 

1948 he worked as a photographer for Schweizer 
Spende, a Swiss relief organization for war-disabled 
in Italy, Greece, Austria, and Eastern Europe (Ru- 
mania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland), 
then in Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. In 1949 
his photos were published in Du and in a special 
edition of Atlantic. In 1948 Bischof photographed 
the Winter Olympics in St. Moritz for Life and in 

1949 he worked for the British magazines Picture 
Post and The Observer following his move to Eng- 
land. In the same year he became a founding mem- 
ber of Magnum Photos, New York and Paris, which 
with help from other members such as Robert Capa, 
David "Ohm" Seymour, and Henri Cartier-Bres- 
son, became one of the most important organiza- 
tions of socially engaged photographers in the post 
WWII period. Trips to Italy, Sardinia, Paris, and 
Iceland followed. In the Italian magazine Epoca, a 
feature on Le Piazze d'ltalia (Italian Plazas) ap- 
peared. For Life, in 1951, Bischof photographed 
probably his most famous reportage, Famine in 
Bihar (Hunger in Bihar), which covered the famine 
in the Indian province. Stunned by the bitter poverty 
of the Indian people, he captured striking images 
without exploiting or sensationalizing his subjects, 
including, for example, a worm's-eye view photo of a 
begging mother with a child in her arms. The sym- 
bolic communication of pictures such as these were 
particularly powerful. 

From 1951 to 1952, Bischof was sent by Life to 
Tokyo. There he rediscovered himself as an artist, 
increasingly choosing tranquil, well-balanced com- 
positions that avoided dramatic effects. He reflected 
on this period of personal transition in his book, 
Japan, which appeared in 1954 and for which he 
received the Prix Nadar (France) in 1955. Outstand- 
ing examples of pictures from this time include Schla- 
fender Pries ter im Ryoanji-Tempel {Sleeping Priests 
in the Ryoanji-Temple), Kyoto, Japan (1951) and 
Steinweg durch den Teich im Heiangarten Kyoto 



(Stone Path Through the Pond in the Heian Garden 
of Kyoto) (1952). Thus it was with reluctance that he 
accepted an assignment in Indochina as a war corre- 
spondent for Paris Match. Doubting more and more 
the capacity of photojournalism to change society, 
Bischof had sought independence from magazine 
work and wanted to remove himself from war corre- 
spondence since 1951. He was able to move more 
toward creating photoessays that depicted the cul- 
ture and lifestyles of various nations. In Finland, 
Bischof worked on an international documentary 
about Women Today. That same year he wrote a 
feature on British Columbia for Fortune magazine. 
Via California and Mexico he and his wife traveled to 
South America for an extended photo tour. 

In 1954 Bischof worked on a photo story in Lima, 
Peru, and Santiago, Chile, after working for a period 
in Panama on assignment for Life. When his wife 
returned to Switzerland, Bischof flew to the Inca 
city, Machu Picchu. Returning to Lima he met the 
geologist, Ali di Szepessy, who was on an Amazon 
expedition, and decided to accompany him. On 16 
May, 1954, their wrecked car was found in a gully. 
Just a few days before the accident Werner Bischof s 
undeniably best known photograph, Flote spielender 
Junge bei Cuzco (Boys Playing Flutes in Cuzco) had 
appeared. It was a poignant and impressive ending 
to Bischof s career in which he had been able to 
reduce situations to their essentials: parents and 
children, hunger and war, loneliness — all timeless, 
universal themes. Through the unification of ambi- 
tious aesthetics and ethics, Bischof s works have be- 
come classics that convey the misery of our world in 
a dignified and enduring manner. 

Franz-Xaver Schlegel 

See also: Capa, Robert; Carrier-Bresson, Henri; 
Finsler, Hans; Life; Magnum Photos; Picture Post; 
Seymour, David "Chim"; War Photography 



Biography 

Born in Zurich, April 26, 1916. Basic education, 1922-1931. 
Childhood and youth in Waldshut, Germany. Higher 
education: studied drawing and sports at a teaching 
school in Schiers/Graubiinden (Switzerland), 1 93 1 — 
1932. Studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich (Zur- 
ich School for Applied Arts), 1932-1936 under Hans 
Finsler. From 1936 on, worked as an independent photo- 
grapher and technical drawer (fashion, advertisement) in 
Zurich-Letten. Employed by Graphis-Verlag (publishing 
house), Zurich, 1938. Employee and later chief editor of 
the newspaper Du. Publication of his photos of devasta- 
tion of war in Europe in the illustrated newspaper Du, 
1942-1944. War reportages covering France, Germany, 
The Netherlands, Italy, and Greece, 1945. Official repor- 
ter for Life at the Winter Olympic Games in St. Moritz, 



134 



BISCHOF, WERNER 



1948. From this followed further commissions for Life as 
well as for Fortune, Picture Post, Weekly Illustrated, The 
Observer, Epoca, Paris Match, etc. Founding member of 
Magnum Photos, 1949. Married Rosellina Mandel, 1949; 
two sons, Marc, 1950 and Daniel, 1954. A co-founder of 
the Kollegiums Schweizerischen Photographen (Commit- 
tee of Swiss Photographers), 1951. Photo reports from 
Europe, The Middle East, and America. Died in a car 
accident in the Peruvian Andes, the region of Trujillo, 
May 16, 1954. 

Individual Exhibitions 

1953 Menschen im Fernen Osten; Galerie St. Annahof, Zur- 
ich, Switzerland 

1955 Japan; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1956 Werner Bischof, Retrospektive; Kunstgewerbeschule 
Zurich, Switzerland 

1957 Retrospektive Werner Bischof; Kunstgewerbemuseum 
Zurich, Switzerland 

1960 Werner Bischof; Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, France 
1966 Werner Bischof; Galerie Form, Zurich, Switzerland 



1967 Werner Bischof; Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 

France 
968 Werner Bischof; IBM Gallery, New York, New York 
984 Werner Bischof; Galerie Municipale du Chateau 

d'Eau, Toulouse, France 
986 Werner Bischof; Kunsthaus Zurich, Switzerland, and 

traveling 

988 Werner Bischof; Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, 
Spain 

989 Werner Bischof; Photoforum Pasquart, Biel, Switzer- 
land 

990 Werner Bischof; International Center of Photography, 
New York, New York 

994 Werner Bischof ( 1916-1954); New Zealand Centre of 

Photography, New Zealand 
998 Werner Bischof: Nach clem Krieg; Galerie Mangisch, 
Zurich, Switzerland 
2001 The Compassionate Lens — The Photographs of Werner 
Bischof 1945-1954; Bruce Museum, Greenwich, Connec- 
ticut 
2004 Werner Bischof— Photographs 1932-1954; The Min- 
neapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota 




Werner Bischof, Hong-Kong, 1952. 
[© Werner Bischof Magnum Photos] 



135 



BISCHOF, WERNER 



Group Exhibitions 

1949 Photographic in der Schweiz von 1848 bis heute; Gewer- 

bemuseum, Basel, Switzerland 
1955 The Family of Man; Museum of Modern Art, New 

York, New York, and traveling 

1959 10 Years of Photography; George Eastman House, 
Rochester, New York 

1960 The World as Seen by Magnum; Musee des Arts dec- 
oratifs, Paris, France 

1969 Photography in the 20th Century; National Gallery of 
Canada, Ottawa, Canada, and traveling 

1977 Documenta 6, Museum Friedericianum; Kassel, Ger- 
many 

1979 Photographie als Kunst — Kunst als Photographie 1879- 
1979; Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, 
Austria 

1980 The Imaginary Photo Museum; Photokina, Cologne, 
Germany 

1985 Triennale Internationale de la photographie; Musee 

d'Art et d'histoire, Fribourg, Switzerland 
1990 Zeitblende — 5 Jahrzehnte Magnum-Photographie; 

Kunsthaus Zurich, Switzerland 
1999 Patient Planet So Many Worlds; Auckland City Art 

Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand 



Selected Works 

Die Fliichtlinge, 1944 

After the War (series), 1945 

Weinendes Kind, 1947 

Ungarn (series), 1947 

Schlafender Pries ter im Ryoanji-Tempel, Kyoto, Japan, 1951 

Bihar, India, 1951 

Hungersnot in Madras (series), 1951 

Die indische Tdnzerin Anali Hora bei der Morgentoilette, 1951 

Indochina, 1952 

Steinweg durch den Teich im Heiangarten Kyoto, 1952 

Floten spielender Junge bei Cuzco, 1954 



Further Reading 

Bischof, Rosallina, and P. Schifferli. Werner Bischof Quer- 
schnitt. Zurich: Manesse Verlag, 1961. 

Bischof, Werner. Werner Bischof. Intro, by Claude Roy. 
London: Thames + Hudson, 1989. 

Bischof, Marco, and Rene Burri. Werner Bischof. London: 1990. 

British Journal of Photography 138 (1991) no. 6809, v. 28.2. 
1991; 16-19. 

Bischof, Werner. After the War. Washington, DC: Smithso- 
nian Publishers, 1997. 

Browne, Turner, and Elaine Partnow, eds. Macmillan Bio- 
graphical Encyclopedia of Photographic Artists & Innova- 
tors. New York and London: Collier MacMillan, 1983. 

Burri, Rosellina, and Rene Burri, eds. Bischof- Burri. Manuel 
Gasser, essay. 

Capa, Cornell, ed. The Concerned Photographer. New York: 1968. 

Cookman, Claude. Werner Bischof — 55 Photos. London, 
Paris, Berlin: Phaidon Press, 2001. 

Die Welt der Camera. Luzern and Frankfurt: 1964. 

Farova, Hanna, ed. The Photographs of Werner Bischof. 
Prague: 1964. 

Fliieler, Niklaus, and Romeo E. Martinez, eds. Grosse Pho- 
tographen unserer Zeit: Werner Bischof . Luzern: 1973. 

Gasser, Manuel. Werner Bischof Unterwegs. Zurich: Man- 
esse Verlag, 1957. 

Gasser, Manuel. The World of Werner Bischof: A Photo- 
grapher's Odyssey. New York: 1959. 

Gasser, Manuel. 24 Photos von Werner Bischof. Bern: 1946. 

Genossenschaftsbund, Migros, ed. Mutter unci Kind. Zurich: 
1949. 

Gruber, L. Fritz, ed. Grope Photographen unseres Jahrhun- 
derts. Berlin: Darmstadt and Wien, 1964. 

Gruber, L. Fritz, and Renate, eds. The Imaginary Photo 
Museum. Cologne: 1980. 

Guillain, Robert. Japan. Paris, Delpire, 1954. 

PhotoClassicsII—WernerBischofl916-1954. London: 1971. 

Tunon de Lara, Manuel. From Incas to Indios (Photographs 
by Werner Bischof, Robert Frank and Pierre Verger). 
New York: 1956. 



BLACK STAR 



By the mid- 1930s, photojournalism in America was 
firmly established. Editors and publishers used 
photographs freely, secure in the public's support 
for newspapers and magazines that used photo- 
graphs to describe the events of the day. Ironically, 
the photographers who produced all those pictures, 
who made illustrated journalism a fact of life in 
America, received little in the way of either respect 
or gratitude. Most often, images in the press were 
run without credit, and those who made the pictures 
in the first place were routinely characterized as 



uncouth brutes. To make matters worse, prints and 
negatives were rarely archived; when newspapers or 
magazines changed hands or went out of business, or 
when photographers changed jobs or retired, old 
negatives and prints were simply thrown away. But 
all that was about to change, and the Black Star 
picture agency, founded in New York City in early 
1936 was a principle instrument of that change. 

The origins of Black Star lay in Europe, especially 
in Germany. The rise of Adolph Hitler and the 
Nazis in January 1933 impelled some of Europe's 



136 



BLACK STAR 



most talented journalists to emigrate to the United 
States where they had an immediate and profound 
influence on journalistic practice. Three among 
them were the founders of Black Star: Ernest 
Mayer, director of the Mauritius Publishing Com- 
pany, one of Germany's most successful photo 
agencies; Kurt Safranski, manager of the legendary 
Ullstein group of magazines; and Kurt Kornfeld, a 
literary agent. 

As it happened, the three German emigres arrived 
just as the world of American magazines was being 
transformed by publishers such as Henry Luce of 
Time, Inc. and Mike Cowles of the Des Moines, 
Iowa Register and Tribune. Convinced that the pub- 
lic's appetite for the visual mandated a different 
approach to illustrated journalism, Luce and Cow- 
les were determined to produce national magazines 
in which the photograph and the photographic 
essay reigned supreme. Luce won the race to pro- 
duce America's first large-format picture magazine; 
the first issue of Life hit the newsstands in Novem- 
ber 1936. Cowles's Look followed in February 1937. 

In the year before the publication of the first issue 
of Life, Luce relied on advice and counsel from 
Black Star, and early editions of the magazine near- 
ly always contained work produced by Black Star 
photographers. This is hardly surprising since Time, 
Inc. had agreed to pay Black Star a minimum of 
$5,000 a year for first refusal rights on all Black Star 
photographs not taken expressly for other publica- 
tions. In addition, Luce's company agreed to pay 
extra to secure first rights on all photographs im- 
ported from Europe by the agency. 

The phenomenal impact of Life and Cowles's 
Look led to a proliferation of photographically-illu- 
strated magazines and to the early success of Black 
Star. Most of the new picture magazines kept their 
staffs small, preferring instead to purchase images 
from agencies like Black Star that had connections 
with photographers and other agencies around the 
world. For instance, before the United States went 
to war in 1941, Black Star had a curious and special 
arrangement with Deutscher Verlag, the official 
Nazi news agency. For years, Black Star received 
photographs of the German army nearly every day 
in the mail. At Life one bureau chief remembered 
that in the early days the magazine "needed Black 
Star more than they needed us." And it was not 
simply access to the occasional exclusive photo- 
graph that mattered, for Life also "needed their 
stories for our files, their contacts, their staff for 
assignments, and their pictures." The relationship 
between the agency and the magazine was so sym- 
biotic that some of Black Star's most talented photo- 
graphers — Ralph Crane, Andreas Feininger, Fritz 



Goro, Walt Sanders, Bill Ray, and Burk Uzzle — 
eventually joined the staff at Life. 

While the initial success of Black Star undoubt- 
edly lay in what historian Hendrik Neubauer calls 
"the enormous appetite which magazines world- 
wide had for photographs," there is much more to 
the story. Even in the heyday of the big picture 
magazines like Life and Look, the agency sought 
to widen its client base to include corporate and 
advertising photography, which is far more remu- 
nerative than traditional news and documentary 
photography. Since the demise of the large-format 
picture magazines in the 1960s and 1970s, the need 
to include corporate and advertising photography 
in the work of the agency is clear, though not uni- 
versally appreciated. Howard Chapnick, the legend- 
ary president of the agency from 1964 to 1989, noted 
with some frustration that in spite of the "large 
number of publications using photography," com- 
paratively few have any use for the kind of "exten- 
sive documentary picture stories" that were once the 
mainstay of the business. 

Ben Chapnick, Howard's first cousin and succes- 
sor as president of the agency, concurs. "It is quite 
apparent to me," he told Hendrik Neubauer, "that 
without the corporate business and its expansion 
since 1960," Black Star might have managed to 
eke out a narrow existence as "a much smaller 
entity" or ceased to exist altogether. Instead, by re- 
cognizing both the necessity and value of producing 
commercial photography, the agency assures that 
its photographers will continue to work, even 
though their journalistic and documentary efforts 
no longer bring in the kind of income they once did. 

Black Star's importance in the history of twenti- 
eth-century photography is unquestioned. Begin- 
ning with its early association with Life magazine, 
the agency became one of the most important sup- 
pliers of news and feature photography to newspa- 
pers, magazines, books, and corporations around 
the world. The photographers represented by the 
agency were and are at the top of the profession; 
many, such as W. Eugene Smith, David and Peter 
Turnley, John Launois, Claus Meyer, and Charles 
Moore have rightly achieved considerable fame. The 
approximately 350 men and women now associated 
with the agency produce a daunting array of work for 
journalistic and commercial clients worldwide, and 
Black Star's enormous collection of stock photo- 
graphs constitutes a stunning visual history of the 
world since the mid- 1930s. 

Michael Carlebach 

See also: Archives; Feininger, Andreas; Life Maga- 
zine; Look; Uzzle, Burk 



137 



BLACK STAR 



Further Reading 

Chapnick, Howard. Truth Needs No Ally. Inside Photo- 
journalism. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri 
Press, 1994. 

Neubauer, Hendrik. Black Star. 60 Years of Photojournal- 
ism. Koln, Germany: Konemann, 1997. 



Schuneman, R. Smith, ed. Photographic Communication. 

Principles, Problems and Challenges of Photojournalism. 

New York: Hastings House, 1972. 
Smith, C. Zoe. "Black Star Picture Agency: Life's European 

Connection." Journalism History 13, no. 1 (Spring 1986). 



KARL BLOSSFELDT 



German 

Karl Blossfeldt depicted plants by the thousands — in 
photographs which feature flowers, buds, branched 
stems, clusters, or seed capsules shot directly from 
the side, seldom from an overhead view, and rarely 
from a diagonal perspective. He usually placed the 
subjects of his photographs against white or grey 
cardboard, sometimes against a black background. 
Hardly ever can details of the room be detected. The 
light for his shots was obtained from a northern 
window, making it diffuse, yet the light came from 
the side, creating volume. The technique and proces- 
sing conditions were simple; only the size of the nega- 
tive format was more demanding. Nothing should 
detract from the subject. Blossfeldt produced such 
pictures for over 30 years and producing them was 
nothing but work. 

This line of work was not his main profession, 
although his fame today rests on his photographs. 
Rather, plant photography was part of an all-inclu- 
sive whole, a teaching concept. He taught for over 
30 years at the Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Arts 
and Crafts) in Berlin. Shortly before his death, 
when already famous for his photography, he 
announced his intention to publish his teaching 
methods, in order to place the images in their 
right as he saw it. Neither this plan nor that of 
completing an archive of plant photographs was 
ever realized. What has remained are bundles of 
photographs, which have made history on their 
own, and the memory of a teacher, who — like so 
many in his field — left no lasting impression out- 
side of his personal sphere. But Karl Blossfeldt's 
life achievement occupies a firm place in the history 
of twentieth century photography. 

To a certain extent, he had foreseen that he 
neither would be recognized as a photographer in 



the style of plant-loving still life painters nor as an 
artist in his own field, sculpture. He knew that his 
photographs were part of a straight vision just 
recently discovered before his first exhibition in 
1925, and he hoped that, at least, his photographs 
would teach people to look more closely at nature, 
even through art. Two sentences of his rare writings 
encapsulate all of his ideas: 

But the plant never falls into the sober representation of 
a mere object; it forms and grows according to logic and 
function, and, with primeval power, forces everything to 
the most sublime artistic form. ...My flower documents 
should contribute to restoring the relationship to nature. 
They should reawaken a sense for nature, point out its 
teeming richness of form, and prompt the viewer to 
observe for himself the local plant world. 

(Blossfeldt 1932, 5) 

Born in the Harz Mountains in central Germany, 
Karl Blossfeldt grew up in the country surrounded 
by plants and animals, which he enjoyed drawing 
and modeling. His education included an arts and 
crafts apprenticeship, a craftmen's scholarship for 
further education in drawing, and some musical 
instruction about which sparse biographical sources 
provide no details. He appears to have wavered 
between a career as a relief sculptor and that of a 
singer's rehearser until he was given the task that 
was to determine his life's work. As a student of the 
Berlin School of Arts and Crafts he was asked to 
produce models for drawing classes in accordance 
with the method of Moritz Meurer, then his teacher. 
Meurer and six of his students were given a grant to 
live and work in Rome for six years in order to 
produce a collection of drawings and models of 
natural ornaments to be used by Germany's indus- 
try. Karl Blossfeldt was one of the two modelers in 
this party. 



138 



BLOSSFELDT, KARL 



Moritz Meurer and his assistants not only col- 
lected, drew, and cast botanical specimen in Rome 
and its outlying regions, but also systematically 
photographed plants. Shoots were removed from 
stems, roots cut back and, if necessary, buds 
opened. The plant types were stuck on a support, 
mounted before a uniform background, and ex- 
posed. In the history of photography the adoption 
of this method with its roots in painting was a 
tradition in itself. The first publication of the project 
was dedicated to a single plant — acanthus (cow- 
parsnip) — and its influence on ancient art; two of 
its photographs bear Blossfeldt's name. They show 
the leaf and stem of the acanthus with the character- 
istic pointed tips and crenature on the head, pic- 
tured before a grey background. When the book 
was published in 1896, Moritz Meurer returned to 
Berlin and left Blossfeldt without subsidy. 

For a time Karl Blossfeldt went through a phase 
of reorientation, undecided whether to stay in Italy, 
emigrate to the United States, or assume employ- 
ment in the German arts and crafts industry. In the 
end, he chose a position as an assistant teacher for 
modeling from plants at the Kunstgewerbeschule in 
Berlin. In 1899 he was elevated to the post of lec- 
turer. Blossfeldt's task in his beginners' classes was 
essentially that of demonstrating that the best con- 
structions for industrial designs had already been 
anticipated in nature. So he did, with nearly no 
change and development until his dismissal in 
1930 — and as steady as his teaching method was 
his use of the camera. 

In 1925, the Berlin gallerist Karl Nierendorf recog- 
nized Karl Blossfeldt and his plant photographs. He 
immediately realized their similarity to 1920s' avant- 
garde art, asked Blossfeldt to print a larger number 
of exhibition photographs, and subsequently pre- 
pared their publication in a book. It appeared under 
the title Urformen der Kunst (Basic Forms of Art) in 
1926, with a second issue within one year, and was 
translated into several languages. The great photo- 
graphic exhibition of 1929, Film und Foto in Stutt- 
gart, showed his work with the greatest respect 
possible. After 1930 there was scarcely a major 
photo exhibition and nearly no important annual 
without Blossfeldt's images. In the autumn of 1930, 
Karl Blossfeldt had reached retirement age and gave 
up teaching in order to devote himself to the evalua- 
tion of his plant archives. His second book of photo- 
graphs, Wundergarten der Natur (Nature's Wonderful 
Garden), was published in the spring of 1932. On 
December 3, 1932, Karl Blossfeldt died in Berlin. 

Rolf Sachsse 



Photography in Europe: Germany and 



See also: 
Austria 

Biography 

Born in Schielo, Harz Mountains, Central Germany, June 
13, 1865. Apprenticeship as a caster in an art foundry of 
ironworks at Maegdesprung, Selke Valley, and private 
music lessons, 1881-1984. Scholarship for drawing 
courses at the Berlin school for arts and crafts, continued 
music lessons, 1884-1986. Work as an art caster in Ber- 
lin, 1886-1989. Assistant to Moritz Meurer on a design 
commission for the Prussian Ministry of Trade in Rome, 
1890-1997. Assistant to the Director of the Berlin school 
of arts and crafts, 1898. Lecturer for drawing after nat- 
ure, 1899-1920, Professor for drawing after nature at the 
Berlin school for arts and crafts, 1921-1930. As Profes- 
sor emeritus, work on a theory of drawing after nature 
and rearranging his photographic material, 1930-1932. 
Died in Berlin, 3 December 1932. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1926 Karl Blossfeldt, Urformen der Kunst, Galerie Nieren- 
dorf, Berlin, Germany 

1976 Karl Blossfeldt, Fotografien 1900-1932, Rheinisches 
Landesmuseum, Bonn, Germany 

1994 Karl Blossfeldt, Stadtisches Kunstmuseum, Bonn, 
Germany, and traveling 

1999 Karl Blossfeldt, Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, Germany, 
and traveling through Germany, Switzerland, and Austria 



Group Exhibitions 

1929 Film und Foto; Internationale Ausstellung des 
Deutschen Werkbundes, Stuttgart, Germany, and tra- 
veling through Germany, Switzerland, and Austria 

1977 Documenta VI, Kassel, Germany 

1993 Pantheon der Fotografie des 20; Jahrhunderts, 
Kunsthalle der Bundesrepublik, Bonn, Germany 

1997 Deutsche Fotografie, Macht eines Mediums 1870-1970, 
Kunsthalle der Bundesrepublik, Bonn, Germany 

1999 Karl Blossfeldt, Silvie + Cherif Defraoui; Pflanzenbilder, 
Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum, Duisburg, Germany 

2000 Die Sprache der Pflanzen; Kunsthalle, Erfurt, Ger- 
many 

2000 Die Natur der Dinge; Kunstforum NRW, Duesseldorf, 
Germany 

2001 Karl Blossfeldt and Natascha Borowsky; SK-Stiftung, 
Cologne, Germany 



Selected Works 

Equisetum hyemale, n.d. 

Impatiens glandulifera, n.d. 

Dipsacus laciniatus, n.d. 

Cucurbita, n.d. 

Adiantum pedatum, n.d. 

Aristolochia clematitis, n.d. 

Laserpitum siler, n.d. 

Blumenbachia hieronymi ( Loasaceae ) , n.d. 



139 



BLOSSFELDT, KARL 




Karl Blossfeldt, Adiantum Pelatum, 1928, Photogravure, 10x7 Y 2 " (25.4 x 19.05 cm), Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, Gift of Joyce Essex. 
[Photograph © 2004 Museum Associates/ LAC MA] 



140 



BLUMENFELD, ERWIN 



Further Reading 

Blossfeldt, Karl. Urformen der Kunst. Berlin: Wasmuth, 
1926. 

Blossfeldt, Karl. Wundergarten der Natur. Berlin: Was- 
muth. 1932. 

Karl Blossfeldt Photographs 1900-1932. Exhibition catalo- 
gue. Bonn: Rheinland Verlag, 1977. 

Karl Blossfeldt 1865-1932, Das fotografische Werk. Text by 
Gert Mattenklott. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel 1981. 



Roh, Franz, and Jan Tschichold. foto-auge photo-eye. 
Tubingen: Wasmuth, 1929. 

Sachsse, Rolf. Karl Blossfeldt Photographs. Koln: Taschen, 
1993. 

Vergleichende Konzeptionen, August Sander, Karl Blossfeldt, 
Albert Renger-Patzsch, Bernd und Hilla Becher. Exhibi- 
tion catalogue. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel 1997. 



ERWIN BLUMENFELD 



American 

In 1921, Erwin Blumenfeld mailed a postcard from 
Amsterdam with a photograph of his face collaged 
atop a woman's body and the words "President- 
Dada-Chaplinist-Charlotin" to poet and Dada 
founder Tristan Tzara. Tzara and the Berlin Dada- 
ists, to whom Blumenfeld was connected, actively 
recognized the value of photography and its creative 
possibilities. Several key members of the group 
would become innovators of photomontage and an 
important influence on political propaganda, pho- 
tojournalism, and advertising photography follow- 
ing World War I. Always true to his Dadaist spirit, 
Blumenfeld never ceased to experiment in the dark- 
room, using techniques such as solarization and 
double-exposures, and created clever, unexpected 
compositions in his photographs. He would later 
become one of the most sought-after, highest-paid 
photographers in the world. 

Erwin Blumenfeld was born on January 26, 1897, 
to an upper-middle class Jewish family in Berlin. 
His father, Albert Blumenfeld, was a principal part- 
ner of Jordan & Blumenfeld, an umbrella manufac- 
turer. The Blumenfelds initially lived a life of 
bourgeois comfort, and the children were treated 
to expensive toys as well as regular outings at the 
theatre and art museums. During a trip to the Kai- 
ser Friedrich Museum, Blumenfeld was deeply 
affected by the delicately veiled nudes of Sandro 
Botticelli's Venus and Lucas Cranach the Elder's 
Lucretia. As a result of this visit, veiling and female 
nudity would subsequently become a recurrent 
theme in his work. 



Blumenfeld received his first camera as a gift at 
age 10 and described this moment as when his "real 
life started." He shared his enthusiasm with his best 
friend, Paul Citroen, a Dutch boy he met at school, 
the rigorous Askanisches Gymnasium in Berlin. The 
boys commemorated their friendship in a 1910 dou- 
ble self-portrait, which they later re-enacted in 1916 
and 1926. Fittingly, the young Blumenfeld was intri- 
gued by reflected images and fascinated by mirrors. 
In his first self-portrait dressed as Pierrot, he cap- 
tured simultaneous frontal and profile views of his 
face using a mirror. 

In 1913, Blumenfeld finished his studies and 
began a three-year apprenticeship for Moses & 
Schlochauer, a German dressmaker. He abandoned 
further education due to his father's mental dete- 
rioration and consequent death from syphilis that 
left the family in financial ruin. As he grew disen- 
chanted with the garment industry, Berlin was 
becoming a dynamic forum for the international 
avant-garde. Expressionists, Fauvists, Cubists, and 
Futurists exhibited regularly in the city beginning in 
1910; the same year Herwarth Walden's cultural 
weekly, Der Sturm, began publication. In 191 5, Blu- 
menfeld and Citroen met Walden, and Citroen 
became the manager of the Der Sturm bookstore in 
1916. That same year, Blumenfeld fell in love with 
Citroen's cousin Lena. 

Through Walden, Citroen and Blumenfeld met 
the founding members of the Berlin Dada move- 
ment: George Grosz, Walter Mehring, Wieland 
Herzfelde, and his brother Helmut Hertzfelde (John 
Heartfield). In 1917, Citroen was dispatched to 
Amsterdam as a representative of Der Sturm, and 



141 



BLUMENFELD, ERWIN 



Blumenfeld was drafted in to the German army 
originally as an ambulance driver and soon after 
became the bookkeeper for a field brothel. Blumen- 
feld planned to desert the army while on leave in 
1918, only to be reported by his mother and impri- 
soned. After the war's end, he left Berlin for Amster- 
dam where he was reunited with Paul and Lena 
Citroen and declared himself the president of Dada 
in Holland. 

Once in Amsterdam, he sought to establish him- 
self as a Dada artist and created some of his most 
important collages. He married Lena in 1921, and 
two years later, he opened The Fox Leather Com- 
pany, described in his autobiography as: "eaten up 
by expenses from the day of its birth." At the shop's 
second location, he discovered a hidden darkroom, 
where he would master solarization, and asked cus- 
tomers to pose for portraits, sometimes nude, which 
he displayed in the front window. In 1932, Blumen- 
feld had his first exhibition as a photographer at the 
Kunstzaal van Lier. Two years later, Blumenfeld 
published photographs in the noted French publica- 
tion, Photographic. In 1935, French painter Georges 
Rouault's daughter Genevieve, a dentist, visited 
Blumenfeld's shop and agreed to exhibit his work 
in the waiting room of her office in Paris. 

With the hope of becoming a professional photo- 
grapher, Blumenfeld moved to Paris in 1936. Upon 
arrival, Genevieve Rouault collected a small group 
of clients eagerly awaiting sittings, including her 
father and famed painter Henri Matisse. The por- 
trait business did not prove lucrative, and he set his 
sights on fashion photography. In the meantime, he 
accepted advertising commissions and rented a stu- 
dio in Montparnasse where he continued his own 
work. In 1937, Blumenfeld published a series of 
photographs in the first two issues of the prestigious 
art quarterly, Verve. Among these images were sev- 
eral of his accomplished nudes such as Nude Under 
Wet Silk. Later, Verve 's editors sold 50 of Blumen- 
feld's images to an American publication, Coronet, 
and the annual Photographic continued to promi- 
nently feature his photographs. 

Although he was well represented in magazines 
and galleries, work as a fashion photographer 
remained unattainable until 1938, when he met Brit- 
ish photographer Cecil Beaton, who helped him 
secure a contract at Conde Nast. His first portfolio 
appeared in the October 1938 issue of French 
Vogue, and the May issue included another 20- 
page spread, which featured Blumenfeld's legendary 
photograph of model Lisa Fonssagrives on the edge 
of the Eiffel Tower. In 1939, Vogue did not renew his 
contract, and as a result, he decided to seek oppor- 
tunities in New York. 



Shortly after arriving in New York, Alexander 
King promised him work at Life, and a meeting 
with editor Carmel Snow at Harper's Bazaar 
resulted in an immediate, well-paid assignment in 
Paris. After returning to Paris, he was ordered to 
report to a French concentration camp in 1940. 
When it was determined that Blumenfeld had been 
interned by mistake, he and his family fled to Amer- 
ica, only to be detoured and detained again by Ger- 
man forces in Morocco. Rescued by the Hebrew Aid 
Society, they arrived in New York, and Blumen- 
feld's arrival was greeted with a rewarding contract 
from Harper's Bazaar. 

At Harper's Bazaar, Blumenfeld worked with 
renowned art director Alexey Brodovich and forged 
a close relationship with photographer Martin 
Munkacsi. Although Harper's Bazaar was an effec- 
tive showcase for Blumenfeld's work and secured 
him major advertising contracts with clients such 
as Helena Rubenstein and Elizabeth Arden, he 
responded to financial incentives at Conde Nast 
and returned to Vogue in 1944. Art director Alex- 
ander Liberman conceded a considerable amount of 
creative freedom to Blumenfeld and encouraged 
him to experiment with veiled images, where models 
were photographed behind ground glass and cello- 
phane or reflected in mirrors, as well as color photo- 
graphy, integrating motifs derived from painting 
into his work. Liberman appreciated his Dadaist 
and Surrealist sensibilities and recognized that his 
carefully composed, surprising images would make 
impressive covers. He included Blumenfeld's photo- 
graphs in his book, The Art and Technique of Color 
Photography, published in 1951. 

Blumenfeld's contract with Vogue ended in 1955; 
however, he still received advertising commissions 
from loyal clients and signed with L'Oreal in 1963. 
Although he was included in two group exhibitions 
at the Museum of Modern Art, NewYork, in 1947 
and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 
1948, Blumenfeld seldom exhibited in the United 
States. He dedicated the latter years of his life to 
composing his autobiography and collecting his 
best 100 photographs into a book. Of those images, 
only four are from his work as a fashion photogra- 
pher. Both works were published posthumously. 
Erwin Blumenfeld died on a trip to Rome, Italy 
in 1969. 

Anne Blecksmith 

See also: Beaton, Cecil; Conde Nast; Dada; Fashion 
Photography; Heartfield, John; Liberman, Alexan- 
der; Manipulation; Montage; Multiple Exposures 
and Printing; Munkacsi, Martin; Propaganda; 
Solarization 



142 



BODY ART 



Biography 

Born Berlin, Germany, January 26, 1897. Died Rome, Italy, 
July, 4, 1969. Received secondary school certificate from 
the Askanisches Gymnasium, 1913. Drafted into Ger- 
man army, 1916-1918. Moves to Amsterdam to join 
Paul and Lena Citroen, 1918. Marries Lena Citroen, 
1921. Opens the Fox Leather Goods Company, 1922. 
Birth of daughter Lisette, 1922. Birth of son Heinz, 1925. 
Birth of son Yorick, 1932. Exhibition at the Kunstzaal 
van Lier, 1932. Moves to Paris, 1936. Exhibition at 
Galerie Billier, 1936. Photographs published in Verve, 
1936. First work at French Vogue, 1936. Covers Paris 
fashion for Harper's Bazaar, 1939. Moves to New York 
to work for Harper's Baazar, 1941. Joins Vogue, 1944. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1978 Erwin Blumenfeld; Witkin Gallery, New York, New 
York 

1988 Erwin Blumenfeld: Dada Collage and Photography; 
Rachel Adler Gallery, New York, New York 

1989 Erwin Blumenfeld; Museum fur Kunsthandwerk und 
Gewerbe, Hamburg, Germany 

1996 Erwin Blumenfeld: A Fetish for Beauty; Barbican Art 
Gallery, London, England 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1993 Paul Citroen and Erwin Blumenfeld; The Photogra- 
phers' Gallery, London, England 



Selected Works 

Momie vivante, 1932 

Nude under Wet Silk, c. 1937 

Carmen the Model for Rodin's "The Kiss", 1937 

Portfolio de Vogue: La Tour Eiffel, French Vogue, 1939 

Nude in Artificial Snow, 1949 

Spring Fashions I Do Your Part for the Red Cross, American 

Vogue cover, 1945 
1950: Mid-century Fashions, Faces, Ideas, American Vogue 

cover, 1950 
In hoc signo vinces, 1967 



Further Reading 

Blumenfeld, Erwin. Durch tausendjdhrige Zeit [Autobiogra- 
phic] . Frauenfeld: Huber, 1976; as Eye to I: Autobiogra- 
phy of a Photographer. Translated by Mike Mitchell and 
Brian Murdoch. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999. 

Blumenfeld, Erwin. Meine 100 Besten Fotos. Bern: Benteli, 
1979. As My One Hundred Best Photos. Text by Hendel 
Teicher, translated by Philippe Garner with an introduc- 
tion by Maurice Besset. New York: Rizzoli, 1981. 

Blumenfeld, Yorick. The Naked and the Veiled: The Photo- 
graphic Nudes of Erwin Blumenfeld. London: Thames 
and Hudson, 1999. 

Ewing, William, and Schinz, Marina. Blumenfeld: A Fetish 
for Beauty. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999. 

Ewing, William. The Idealizing Vision: The Art of Fashion 
Photography. With a preface by Anna Wintour. New 
York: Aperture Foundation, 1991. 

Liberman, Alexander. The Art and Technique of Color 
Photography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951. 



BODY ART 



At the end of the 1960s, artists in the United States 
and Europe began using their own bodies as the 
material and instruments of the artistic work. Dec- 
ades before, actionist elements were already increas- 
ingly important, especially under the influence of 
experimental theater and the reception of the histor- 
ical avant-garde of the second and third decades 
of the twentieth century. Hans Namuth's photo- 
graphs of Jackson Pollock painting his Abstract 
Expressionist canvases played a key role in this deve- 
lopment; these images had a catalyzing influence 
on artists as different as the French "Art Informel" 
figures Georges Mathieu (1921—) and Yves Klein 
(1928-1962), the Japanese Gutai Group, the Ame- 
rican "Happenings" artist, Allen Kaprow (1927-), 
and the Vienna Actionists (Wiener Aktionismus), 



both on their performance and on their stated doc- 
trines. Body artists pursued the fusion of art and life 
that was typical of the 1960s and 1970s to its very 
apex. Practitioners differed considerably and distin- 
guished their use of the body in its social, sexual, 
cultural, and political meaning. Though the actions 
or performances usually took place before audiences 
or in private venues including the studio, photogra- 
phy was an essential component, recording, docu- 
menting, and codifying the activity. Although film 
and video were other important components, it is the 
still images that have come to stand in for the tem- 
poral action, giving Body Art its face to the contem- 
porary art world. Next to the alternately poignant 
and humorous self-examination of Vito Acconci 
(1940-) stand the physical and psychic extremes of 



143 



BODY ART 



the Yugoslavian-born Marina Abramovic (1946-), 
who often performs nude, allowing her body to be 
slammed, pushed past, or otherwise stressed as in 
Rhythm 0, of 1974, and Chris Burden (1946-), the 
Californian conceptualist notorious for having him- 
self shot in the arm. Leading contemporary art figure 
Bruce Nauman (1941-) has learned from modern 
dance that simple everyday actions can be art; his 
spouting of a stream of water Self-Portrait as a Foun- 
tain (1966-1967) in homage to Marcel Duchamp's 
famous urinal titled Fountain, has become an icon 
of postwar contemporary art. Figures who emerged 
in the 1980s often explored popular culture, such 
as Californian Paul McCarthy (1945-) who pushes 
American popular culture to the limits of good taste 
with often scatological actions in which individuals 
wear Santa Claus costumes or Mickey Mouse ears. 
The Cuban-born Ana Mendieta (1948-1985) and 
American Dennis Oppenheim (1938-) fuse body 
and land art, while the Japanese artist Yayoi Ku- 
sama (1929-), who lives in the United States, uses 
her body as a sign of sexual liberation and political 
protest. Feminism came to the fore in the late 1960s 
and early 1 970s in America with Carolee Schneeman 
(1 939-) in her body-in-motion film and performance 
works, with Hannah Wilke (1940-1993) in her nar- 
cissistic poses and role-playing, and in Europe with 
Gina Pane (1936-1990) in her acts of auto-aggres- 
sion, including a famous action in which she sliced 
her face with a razor blade, Psyche of 1974. 

A principle in the Vienna Actionism movement, 
Giinther Brus (1938-) reduces the body to its most 
basic functions; the German Rebecca Horn (1944-) 
expands it with prosthetic devices; and the Cyprus- 
born Stelarc (1946-) dreams of a post-biological 
body. These artists plumb the limits of the body, 
set free suppressed fears and repressed feelings, and 
overstep taboos, and the radical, asymbolic corpor- 
ality of earlier body art raises actions to a legendary, 
mythic standing. Nevertheless, they were largely 
forgotten in the 1980s — a decade that favored paint- 
ing — and were rediscovered in the 1990s. 

Critical to their rise, as the body artists always 
emphasize, were the social and political events of the 
1960s. More directly than other genres, body art 
transported the conflicts and attitudes of the civil 
rights and protest movements, sexual liberation, 
feminism, rock and pop culture, the explosion of 
mass media, and the atmosphere of disruption and 
violence. Noteworthy in this respect is the great 
number of women who took part, as well as the 
fact that body art, was for many artists, such as 
William Wegman, Dennis Oppenheim, Barry Le 
Va, Stuart Brisley, Keith Arnett, Valie Export, and 
Lucas Samaras, only one episode in their lifework. 



Critic Willoughby Sharp coined the term "body 
works" in 1 970. He saw in it a variation of conceptual 
art inasmuch as it followed a firm dramaturgy. Eu- 
ropean theorists such as Lea Vergine and Frangois 
Pluchart, who had earlier worked in psychoanalytic 
interpretation, expanded Sharp's definition. 

Body works exist in many variations: as perfor- 
mance and also in the form of photography, film, 
video, and text. In contrast to other artistic devel- 
opments directed toward performance, these call for 
the participation of the public only in a limited way 
or not at all; to shut out distractions, many artists 
exclude the public altogether. This restricts the 
effect of their works; so, in general, to keep the 
works from falling into oblivion, artists have resor- 
ted to using reproductive technologies, which have 
become immensely important if not absolutely una- 
voidable as they are in the case of happenings, 
action art, and land art. Most artists engaging in 
body art have great appreciation for these art move- 
ments; the development and perfection of body art 
owes much to the possibility of recording and dis- 
tributing ephemeral artistic experiments. Since the 
1960s, recording equipment has become less and less 
expensive, enabling individual artists to purchase 
and use it. 

Only by recording their works does their art 
become a product that they can exhibit and market. 
Instead of the "original," they show exhibits of pho- 
tos, film stills, and video prints, which are offered to 
the art market. A famous example is the edition 
called "Eleven Color Photographs (1966-1967) of 
Bruce Nauman's, which included Self-Portrait as a 
Fountain. A very few artists with an especially rigid 
ethos decline to record their works, such as Ulay 
and (Marina) Abramovic in the early phase of their 
collaboration; they distrusted the truth of photo- 
graphy and considered marketing their art a com- 
mercial excess. This is why the black-and-white 
photo documentary of their collaborative perfor- 
mances Relation in Space (Venice Biennial, 1976) 
and Expansion in Time (Documenta 6, 1977) comes 
across as simplistic and blurry; only in the 1980s did 
they begin to allow photo editions of their work. These 
artists stand against recording was an exception. 

To prevent posthumous distortions of his art, 
Chris Burden allowed his body works to be carefully 
photographed and, occasionally, filmed, and he 
controlled their publication. Documenting his start 
in the 1970s, he released plays in book format, Chris 
Burden 71-73 (Los Angeles, 1974). Burden estab- 
lished a prototype for their presentation in which he 
meticulously communicates his intentions with a 
photograph and a description of the project. Des- 
pite their considerable length, his works can be cap- 



144 



BODY ART 



tured visually in a single moment because they are 
created from a single situation. From his choice of 
photographs, Burden shows he has a thorough 
sense for aestheticizing and dramatizing his works. 
For Through the Night Softly (1973), he crawls fifty 
feet over broken glass before the eyes of a few pas- 
sersby; in the photograph he released of the event, 
the little pieces of glass against a solid black back- 
ground look like a shimmering starry sky. The 
photograph of Doorway to Heaven (1973) shows 
the artist with two tense electric wires around his 
chest, and a flash of electricity makes it look like he 
is encircled by a halo. Although his pieces are both 
simple and sensational, Burden became the darling 
of the mass media that always recognize star poten- 
tial and report and broadcast the most controversial 
and risque experiments. Artists understand just as 
well how to harness the power of the media for their 
own goals. For example, in the erotic environments 
she creates, Yayoi Kusama poses as a pin-up girl 
both in front of her camera and in front of the press 
and public, who are informed beforehand. 

In explaining his body works, Vito Acconci 
claims that despite their simplicity, it is necessary 
to freeze the flow of time, which he does with 
video — Acconci is considered the founder of Life- 
Video-Performance — and with Super 8 film, in the 
same way as Bruce Nauman, Paul McCarthy, 
Rebecca Horn, and others who prefer video and 
film to the camera. The sequence of rather simple 
photographs from, for example, Conversion II 
(1971) is of secondary importance because the 
photos are taken in such rapid succession that 
they are difficult to tell apart; a complete, success- 
ful, and detailed collection of photographs must 
convey a precise impression whenever possible. 
Gina Pane engages in the same practice, though 
clearly in a more artistic way. Her action art, such 
as Azione sentimentale (1973), plays out in three 
phases. First she prepares every detail from sketches 
she has on hand. When she executes her perfor- 
mance, Pane becomes an active photographer and 
strictly follows her plans and the arrangements pre- 
pared in advance. The third part is the precise 
arrangement of the photographs into a tableau 
and their exhibition as an installation. The photo- 
graphic recording and distribution serve Pane as the 
substance and results of her action art. This under- 
standing of photography's role is shared by many, 
including Ana Mendieta, who has carefully 
recorded Glass on Body (1972) and Silueta Series 
(1980) in color photographs, and Dennis Oppen- 
heim, who as a rule permits the public to view only 
recorded documentation of his performances. 
Among Oppenheim's color photographs is Reading 



Position for a Second Degree Burn (1970), in which 
he allows the sun to burn his skin except for an area 
of his chest shaded by a book. Hannah Wilke 
emphasizes photography in her work for different 
reasons — she practices body art as a staging of the 
self before the eye of the camera in, for example, S. 
O.S. Starification Object Series from 1974. So Help 
Me Hannah was from the beginning only a series of 
photographs that were taken and exhibited at P.S. 
1 , New York, in 1978. Only afterward did she create 
a performance out of it that she staged many times 
between 1979 and 1985. She continued her work 
until her death, including Intra-Venus, a series of 
photographs of cancer therapy taken by her lifelong 
partner, Donald Goddard. 

The spectrum of photography within body art 
ranges in varying degrees of ability, from chance 
snapshots taken by the public and press to profes- 
sional photography taken by the artist or from the 
artist's instructions. Among these are also carefully 
staged and arranged works with an expressive 
value independent of the performance. 

Brigitte Hausmann 

See also: Export, Valie; Feminist Photography; 
History of Photography: 7: the 1980s; Namuth, 
Hans; Photography in Europe: Germany and Aus- 
tria; Rainer, Arnulf; Wegman, William; Wiener 
Aktionismus 



Further Reading 

Abramovic/Ulay: Relation in Space, 38. Biennale di Vene- 
zia, 1976, in Marina Abramovic, Artist Body, Milan: 
Charta, 1998. 

What the Body Cost: Desire, History, and Performance. 

L'Art au corps: Le Corps expose de Man Ray a nos jours. 
Marseille: Musee d'Art Contemporain, 1996. 

Blocker, Jane. What the Body Cost: Desire, History, and Per- 
formance. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. 

Burden, Chris. Doorway to Heaven. November 15, 1973, in 
Paul Schimmel, Out of Actions: Between Performance 
and the Object, 1949-1979. Los Angeles: Museum of 
Contemporary Art, 1998, p. 96. 

Fogle, Douglas, ed. The Last Picture Show: Artists Using Photo- 
graphy, 1960-1982. Minnesota: Walker Art Center, 2004. 

Goldberg, RoseLee. Performance: Live Art, 1909 to the Pre- 
sent. London: Thames and Hudson, 1979. 

Hors limites: L'Art et la vie, 1952-1994. Exh. cat. Paris: 
Centre Georges Pompidou, 1994. 

Jones, Amelia. Body Art I Performing the Subject. Minnea- 
polis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998. 

Krull, Craig. Action) Performance and the Photograph. Los 
Angeles: Turner and Krull Galleries, 1993. 

Loeffler, Carl, and Darlene Tong. Performance Anthology. 
San Francisco: Comtemporary Arts Press, 1980. 

Pane, Gina. Azione sentimentale, 1973, in Valerio Deho, 
Gina Pane: Opere, 1968-1990, Reggio Emilia: Chiostri 
di San Domenico, 1998-99, p. 47. 



145 



BODY ART 



Phelan, Peggy. Unmarked: The Politics of Performance. 
New York and London: Routledge, 1993. 

Photography & Performance. Exh. cat. Boston: Photogra- 
phy Resource Center, 1989. 

Photography as Performance: Message through Object and 
Picture. Exh. cat. London: Photographer's Gallery, 
1986. 

Roth, Moira. The Amazing Decade: Women and Perfor- 
mance Art in America, 1970-1980. Los Angeles: Astro 
Artz, 1983. 

Sayre, Henry. The Object of Performance: The American 
Avant-Garde Since 1970. Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1989. 

Schimmel, Paul. Out of Actions: Between Performance and 
the Object, 1949-1979. Los Angeles: Museum of Con- 
temporary Art, 1998. 



Schneider, Rebecca. The Explicit Body in Performance. New 
York and London: Routledge, 1997. 

Schroder, Johannes Lothar. Identitdt Uberschreitung/Ver- 
wandlung. Happenings, Aklionen unci Performances von 
bildenden Kiinstlern. Miinster: LIT, 1990. 

Sharp, Willoughby. "Body Works," Avalanche, no. 1 (Fall 
1970) 14-17. 

Vergine, Lea. Body Art and Performance: The Body as Lan- 
guage, new ed. of// corpo come linguaggio: La Body-art e 
storie simili (1974), Milan: Skira, 2000. 

Wilke, Hannah. S.O.S. Starification Object Series. Copy- 
right Estate of Hannah Wilke; New York: Ronald Feld- 
man Fine Arts, 1974. 



CHRISTIAN BOLTANSKI 



French 

Christian Boltanski is not, strictly speaking, a 
photographer. He frequently describes himself as 
a painter though he does not utilize pigment and 
canvas either. He is an artist who works with sev- 
eral mediums and utilizes photography — usually 
found images — by implementing them into his ins- 
tallation pieces and artists' books. He has remained 
thematically consistent throughout his career, as 
the subjects he returns to most often are childhood, 
absence, and death. His aim has always been to blur 
the division between art and life, and to touch his 
viewers on a personal level without being overtly 
didactic or sentimental. 

The artist's biography is somewhat elusive, lar- 
gely because much of his artwork has involved the 
propagation of false stories regarding his past. He 
was born in Paris just two weeks after the city's 
liberation in 1944. His mother was Catholic and his 
father was a Jewish-born doctor who converted to 
Catholicism at a young age. Despite his conversion, 
Boltanski's father had to feign disappearance dur- 
ing the occupation and hide in a narrow crawlspace 
in the family apartment. As a child Boltanski felt 
like an outsider among his peers, and at the age of 
1 1 was allowed to leave school to be instructed by 
his parents and two older brothers. He did not 
return to school, and is self-taught as an artist. 

The environment of postwar France has continu- 
ously influenced the tone and subject matter of Bol- 



tanski's work. He began developing his artistic 
practice in the late 1960s, a time of political and 
social upheaval culminating with the May 1968 stu- 
dent rebellions. His early projects bear a resem- 
blance to the Arte Povera works in Italy made 
around the same time. Like many artists of his gen- 
eration, Boltanski became interested in the dereifi- 
cation and dematerialization of the art object as a 
means of subverting the art market. Never pledging 
allegiance to any singular medium, Boltanski em- 
braced a variety of techniques for his early pieces, 
including mail art, experimental film, ephemeral 
sculptures, and found objects. 

He became particularly interested in creating fic- 
tional histories in the guise of autobiography, and 
told true and untrue stories about his own childhood 
using visual mediums. Yet the stories he related are 
not remarkable; he purposely emphasized the most 
banal possible events and objects in order to convey 
a sense of universal childhood that any viewer might 
be able to relate to. His earliest utilization of photo- 
graphy involved inventories of personal objects he 
associated with his childhood, from vacation snap- 
shots to pictures of old toys. In a 1972 artist's book 
entitled Ten Photographic Portraits of Christian Bol- 
tanski, 1946-1964, the artist showed snapshots of 10 
different people posed in the same location, ar- 
ranged in order of age from 2 to 20 years. Each 
bears a caption identifying the figure as Christian 
Boltanski, but only the last image is a true portrait of 
the artist. Boltanski found photography to be parti- 



146 



BOLTANSKI, CHRISTIAN 



cularly useful for these mythmaking projects, since 
viewers tend to have an automatic trust in the inher- 
ent veracity of photographic documents. 

Boltanski subsequently became interested in 
inventing other people's stories, and began repho- 
tographing found snapshots of strangers. In the 
1971 project Photo Album of the Family D., 1939- 
1964, he attempted to reassemble such pictures 
into a linear narrative, knowing he would always 
fail, since photographs cannot reveal truth as we 
often expect them to. There is also a somber under- 
tone to Boltanski's found photographs to the 
extent that they convey a sense of loss and absence. 
They are images that have been stripped of their 
original meanings by being separated from their 
original owners. 

In the mid-1980s Boltanski created a series of 
works entitled Monuments, for which he recycled 
pictures of children's faces, usually re-photographed 
from school portraits and blown up into blurry, 
ghostlike visages. The images were installed in dar- 
kened rooms, in some instances placed over stacks of 
rusted tin biscuit boxes, and illuminated by electric 
bulbs placed around each picture. The effect is of a 
Catholic shrine with icons illuminated by candles. 
Though these installations are referred to as monu- 
ments, which suggests the commemoration of 
deceased individuals, it is not the loss of life being 
mourned but the loss of childhood and of memory. 
These pieces can also be interpreted as references to 
the Jews killed in the Holocaust — an event that 
often haunts Boltanski's installations without 
being directly invoked. Boltanski's preoccupation 
with the lost histories of anonymous figures contin- 
ued in a project entitled Reserve: The Dead Swiss, for 
which he assembled photographs cut from the obit- 
uary pages of Swiss newspapers. He specifically 
chose to memorialize people from Switzerland be- 
cause they lack a strong cultural or historical associa- 
tion; the neutrality of the Swiss nation thus lends 
itself to universality. 

Crucial to Boltanski's artistic method is a perpe- 
tual recycling of images. He not only lifts photo- 
graphs from mass media and photo albums into his 
own work, he also lifts images from his own past 
projects and inserts them into new ones. In 1987 
Boltanski created an installation for Documenta 8 
entitled Archive, which was essentially the sum total 
of all the portrait images he had ever used for pre- 
vious projects. Such a practice underlines Boltan- 
ski's belief in the fluidity and ephemerality of 



materials, and disavowal of the notion of the eternal 
and unique art object. 

Boltanski has also been consistently interested in 
problematizing the notions of good and evil, parti- 
cularly in relationship to the events of World War II. 
He has frequently explored the idea that atrocities 
such as the Holocaust can be committed by anyone, 
and do not require a supernaturally diabolic im- 
pulse — a concept defined by Hannah Arendt as the 
banality of evil. In his 1995 installation Menschlich 
(Humanity), Boltanski interspersed the images of 
Nazis and their victims across a gallery wall, not 
differentiating between the guilty and innocent. 
The following year he carried a similar idea into 
the installation The Concessions, which involves 
images of murderers and their victims projected 
onto curtains throughout the middle of the gallery. 
On the walls are hung several photographs of the 
victims' mutilated bodies, which are covered by cur- 
tains but periodically revealed when a fan placed in 
the room causes these coverings to levitate. Again, 
the artist does not identify which are criminals and 
which are victims. 

Throughout his career Boltanski has maintained 
his devotion to impoverished materials, subordinat- 
ing formal concerns in favor of story and process. 
He has held fast to the belief that the universality of 
his message depends on the commonness of his 
materials and means. He is married to artist-photo- 
grapher Annette Messager and continues to live and 
work in Paris. 

Shannon Wearing 



Biography 

Born in Paris, France, 6 September 1944. Artist in Resi- 
dence, Deutscher Akademischer Austausdienst (D.A.A. 
D.), Berlin, Germany, 1975; Guest Artist, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981. Living in 
Paris. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1973 Les Inventaires; Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden, 
Germany, and traveling 

1978 Arbeiten: 1968-1978; Badischer Kunstverein, Karls- 
ruhe, Germany 

1979 Sonnabend Gallery; New York 

1981 Compositions; A.R.C./Musee d'Art Moderne de la 

Ville de Paris, Paris, France 
1984 Boltanski; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France 
1987 Le Lycee Chases; Kunstverein fur Rheinland und 

Westfalen, Diisseldorf, Germany 



147 



BOLTANSKI, CHRISTIAN 



1988 Lessons of Darkness; Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, Illinois, and traveling 

1989 Reserves: La Fete de Pourim; Museum fur Gegen- 
wartskunst, Basel, Switzerland 

1995 Menschlich; Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, Austria 

1996 Les Concessions; Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, France 



Group Exhibitions 

1976 Identite J Identification; CAPC/Centre d'arts plastiques 
contemporains, Bordeaux, France, and traveling 

1977 Documenta 6; Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, Germany 

1980 IXL Biennale di Venezia; Venice, Italy 

1981 Westkunst; Museen der Stadt Koln, Cologne, Germany 
1986 Lumiere: Perception-Projection; CIAC/Centre interna- 
tional d'art contemporain, Montreal, Canada XLII 
Biennale di Venezia; Venice, Italy 



1987 Documenta 8; Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, Ger- 
many 

From the Europe of Old; Stedelijk Museum, Amster- 
dam, The Netherlands 

1991 Carnegie International 1991; Carnegie Museum of Art, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

1993 XLV Biennale di Venezia; Venice, Italy 

1995 Take Me (I'm Yours); Serpentine Gallery, London, 
England XLVI Biennale di Venezia; Venice, Italy 

1997 Made in France; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 
France 



Selected Works 

Research and Presentation of Everything that Remains of my 

Childhood, 1944-1950, 1969 
Photo Album of the Family D., 1939-1964, 1971 




Christian Boltanski, Monument: Les enfants de Dijon (Monument: The Children of Dijon), 
1985, Gelatin silver and chromogenic development prints, and light fixtures, Installed 
dimensions variable. Photographs: 11x9 l A" to 15 %" (27.9 x 24 cm to 40 x 50.2 cm), 
Collection Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, gift of the William J. Hokin Family. 
[Photograph © Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago] 



148 



BOURDEAU, ROBERT 



Ten Photographic Portraits of Christian Boltanski, 1946- 

1964, 1972 
The 62 Members of the Mickey Mouse Club in 1955, 1972 
Inventory of Objects that Belonged to a Resident of Oxford, 

1973 
Photographic Compositions, 1976 
Monument: The Children of Dijon, 1985 
Archives, 1987 

Altar to the Chases High School, 1988 
Reserve: The Dead Swiss, 1990 
Menschlich (Humanity), 1995 
Passion, 1996 
The Concessions, 1996 



Gumpert, Lynn, and Mary Jane Jacob. Christian Boltanski: 
Lessons of Darkness. Chicago: Museum of Contempor- 
ary Art, 1988. 

Gumpert, Lynn. Christian Boltanski. Paris: Flammarion, 
1994. 

Marmer, Nancy. "Boltanski: The Uses of Contradiction." 
Art in America v.77 (October 1989): 168-81. 

Semin, Didier, Tamar Garb, and Donald Kuspit. Christian 
Boltanski. London: Phaidon, 1997. 

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. "Mourning or Melancholia: 
Christian Boltanski's Missing House." Oxford Art Jour- 
nal v. 21 no. 2(1998): 1-20. 



Further Reading 

DeRoo, Rebecca. "Christian Boltanski's Memory Images: 
Remaking French Museums in the Aftermath of '68." 
Oxford Art Journal v. 27 no. 2 (2004): 221-238. 



ROBERT BOURDEAU 



Canadian 

Since the late 1950s, Robert Bourdeau has been a 
bridge between modernists of the early twentieth 
century and contemporary photographers. Pursu- 
ing a goal more often associated with Pictorialism 
(making photographs that evoke timeless feelings 
in the beholder) with the visual language of mod- 
ernist formalism, Bourdeau has created a body of 
work remarkable for its rigorous consistency, both 
of vision and of craft, and its lasting fascination 
and beauty. 

Bourdeau was born in Kingston, Ontario on 
November 14, 1931. He lived there with his family 
until he went to the University of Toronto to study 
architecture in 1957. He had always been an avid 
snapshot-taker, but while he studied architecture, he 
discovered that the photographs he made of struc- 
tures interested him more than the structures them- 
selves. This would prove to be an enduring interest. 

In 1958, Bourdeau left the University of Toronto. 
He returned to Kingston, and there he came across a 
back issue of Aperture magazine from 1955. The 
quality and vision of the magazine impressed him. 
He immediately wrote to then editor Minor White, 
who was in Rochester, New York, and asked to 
meet him and to see more issues of Aperture. 



White agreed, and their relationship actively con- 
tinued in person, through letters and over photo- 
graphs until 1968. 

Bourdeau's correspondence with White, along 
with his relationship with Paul Strand, whom he 
met in New York in 1965, formed the backbone of 
his photographic practice. From White, Bour- 
deau took an approach to making photographs, 
what White, and Alfred Stieglitz before him, 
called "camera work." There is also the concept 
of the "feeling state," an emotional state reached 
while photographing. 

Bourdeau relates an anecdote where Minor sent 
him to contemplate Windowsill Daydreaming — this 
was an often-repeated photo reading exercise. After 
an hour, Bourdeau returned and said, "Minor, now 
I know what love is all about." White used Bour- 
deau's quote under that image in his book Mirrors, 
Messages, Manifestations. 

From Strand, Bourdeau gleaned an uncompro- 
mising commitment to print craft as well as a sense 
of humanity. 

Bourdeau cites no other photographic influences. 
As his career progressed, he no longer actively 
engaged with the work of other photographers, in 
order to focus more clearly on his own vision. He 
did however find inspiration from a wide range of 



149 



BOURDEAU, ROBERT 



other artists such as Cezanne, Hopper, Beethoven, 
and Bach. 

He first exhibited in a traveling group show at 
the National Film Board (now the Canadian Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Photography) in Ottawa in 
1966. In 1980, Bourdeau approached Jane Corkin, 
a fledgling photography dealer in Toronto, to 
represent him. As he recalls, Corkin's energy and 
intelligence immediately impressed him. Their rela- 
tionship has lasted to this day, and has been instru- 
mental in bringing Bourdeau's photographs to the 
attention of curators, writers and collectors, nation- 
ally and internationally. In 1985, with Corkin tak- 
ing care of sales and promotion, Bourdeau was able 
to leave the job as an architectural technologist that 
he had had since 1960 and was free to devote himself 
entirely to photography. 

During the summer months, Bourdeau travels 
and makes photographs — he prefers the light of 
long days — and during the winter, he prints and 
researches locations for the next summer's forays. 
He has photographed extensively in Canada and 
the United States, and in England, Sri Lanka, 
Ireland, Scotland, Mexico, Costa Rica, on the 
French-Spanish border, Germany, Luxembourg, 
and France. 

Mary Bourdeau, his wife, an artist in her own right, 
always accompanies him to help with the equipment 
and provide a quiet working environment — Bour- 
deau refers to her as both quartermaster and chief 
grip — but also his companion. Bourdeau acknow- 
ledges that he could never have accomplished what 
he has without their artistic partnership. 

Bourdeau does not set up his camera — an 8" x 
10" format Kodak Master View he bought in New 
York for $150 in 1973 (before that he worked in 5" x 
7" format) — until he has scouted the location and 
intuited its potential for a successful photograph. He 
determines the "station point," the point at which 
the visual, emotional, and spiritual come together 
and shoots about 40 images, which Bourdeau then 
wittles down to 15 or so final prints. 

A Bourdeau photograph is unmistakable for its 
print quality — what writer David Livingstone has 
described as "soft greys, pearly whites and velvety 
black." Bourdeau has always gold-toned his prints 
for a subtle warmth and added intimacy, and for its 
composition, often a loss of scale and heightened 
texture. His 8" x 10" negatives are either contacted 
or enlarged only slightly: impeccable presentation. 

For Bourdeau, the subject of his photographs 
often becomes secondary to his experience of photo- 
graphing them, to the transcendence he seeks to 
achieve while photographing. "The subject itself 
becomes secondary to greater meanings — a univer- 



sality, emotional and spatial ambiguities, and a sense 
of timelessness," he wrote in January 1994. The 
record of the subject is a by-product of the whole 
experience. Undeniably, however, there are certain 
sites Bourdeau has repeatedly sought out to find 
those transcendent experiences. 

When Bourdeau began to photograph, the land- 
scape was all-consuming and he photographed 
purely in the landscape for 15 to 20 years. In 1979, 
he traveled to Sri Lanka and Ireland, and began 
photographing Buddhist, Hindu, Christian, and 
pre-Christian structures in addition to the land- 
scape, as well as the visual interplay between struc- 
ture and landscape. 

Bourdeau also makes still life photographs — he 
calls them small landscapes — for example, peaches 
on a densely floral tapestry, or a field of small 
white flowers, close-cropped, a tapestry in itself. 
He has also made many portraits that have never 
been exhibited. 

In 1990, Bourdeau began the most important 
work of his career to date. He started to photograph 
abandoned and disused industrial sites — steel plants, 
coal mines, textile mills, quarries, "secular cathe- 
drals" as he calls them — in Europe and North Ame- 
rica, many of which have since been completely 
dismantled. Of this work he wrote, in July 1998: 

These industrial sites are places that possess a power in 
which I feel vulnerable, with a sense of ominous stillness 
and qualities that transcend the specificity of time. These 
are in a state of transition, transformation and possible 
transcendence where order and chaos are in perpetual 
altercation. I must emphasize that this is not a documen- 
tary but a photographic and inner quest. 

These photographs carry clear threads from such 
photographers as Margaret Bourke- White, Charles 
Sheeler, and Germaine Krull. However, they 
eschew the monumentality and drama of these 
modernist images, just as they eschew the removed 
typology of the work of his contemporaries Bernd 
and Hilla Becher. Instead they carry what novelist 
Anne Michaels has called an "elegiac" quality. 
And in that sense, they are more akin to Berenice 
Abbott's Changing New York project, even though 
Bourdeau's intention is distinct from Abbott's — 
they are an homage to time passing, to place, and 
to love. Paradoxically, the Industrial Sites photo- 
graphs are powerful both for their timelessness — 
an important concept for Bourdeau — but also for 
their timeliness. 

Bourdeau has been the recipient of numerous 
Canada Council grants, and was elected to the 
Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (RCA) in 1983. 
Bourdeau taught photography at the University of 



150 



BOURDEAU, ROBERT 



Ottawa from 1980 to 1994. In 1999, he was awarded 
the Advertising & Design Club of Canada Award 
for Still Life Photography. 

Sophie Hackett 

See also: Abbott, Berenice; Becher, Bernd and Hilla; 
Bourke- White, Margaret; Krull, Germaine; Sheeler, 
Charles; Stieglitz, Alfred; Strand, Paul; White, 
Minor 



1997 Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris, France 

1998 Industrial Sites: Europe and United States; Jane Corkin 
Gallery, Toronto, Canada 

1999 La surface du reel: images; CIPRA, Briey-en-foret, 
France 

1999 Industrial Sites; Michael Hoppen Galley, London, 
England 

2000 Industrial Sites; Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York, 
New York 

2001 Industrial Sites; ForumGallery, Los Angeles, California 



Biography 

Born in Kingston, Ontario, November 14, 1931. Studied 
architecture at the University of Toronto in 1957-1958. 
Marries Mary Eardley in 1961; son Robbie born in 1962 
and son Sean born in 1965. Began to photograph after 
meeting Minor White in Rochester in 1958; from 1958- 
1968 White becomes a significant influence through cor- 
respondence. Meets Paul Strand in New York in 1965. 
First exhibition in 1966 at National Film Board of 
Canada (now the Canadian Museum of Contemporary 
Photography). From 1960 to 1985, works as an architec- 
tural technologist. In 1980, Jane Corkin agrees to repre- 
sent him. Teaches photography at the University of 
Ottawa from 1980-1994. Pursues photography full-time 
from 1985. National Gallery of Canada exhibits a retro- 
spective in 1990, the same year he begins his break- 
through series Industrial Sites. Lives and works in 
Ottawa, Ontario. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1968 Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

1976 Yajima Gallery, Montreal, Canada 

1977 Secession Gallery, Vancouver, Canada 

1979 Agnes Etherington Art Centre, Kingston, Canada 

1980 Landscapes; International Centre of Photography, 
New York, New York 

1981 Jane Corkin Gallery, Toronto, Canada 
1981 Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada 
1983 Galerie Zur Stockeregg, Zurich, Switzerland 

1983 Jane Corkin Gallery, Toronto, Canada 

1984 The Afterimage Gallery, Dallas, Texas 

1985 Landform & Architecture; Jane Corkin Gallery, Tor- 
onto, Canada 

1988 49th Parallel Gallery, New York, New York 
1988 Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, Canada 
1988 Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Canada 
1988 London Regional Gallery, London, Ontario 
1988 Edmonton Art Gallery, Edmonton, Canada 

1988 Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Canada 

1989 Peter Whyte Gallery, Banff, Alberta 

1989 Agnes Etherington Art Centre, Kingston, Canada 

1990 Beaverbrook Museum, Fredericton, New Brunswick 
1990 Robert Bourdeau, A Retrospective; National Gallery of 

Canada, Ottawa, Canada 
1992 Recent Work; Jane Corkin Gallery, Toronto, Canada 
1994 From Light to Dark; National Gallery of Canada, 

Ottawa, Canada 
1994 Recent Work; Jane Corkin Gallery, Toronto, Canada 
1997 30 Years of Collecting Photographs; National Gallery 

of Canada, Ottawa, Canada 
1997 The Canadian Embassy, Tokyo, Japan 



Group Exhibitions 

1970 The Photograph as an Object; Art Gallery of Ontario, 
Toronto, Canada 

1983 Perceptions; The Gallery /Stratford, Stratford, On- 
tario, Canada 

1986 Masterpieces from the Gallery Collection; Jane Corkin 
Gallery, Toronto, Canada 

1986 Contemporary Photography; Watson Gallery, Hous- 
ton, Texas 

1987 10 Ways of Looking at Landscapes; Watson Gallery, 
Houston, Texas 

1988-90 The Meditated Image; Glenbow Museum, Calgary, 

Canada 
1990 Is There Life in the Still Life or is Nature Morte? 

Watson Gallery, Houston, Texas 
1990 The Landscape: Eight Canadian Photographers; McMi- 

chael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, Ontario, 

Canada 

1990 Money Matters: A Critical Look at Bank Architec- 
ture; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, and 
traveling 

1990-1992 Children in Photography; Dalhousie Art Gallery, 
Halifax, Canada, and traveling 

1991 Four Canadians; Vision Gallery, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia 

1993 Magicians of Light; National Gallery of Canada, 

Ottawa, Canada 
1993 Observing Traditions: Contemporary Photographs; 

National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada 
1993 Flora Photographica: The Flower in Photography from 

1835 to the Present; Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver, 

Canada 

1999 Icons and Iconoclasts; Jane Corkin Gallery, Toronto, 
Canada 

2000 Building Images: Architecture 1851 to the Present; Jane 
Corkin Gallery, Toronto, Canada 



Selected Works 

Granite quarry, Vermont, 1995 

Steel plant, Pennsylvania, 1996 

Coal mine, Nord Pas-de-Calais, France, 1998 

Steel plant, Luxembourg, 1998 

Steel plant, Lorraine, France, 1999 



Further Reading 

Corkin, Jane, ed. 12 Canadians , Contemporary Canadian 
Photography. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 1980. 

Dault, Gary Michael. "Robert Bourdeau Makes a Photo." 
Canadian Art (Fall 1998). 



151 



BOURDEAU, ROBERT 



Enright, Robert. "Getting the Inside Outside: An Interview 
with Robert Bourdeau." 

Robert Bourdeau: Industrial Sites. Toronto: Jane Corkin 
Gallery. 1998. 

Livingstone, David. "More than the Eye Can See." 
Maclean's (December 3, 1979). 

Michaels, Anne. "The Station Point — The Photographs of 
Robert Bourdeau." Border Crossings. 1998. 

Thomas, Ann. "An Inquiry Into the Aesthetics of Photo- 
graphy." Arts Canada (1974). 

Thomas, Ann. "Robert Bourdeau: In Praise of the Lucid." 
Arts Canada (1977). 



White, Minor. Mirrors, Messages, Manifestations. Camera. 

Switzerland, 1969. 
"Memento Mori — Photographs by Robert Bourdeau." 

Fortune (May 29, 2000). 
"Robert Bourdeau, Photographer of Transcendental 

Light." PhotoLife Magazine (1992). 
"Robert Bourdeau: Industrial Sites." Queen's Quarterly 

106/1 (Spring 1999). 
Wise, Kelly, ed. The Photographer's Choice. Dansbury, NH: 

Addison, 1976. 



MARGARET BOURKE- WHITE 



American 

Bourke-White's career reads as a sequence of mile- 
stones and she had a knack of being in the right 
place at the right time. She knew which genres and 
styles of photography would sell. She was a risk 
taker who, once her path of attack was strategized, 
would not be satisfied until she had attained her 
objectives. In many instances, these involved taking 
considerable risk in forcing her cameras and light- 
ing equipment right into the midst of heavy indus- 
trial or military action. She herself was an invader 
in as much as she took pictures of private scenarios, 
often without asking permission and almost always 
rearranging the scene for dramatic effect. She was 
also cognizant of how manipulating her own image 
as a woman familiar with the inner workings of high 
executive circles could open doors. Publicity shots 
she had taken of herself at work — leaning over sky- 
scraper parapets, taking a shot right in the middle 
of trafficked downtown streets, peering into indus- 
trial sites, surrounded by Russian crowds, all posed 
and costumed in the height of fashion — were argu- 
ably as effective as the shots she took in making her 
name a national byline by 1930 and a national 
buzzword by the early 1940s. 

Bourke- White was a consummate, if not innova- 
tive, photographic communicator. Her pictures 
worked either the "dramatic angle, neutral back- 
ground, luminous lighting... and subject... to create 
an idealized picture" or "the chaos of patterns... 
vibratfing] to disturb the viewer" (Puckett 1984, 



33). She also excelled in pre-visualizing photos as 
components of stories. Raw materials — both human 
and nonhuman — were refined, processed, and ulti- 
mately transformed into marketable products. 

In 1927 when Bourke- White, aged 23, established 
a commercial practice as an estate, industrial, and 
corporate photographer in Cleveland, she was 
already a skilled marketer and entrepreneur. Edu- 
cated in public schools in New Jersey, she was 
encouraged by her parents in science and engineer- 
ing but excelled in writing, drama, debating, and 
organizing student activities. She took a photogra- 
phy course at the Clarence H. White School of 
Photography during her freshman year at Colum- 
bia University, New York. After her father died and 
she was forced to fund her higher education, she 
freelanced during subsequent student years at the 
University of Ann Arbor, Michigan. As a senior at 
Cornell University, Ithica, New York in 1926-1927, 
she established a small business photographing the 
campus for the alumni newsletter and marketing 
prints through various sales outlets. Her competi- 
tive edge over John Troy, campus photographer, 
consisted in unusual angles of view; taking advan- 
tage of mood-inducing atmosphere and natural and 
artificial lighting; composing rhythmic shapes and 
patterns; and taking multiple exposures and views 
so as to ensure a marketable "hit." These would be 
the leitmotifs of her success throughout an adven- 
turous, nonstop globe-trotting career that only Par- 
kinson's disease could terminate. Equally key were 
the contacts she made with high-placed, influential 



152 



BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET 



administrators, professors, and graduates, which 
percolated into a working familiarity with the 
upper echelons of the corporate world. 

Bourke-White's first major clients were the Otis 
Steel and Union Trust companies in Cleveland. In 
1929 she became a charter and contributing editor 
of Fortune and in 1 930 she moved to New York. This 
led to numerous national and international indus- 
trial assignments as well as to major corporate ad- 
vertising commissions and to the beginning of her 
association with major publishers. Her corporate 
and industrial photographs of the late 1920s, fol- 
lowed by her industrial and commercial jobs of the 
early to mid-1930s, are the most self-consciously 
styled of her oeuvre, reflecting early twentieth-cen- 
tury corporate ideals and cultures of empire. In her 
sequence on Cleveland's new union station, the 
Terminal Tower (1927-1929), the building and its 
spire became the hub of numerous "imperial" views 
as she moved in from the distance up to the tower, 
framed it in massive viaduct arches, positioned it 
over "mountains of ore" (the title of one image), 
and geysered it over the curving sluices of parallel 
railway tracks. Close-up views of the grand lobby 
breathe heavy, dark, and jewel-like airs of material 
opulence and spatial grandiloquence. Likewise, in 
her work for Otis Steel, which the company pub- 
lished in a folio-styled brochure, she moved into 
and around the blast furnace and featured fiery, 
molten steel illuminating its vast, murky halls. This 
early work is indebted to Tonalism and language of 
pristine Pictorialism as practiced by Clarence White, 
Alfred Stieglitz, Alvin Langdon Coburn, and Fre- 
derick H. Evans. Modernism and Edward Steichen's 
hard-edged shapes, reflections, and shadows lie 
behind Bourke-White's NBC photomurals, exe- 
cuted in 1933 for the R.C.A. Building, Radio City, 
in Rockefeller Center, New York. Skyscraper of 
1935, commissioned by American Catalin Corpora- 
tion, and Bottled Time, a sequence of work for the 
Elgin National Watch Company published in For- 
tune in April 1930, exemplify this more abstract, 
direct-to-upscale-consumer approach. 

The mid- 1930s, capped by her move from Fortune 
to Life, were the time of Bourke-White's maturation 
as an artist. Not only did she show her work with 
other photographers of the American avant-garde, 
but she codified an avant-garde vocabulary of monu- 
mental form, high contrast and, most characteristi- 
cally, closely conjoined, repeated objects, positioned 
close to the picture plane as freshly minted coinage 
from the proverbial assembly line. She came into 
prominence writing for and being written about in 
leading newspapers and magazines, as an artist, 
designer, and "trapper" of "the Waves of Sound" 



{Vanity Fair 1978, 26-27). Her credo exulted the 
glory of "industrial subjects, which are so powerful 
and sincere and close to the heart of life.... because 
the industrial age which has created them is powerful 
and art... must hold the germ of that power." (Batch- 
elor, May 10, 1930, MBW Papers). Her status as an 
independent artist was bolstered by her appropria- 
tion of the semantics of advertising and public rela- 
tions-grandiose, over-achieving, hyperbolic, and 
massively appealing to the image managers of the 
American public. 

It is widely believed that, due to a change of heart 
while photographing the Dust Bowl in 1 934 for For- 
tune, Bourke-White gave up the glamorous world of 
advertising and devoted the rest of her career to the 
human-interest stories she illustrated in Life and 
delineated in her books. These began in the Depres- 
sion-scourged South and hit their stride in the Eu- 
ropean theaters of World War II. This generalization 
is misleading. Although it is true that she did turn to 
people as her prime subjects and did not court cor- 
porate clients afterl936, even while freelancing for 
Life from 1940 to 1951, she continued to do adver- 
tisements (Industrial Rayon Corporation, Painesville, 
Ohio and Coiled Rods, Aluminum Company of Amer- 
ica, both 1939). Her work continued to adduce and 
promise an ideal "American way" predicated on the 
"world's highest standard of living." Quite possibly 
her most famous image from the 1930s, featuring a 
billboard with those exact slogans, is Flood Victims, 
Louisville, Kentucky (1937). The billboard itself was 
a component of a huge national publicity campaign 
mounted by the National Association of Manufac- 
turers to stimulate consumption and promote indus- 
try. Its message aptly summarizes the message of the 
voluminous writings and photographs Bourke- 
White would produce over the next 25 years. Whe- 
ther the image was military ( Waist Gunners, England, 
1942) or civilian (Bridge Construction, New York 
Thruway, 1954), the glorification of American-fabri- 
cated, consumable, and surplus power seared its way 
into viewers' eyes and minds. 

Unlike many of her contemporaries in documen- 
tary photography, Bourke-White was not part of 
the federally funded Farm Security Agency pho- 
tographic project led by Roy Stryker in the 1930s. 
Nor did she participate in the Standard Oil of New 
Jersey-sponsored photography archive amassed 
under Stryker's direction in the 1940s. These projects 
were extremely important stages in the evolution of 
documentary photography as it surveyed the succes- 
sive landscapes of poverty, prosperity, and an emer- 
gent highway culture. This omission comes as some 
surprise as Bourke-White was the first twentieth- 
century photographer, after Lewis Hine, to be fea- 



153 



BOURKE-WHITE, MARGARET 



tured in the third, 1930 edition of American Economic 
Life, an important textbook co-authored by Stryker 
while he was associated with sociologist Rexford G. 
Tugwell at Columbia University. Stryker's projects 
were conceived and executed as sociological studies. 
They were carefully scripted, long-term experiences 
in living and picturing poverty. Bourke-White's 
approach elevated consumption, the individual, 
and the image of individuality. She not only ac- 
cepted, but thrived on short deadlines. She vaunted 
her ability to capture the essence of a story in one or 
two visits, pre-visualizing it in the "day in the life" of 
a representative character. She worked for her pub- 
lishers but continually wrote her own scripts. She was 
not a sociologist studying human habitats, but a 
publicist ripping gutsy pictures and good copy. 

Bourke-White's strikingly memorable images come 
from her war and postwar assignments: Nazi Bombing 
of Moscow, 1941; German Civilians Made to Face Their 
Nation's Crimes, Buchenwald, 1945; and the famous 
Mohandas Gandhi at His Spinning Wheel, Poona, 
India, 1946, among others. However manipulated by 
her agents, editors, biographers, and herself, behind 
them reads a real story of nonstop danger and adven- 
ture where the photographer justifiably took center 
stage to get pictures no one else scooped. This story, 
enscripted in her autobiography, Portrait of Myself 
(1963), became Bourke-White's final milestone. She 
died in 1971. 

Getaldine Wojno Kiefer 

See also: Coburn, Alvin Langdon; Evans, Frederick 
H.; History of Photography: Twentieth-Century 
Pioneers; Industrial Photography; Life; Modernism; 
Pictorialism; Steichen, Edward; Stieglitz, Alfred; 
White, Clarence 



Biography 

Born in New York City, 14 June 1904. Attended Rutgers 
University, Newark, New Jersey, Columbia University 
(Clarence H. White School of Photography), New York, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Case Western 
Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, New York, 1921-1927. B.A., Cornell Uni- 
versity, 1927. Teacher at Cleveland Museum of Natural 
History, 1925. Located first studio in Cleveland, 1927- 
1930. Published first photo series in Trade Winds, Union 
Trust Company, 1928. Published first photo portfolio in 
Otis Steel, Pioneer, Otis Steel Company, 1929. Hired by 
Henry Luce of Fortune, 1929. First photographer in that 
publication with byline, 1930. Moved studio to New 
York, 1930. Traveled to Germany and Russia, 1930, 
and again to Russia, 1931. Published Eyes on Russia 
and USSR Photographs, 1931 and 1934, respectively. 
Traveled to Brazil, 1936. Photographed premier cover 
for Life and became Life staffer, 1936. Published You 
Have Seen Their Faces with journalist Erskine Caldwell, 



1937. Traveled to Spain and Czechoslovakia, 1938. Pub- 
lished North of the Danube with Caldwell, 1939. Traveled 
to England, Rumania, Turkey, Syria, Egypt, 1939-1940. 
Resigned from Life; worked for PM, 1940. Returned to 
Life as free-lancer, 1940. Published Say, Is This the USA? 
with Caldwell, 1941. Traveled to China and Soviet 
Union, 1941. Published Shooting the Russian War, 1942. 
Traveled to England and North Africa, 1942. Traveled to 
Italy, 1943-1944. Returned to Italy, 1944. Published 
They Called It Purple Heart Valley, 1944. Traveled with 
Patton's Third Army, 1945. Published Dear Fatherland, 
Rest Quietly, 1946. Traveled in India, photographed 
Gandhi just before he was assassinated, 1946-1948. Pub- 
lished Halfway to Freedom, 1949. Traveled to South 
Africa, 1949-1950. Resumed staffer appointment at 
Life, 1951. Assigned to Strategic Air Command, 1951. 
Traveled in Japan and Korea, 1952-1953. Published A 
Report of the American Jesuits with John La Farge, 1956. 
Published last story for Life, 1957 '. Published Portrait of 
Myself, 1963. Received honorary doctorate from Rutgers 
University, New Jersey, 1948. Honorary doctorate from 
University of Michigan, 1951. Retired from Life, 1969. 
Died in Darien, Connecticut, 27 August 1971. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1929 Little Gallery, Lindner's, Cleveland, Ohio 

1931 An Exhibition of Photographs by Margaret Bourke- 
White; Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio 

1972 Margaret Bourke- White, Photojournalist; Andrew 
Dickson White Museum of Art, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York 

1976 Margaret Bourke-White; The Cleveland Years, 1927-1930: 
The New Gallery of Contemporary Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

1978 Margaret Bourke-White: The Deco Lens; Joe and 
Emily Lowe Art Gallery, College of Visual and Perform- 
ing Arts, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 

1983 The Humanitarian Vision; Joe and Emily Lowe Art 
Gallery, School of Art, College of Visual and Performing 
Arts, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 

1988 Bourke-White; International Center of Photography, 
New York, New York, and traveling 

1994 The Arthur Gray Collection: Margaret Bourke-White , 
Photographs, with an Exhibition of Works by Arthur- 
Gray; Rachel Davis Fine Arts, Shaker Heights, Ohio 

1998 Power and Paper: Margaret Bourke-White, Modernity, 
and the Documentary Mode; Boston University Art Gal- 
lery, Boston, Massachusetts 

2000 Steel and Real Estate: Margaret Bourke-White and 
Corporate Culture in Cleveland, 1927-1929; College of 
Wooster Art Museum, Wooster, Ohio 

2003 Margaret Bourke-White: The Photography of Design, 
1927-1936; The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. 



Group Exhibitions 

1928 May Show; Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

1929 American Institute of Graphic Arts Sixth Annual Exhib- 
it; Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio 

1931 Margaret Bourke-White, Ralph Steiner, Walker Evans: 
Photographs by Three Americans; John Becker Gallery, 
New York, New York 

1934 Third Detroit Salon of Pictorial Photography; Detroit, 
Michigan 



154 



1934 Group exhibition in conjunction with Machine Art traveling 
exhibition; The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio 

1937 Photography 1839-1937; Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York 

1937 Group exhibition sponsored by Museum of Modern 
Art; Musee du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France 

1985 A Collective Vision: Clarence H. White and His Stu- 
dents; University Art Museum, California State Univer- 
sity, Long Beach, California, and traveling 

1995 From Icon to Irony: German and American Industrial 
Photography; Boston University Art Gallery, Boston, 
Massachusetts 

1996 Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White 
School of Photography; The Detroit Institute of Arts, 
Detroit, Michigan, and traveling 

Selected Works 

Terminal Tower, Cleveland (series), 1927-1929 

Otis Steel Company, Cleveland (series), 1927-1928 

Elgin National Watch Company (series), 1930 

Chrysler Building, New York City (series), 1931 

NBC Photomurals (series), 1933 

Airplane for TWA, 1935 

Skyscraper, 1935 

Fort Peck Dam, 1936 

Flood Victims, Louisville, Kentucky, 1937 

Nazi Bombing of Moscow, 1941 

Waist Gunners, England, 1942 

German Civilians Made to Face Their Nation's Crimes, 

Buchenwald, 1945 
Mohandas Gandhi at His Spinning Wheel, Poona, India, 

1946 
Bridge Construction, New York Thruway, 1954 



Further Reading 

Batchelor, E.A. "Personal and Confidential: Margaret 
Bourke-White." Detroit Saturday Night, May 10, 1930, 
MBW Papers. 



BRACKETING 

Bourke-White, Margaret. Portrait of Myself. New York: 
Simon and Schuster, 1963. 

Caldwell, Erskine, and Margaret Bourke-White. You Have 
Seen Their Faces. Foreword by Alan Trachtenberg. 
Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1995. 

Callahan, Sean. Margaret Bourke-White, Photographer. 
Boston, New York, Toronto, and London: Little, 
Brown and Company, 1998. 

Callahan, Sean, ed. The Photographs of Margaret Bourke- 
White. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1972. 

Dorfman, Elsa. "Elsa Dorfman Photography Reviews: part 
of http://elsa/photo.net. 

Goldberg, Vicki. Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography. 
New York: Harper and Row, 1986. 

Grundberg, Andy. "What Was Cubism's Impact?" The 
New York Times (December 13, 1981): D39. 

Hurley, F. Jack. Portrait of a Decade: Roy Stryker and the 
Development of Documentary Photography in the Thir- 
ties. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 
1972. 

Kozol, Wendy. Life's America: Family and Nation in Post- 
war Photojournalism. Philadelphia: Temple University 
Press, 1994. 

Puckett, John Rogers. Five Photo-Textual Documentaries 
from the Great Depression. Ann Arbor: UMI Research 
Press, 1984. 

Silverman, Jonathan. For the World to See: The Life of 
Margaret Bourke-White. New York: The Viking Press, 
1983. 

Tedlow, Richard S. Keeping the Corporate Image; Public 
Relations and Business, 1900-1950. Vol. 3 of Industrial 
Development and the Social Fabric. Ed. Glenn Porter. 
Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., 1979. 

Trachtenberg, Alan. Reading American Photographs: 
Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans. 
New York: Hill and Wang, 1989. 



BRACKETING 



Bracketing is a technique by which a photographer 
tries to ensure that he gets a correct (or desired) 
exposure for the conditions under which he is shoot- 
ing. Using a camera's built-in light meter or a sepa- 
rate light meter, the photographer can meter the light 
around his subject and adjust his camera's shutter 
speed and aperture settings accordingly for a correct 
exposure. However, some variables can cause a light 
meter to recommend an incorrect exposure — for 
example, if the subject is surrounded by either a 



very light or a very dark background, or if there is a 
bright light somewhere in the frame of the shot. In 
these instances, a light meter will tend to average all 
present light and recommend a setting that will, in 
fact, either overexpose (resulting in an image that is 
too bright and does not have enough dark tones or 
shadows) or underexpose (resulting in an image that 
is too dark and does not have enough light tones or 
highlights) the subject. Both over-and underexpo- 
sure result in film that has not recorded much dis- 



155 



BRACKETING 



cernable information, which will translate to prints 
or slides that lack detail in the highlights or the sha- 
dows. With bracketing, the photographer takes two 
or more additional shots: one or more slightly over- 
exposed and one or more slightly underexposed. This 
way, he is more likely to have a correct exposure — 
with different settings and exposures. Even if the 
light meter has recommended an exposure that is 
slightly off, the photographer will have compensated 
for the possibility of incorrect metering by shooting 
the additional under- and overexposed shots. Brack- 
eting is most commonly used by studio photogra- 
phers or with views amenable to fixed equipment or 
conditions, which allow deliberate shooting; ob- 
viously any sort of action photography is not well 
served by this technique. 

Bracketing with film cameras is done in one of 
two ways: either by adjusting the shutter speed or 
the lens aperture. Which method is used depends on 
what the photographer is shooting and what he 
hopes to accomplish with the image. If the photo- 
grapher is concerned with maintaining a consistent 
depth of field, he should adjust the shutter speed 
when bracketing, rather than the lens aperture. On 
the other hand, if the photographer is concerned 
either with capturing or stopping motion, he should 
adjust the lens aperture rather than the shutter 
speed. Leaving the ISO consistent with all the 
shots, the photographer takes one exposure at the 
recommended settings, then re-sets either the aper- 
ture by closing it either one or one-half stop or the 
shutter speed by increasing it one increment, takes 
another exposure, and then re-adjusts the aperture 
by opening it to either one or one-half stop above 
the original light meter recommendation or the 
shutter speed by decreasing it one increment from 
the original recommendation and taking a third 
exposure. It is important that the under-and over- 
exposed shots are calibrated in relation to the light 
meter's recommended "correct" exposure. After 
adjusting the aperture or shutter speed to under- 
expose a shot, the photographer should adjust the 
settings not in relation to where they are, but to 
where they were for the "correct" exposure. 

Automatic bracketing is an option on some digi- 
tal cameras, and if this setting is chosen, the camera 
will automatically adjust the aperture or shutter 
speed a pre-set degree above and below the "cor- 
rect" setting so that the photographer can trip the 
shutter three times and will record three exposures 
with the three different settings. Often with digital 
cameras, the over- and underexposed bracketing 
exposures have to be taken within a limited time 
frame before the camera automatically re-sets to 
the "correct" exposure. With digital photograph 



manipulation software, a photographer can layer 
the exposures on top of one another and then use a 
tool such as an "erase" tool to uncover different 
exposures in areas of the image. With this type of 
manipulation, a photographer might be able to 
combine his preferred exposures of different areas 
of the image to create a composite image that was 
not attainable with one combination of aperture 
and shutter- speed settings. 

If the photographer desires, a wider bracket can 
be achieved by taking more than one overexposed 
shot and more than one underexposed shot. Gener- 
ally, it seems that with one overexposed shot and 
one underexposed shot, the photographer has suffi- 
ciently accounted for imperfections in the light 
metering and will be pleased with one of the three 
resulting images. Occasionally, even if the recom- 
mended setting proves to be correct, the photogra- 
pher may prefer either the under-or overexposed 
image for aesthetic reasons. 

In film photography, one disadvantage of brack- 
eting is that when a photographer uses this techni- 
que, he expects that some of the exposures will be 
incorrect — so the photographer knowingly "wastes" 
film. With experience, photographers can become 
more sure of getting a correct exposure and can 
reserve bracketing for use only when unsure about 
an exposure, rather than for every shot. If a photo- 
grapher wants to be assured that he will get a correct 
exposure, though, bracketing is a good way to make 
sure that even if the photographer's light meter is 
incorrect, he will still be able to get a good image 
from one of the shots in the bracket. 

With digital photography, bracketing is often 
easier to incorporate into regular practice — since 
there is no film to waste, unless storage on disk (or 
other removable media) space is limited, photogra- 
phers can bracket without reserve. And just as 
sometimes it is the "incorrect" exposure that gives 
photographers their best or favorite print or slide 
image, digital photographers should wait to delete 
images that they feel are incorrectly exposed until 
the files have been moved onto a computer. Whe- 
ther a photographer chooses to manipulate images 
in a software program or simply choose the best 
image from those he shot, the ease with which digital 
media can be erased and re-used makes it easy for 
photographers to postpone editing decisions until 
later, rather than trying to edit at the same time that 
he is shooting. 

Bracketing works well as insurance for the 
photographer. Even if an image can be re-shot, it 
is much easier to have a variety of exposures to 
choose from rather than having to rely on a light 
meter to give a correct reading every time. And if 



156 



BRAGAGLIA, ANTON GIULIO 



an image cannot be easily re-shot, then bracketing 
ensures that out of multiple exposures, it is almost 
guaranteed that one will be correct. 

Jenny Allred Redmann 

See also: Camera: An Overview; Camera: Digital; 
Digital Photography; Exposure; Film; Light Meter 



Further Reading 

International Center for Photography: Encyclopedia of Photography. 

New York: Pound Press (Crown Publishers Inc.), 1984. 
McDarrah, Gloria S., Fred W. McDarrah, and Timothy S. 

McDarrah. The Photography Encyclopedia. New York: 

Schirmer Books, 1999. 
Pinkard, Bruce. The Photographer's Dictionary. London 

Associates: BT Badsford, 1982. 



ANTON GIULIO BRAGAGLIA 



Italian 

Among early twentieth-century photographers, per- 
haps none rivaled Anton Giulio Bragaglia in the 
crusade — both practical and theoretical — to distin- 
guish photography as an art form. The mystical and 
metaphysical predilections of Bragaglia's imagery — 
which Giovanni Lista has called "the first modern 
revolution in photography" — liberated photogra- 
phy from the rigid cast of a recording machine. Brag- 
aglia's photographic innovations inspired an entire 
generation of Italian artists — Wanda Wultz and 
Tato, Ivo Pannaggi and Fortunato Depero among 
them — to adapt the medium of photography to the 
expanding contours of Futurist art and activism. On 
a wider scale, his experiments and expositions antici- 
pated European avant-garde approaches to photo- 
graphy as a fine art in its own right, independent of 
painting or the cinema. 

Born in Frosinone, Italy on February 11, 1890, 
Anton Giulio entered the seminary at the suggestion 
of his monsignor uncle, and studied there until 1910, 
developing a strong interest in literature and archae- 
ology. Thereafter, he dedicated himself to photogra- 
phy with the intention of becoming a journalist, 
despite his father's opposition. Along with his 
brother Arturo (1893-1962), Anton Giulio began 
frequenting the Cines film studios for which his 
father served as the general manager and lawyer. 
After buying their first camera in the Campo dei 
Fiori in Rome, the brothers undertook various 
kinds of photographic experimentation, using a 
bedroom in their home as a makeshift studio and 
darkroom. During the first years of their collabora- 
tion (1911-1914), the two brothers signed their 



photographs with the shared epithet "Bragaglia." 
Anton Giulio seems to have composed and staged 
the images, while Arturo served as the technical 
force behind the pair. The Bragaglias appropriated 
the fundaments of E.J. Marey's chronophotographs 
to their own method of "vitalist" expression — a 
photography of movement that they would come 
to term Fotodinamismo. Of the two brothers, Anton 
Giulio was by far the more theoretically oriented 
artist, writing various theses, conducting confer- 
ences, and launching manifestos on the development 
of Fo todinamismo . 

Late in 1912 the brothers met the Futurist ring- 
leader F.T. Marinetti through the painter Giacomo 
Balla, and their Fotodynamismo was baptized an 
official branch of the Futurist avant-garde. As an 
interdisciplinary movement seeking to integrate 
new forms of art with modern life, Marinetti's 
Futurism initially embraced photography as an 
eminently modern vehicle of expression. Anton 
Giulio became increasingly involved in the Futurist 
fold, collaborating with painters and poets on 
numerous projects. The Futurist painter and musi- 
cian Luigi Russolo, for example, served as Braga- 
glia's model in the now famous image II fumatore 
{The Smoker) of 1913; sculptors and painters Balla, 
Umberto Boccioni, Luciano Folgore, and Fran- 
cesco Pratella would all pose for fotodinamiche 
(photodynamics) as well. There also became a cer- 
tain reciprocity between the Bragaglias' photo- 
graphic experiments and the early paintings of 
Balla, and the mutual influences of these works are 
difficult to sort out. Bragaglia's The Typist (1912) or 
The Slap (1913), for example, share much with Bal- 
la's paintings of protracted movement, most no- 



157 



BRAGAGLIA, ANTON GIULIO 



tably Dog on a Leash (1912) and Girl Running on a 
Balcony (1912), revealing a common inspiration in 
the chronophotographic image. 

Yet Anton Giulio actively and emphatically dis- 
tinguished his Fotodinamismo from photography 
per se. Their only affinity, he claimed, was in the 
shared use of the camera. Despite his obvious and 
far-reaching debts to Marey, Bragaglia disavowed 
influence by the French photographer in an 
attempt to disassociate his images from the techni- 
cal, mechanical reputation of photography. In his 
essay Fotodinamismo futurista (1911), first pub- 
lished in the Florentine journal Lacerba in July 
1913, Bragaglia criticized Marey's chronophoto- 
graphy for coldly fragmenting movement rather 
than "synthesizing" it. For Bragaglia, Marey's pos- 
itivist experimentations failed to transcend the 
realm of science; only the rhythmic flux of Fotodi- 
namismo could make photography over into an art 
form. Fotodinamismo, Bragaglia argued, transfig- 
ured the visual world by deforming it, refracting 
it — thus creating a new, artistic image that captured 
something beyond the physical, material world. 

"We despise the precise, mechanical, and glacial 
reproduction of reality," he wrote. "For us this is a 
negative element, whereas for cinematography and 
chronophotography it is the very essence." Fotodi- 
namismo, he argued, proffered not a dissection of 
physical and temporal units, but a synthetic flow of 
sensation turned inside out: "A shout, a tragic 
pause, a gesture of terror, the entire scene. ..can be 
expressed in one single work," declared an ebullient 
Bragaglia. (Bragaglia 1970, 39). 

Like much Futurist discourse, Bragaglia's writ- 
ings and images vacillate between, on the one hand, 
a drive to represent movement and action, and on the 
other, a turning away from external appearances, to 
"seek the interior essence of things." Mere photo- 
graphy — whether cinematic or chronophotographic 
or simply descriptive — failed to evince the lyrical 
and emotive aspects of visual experience. In short, 
they did not sufficiently "dynamize" (to use a Futur- 
ist watchword) the subject. 

In this regard, Bragaglia was profoundly influ- 
enced, as were many of his contemporaries in Italy 
and abroad, by the metaphysical theories of the 
French philosopher Henri Bergson. Bergson's con- 
cepts lent to art a renewed purpose of penetrating 
beyond the material world, beyond quantitative 
measurements or descriptions. Bergson's cham- 
pioning of intuition over rationalized thought 
clearly influenced Bragaglia's approach to the pho- 
tographic image. 



"We are not interested in the precise reconstruction of 
movement, which has already been broken up and ana- 
lyzed. We are involved only in the area of movement 
which produces sensation, the memory of which still 
palpitates in our awareness." 

(Bragaglia 1970, 38) 

Fotodinamismo thus willfully incurred dissolu- 
tion, dematerialization, and interpenetration. The 
nimbus-like trails of light clinging to Bragaglia's 
subjects, as in the image Change of Position (191 1), 
are meant as signifiers of memory still "palpitat- 
ing." By flooding their subjects with light and over- 
exposing the photographic plate, the Bragaglia 
brothers hoped to record not motion, but the psy- 
chic and emotional energy underlying it. The spiri- 
tual pretensions of Fotodinamismo also derived in 
part from other trends circulating in contemporary 
art and literature, such as Theosophy and mysti- 
cism, and the rarefied geometries of the "fourth 
dimension." Anton Giulio himself subscribed to 
various occultist and mediumist theories, and be- 
lieved that Fotodinamismo could reveal invisible 
and spectral qualities that lurked within matter. 

Notwithstanding Bragaglia's invectives against 
positivism and the "precise reproduction of reality," 
his own images were, in turn, subjected to a very 
similar criticism from within Futurist ranks. The 
eminent Futurist artist and theoretician Umberto 
Boccioni came to disparage Bragaglia's work, 
claiming that photography could not be an art 
form, much less a Futurist one. Boccioni viewed 
Bragaglia's photodynamics as prosaic, cinemato- 
graphic inventories of movement, for all their pre- 
tensions to a poetic rendering of dynamic synthesis. 
Six Futurist artists published a statement disavow- 
ing any affinities between Fotodinamismo and 
Futurist "plastic dynamism." Under pressure from 
the importunate Boccioni, Marinetti withdrew his 
support of the Bragaglia brothers towards the mid- 
dle of 1913. Such polemics not only reveal the nuan- 
ces of what is often perceived as a monolithic Futurist 
movement, but also mark a significant chapter in the 
contentious history of photography as art. 

In 1914, Anton Giulio temporarily abandoned 
photography for experimental novels, but soon 
collaborated again with Arturo, this time publish- 
ing a (notably un-Futurist) study of Roman ruins 
entitled Nuova archaeologia romana (1915). The 
following year, Bragaglia created his own film com- 
pany and shot three full-length films. His film Thai's 
(1916), one of the few Futurist films ever produced 
and the only Futurist film extant today, featured 



158 



BRAGAGLIA, ANTON GIULIO 



elaborate, abstract sets by the artist Enrico Pram- 
polini. Despite the originality of Prampolini's sets 
and Bragaglia's compositions, the film shared little 
with the theories of Fotodinamismo or Futurism. 
Anton Giulio's exclusive engagement with the 
cinema was short-lived, in any case. 

The trajectory of his career reveals the promi- 
nence of photography not only as an aesthetic end 
in its own right, but also as a supplement to and 
document of avant-garde performance and experi- 
mentation. After founding the Casa d'Arte Braga- 
glia in Rome in 1918, as well as his own theater 
company in 1922, Anton Giulio dedicated himself 
to exhibition promotion, set design, theater produc- 
tion, and continued photographic experiments with 
Fotodinamismo. A tireless writer, he wrote numerous 
theoretical tracts on the theater and photography 
throughout the 1920s and 1930s, while participating 
in many collective exhibitions of Futurist photogra- 
phy. Bragaglia died in Rome in 1960. 

Ara H. Merjian 

See also: Futurism; History of Photography: Twen- 
tieth-Century Pioneers; Image Theory: Ideology 



Biography 

Born in Frosinone, Italy, 11 February 1890. Published the 
essay Fotodinamismo futurista (originally written 19 1 1) on 
1 July 1913; published an early book of Futurist photo- 
graphs, June 1913; published Nuova Archeologia romana 
with Arturo, 1915; founded his own film company, La 
Novissima, and directed the films Thai's, Ilperfido incanto 
{Wicked Enchantment), and Ilmio cadavere (My Corpse) 
and Dramma in Olimpo (Drama in Olympus), 1916 
founded the Casa d'Arte Bragaglia in Rome, 1918 
founded the Teatro degli Independenti in Rome, 1922, 
which he directed until 1936; directed the Teatro delle 
Arti in Rome until 1943. Died in Rome, 15 July 1960. 



Group Exhibitions 

1918 Fotoritratti d'arte; Casa d'Arte Bragaglia, Rome, Italy 
1923 Prima Esposizione Internazionale di Fotografia, Ottica, 

e Cinematografia; Turin, Italy 
1925 Primo Salon Italiano d'Arte Fotografica Internazionale; 

Turin, Italy 
1928 Esposizione di Scenografia Cinematografica; Casa 

d'Arte Bragaglia, Rome, Italy 

1930 Primo Concorso Fotografico Nazionale di Roma; 
Rome, Italy 

1931 Mostra Sperimentale di Fotografia Futurista; Turin, Italy 



1931 Prima Mostra Fotografica Internazionale; Milan, Italy 

1932 Mostra Fotografica Futurista di Trieste; Trieste, Italy 

1932 Prima Biennale Internazionale d'Arte Fotografica; 
Rome, Italy 

1933 Sezione Fotografica delta Grande Mostra Nazionale 
Futurista di Roma; Rome, Italy 

1932 Prima Grande Mostra Nazionale Futurista; Rome, 

Italy 
1981 Photographie Futuriste Italienne; Musee de la Ville, 

Paris, France 
1984 Fotografia Futurista Italiana; Museo de Bellas Artes, 

Bilbao, Spain 

1984 Futurism and Photography; Hillwood Art Gallery, 
Long Island University, New York 

1985 I Futuristi e la fotografia: creazione fotografica imma- 
gine quotidiana; Museo Civico d'Arte Contemporanea 

2001 Futurism and Photography; Estorick Collection of 
Modern Italian Art, London, England 



Selected Works 

The Greeting, 1911 

The Slap, 1912 

The Violincello Player, 1913 

The Smoker, 1913 

Carpenter Sawing, 1913 

Self-portrait, 1913 

A Step Forward, 1928 

Poly physiognomic portrait, 1930 

Self-caricature, 1932 



Further Reading 

Bragaglia, Anton Giulio. "Futurist Photodynamism." In 

Futurist Manifestos Umberto Apollonio, ed. New 

York: The Viking Press, 1970. 
Bragaglia, Anton Giulio. Fotodinamismo Futurista. Turin: 

Enaudi, 1970. 
Bragaglia, Arturo. "La Fotografia Futurista." Futurismo I, 

no. 7 (23 October 1932). 
Celant, Germano. "Futurism and the Occult." Artforum no. 

5 (January 1981). 
Hulten, Pontus, ed. Futurismo & Futurismi. Milan: Bom- 

piani, 1986. 
Lista, Giovanni. Futurism and Photography. London: Mer- 

rell Publishers Ltd., 2001. 
Lista, Giovanni. "Cinema Futurista." In A nuova luce: 

cinema muto italiano. Bologna: Edizioni Clueb, 2000. 
Lista, Giovanni. Fotografia Futurista Italiana. Bilbao, 

Spain: Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao, 1984. 
Scharf, Aaron. "Marey and Chronophotography." and "A 

Note on Photography and Futurism." Artforum vol. xv, 

no. 1 (January 1976). 
Scime, Giuliana, ed. // laboratorio dei Bragaglia 1911 / 1932. 

Ravenna: Editoriale Essegi, 1986. 



159 



BRANDT, BILL 



BILL BRANDT 



British 

Often characterized as England's most British pho- 
tographer, Bill Brandt was in fact born in Ham- 
burg, Germany. He moved to London in 1931, at 
the age of 27. The fact of his true country of origin 
and Brandt's own habit of presenting himself as 
British born, however, cannot obscure his role in 
the history of British photography. During his long 
career he produced important work in the genres of 
social documentary, landscape, the nude, and por- 
trait photography. Brandt committed to England 
and English society in a profound way, document- 
ing its imposing class structure and the physical 
landscape as well as making portraits of many of 
the luminaries of the British arts and letters. His 
many photography books were noteworthy for the 
ways in which he contrasted wealth and poverty as 
well as how he depicted reality mixed with a surrea- 
listic edge. 

While he pursued numerous subjects throughout 
his career, Brandt tended to follow one genre for 
an extended period before moving on to the next. 
He first became known as a social documentary 
photographer in the 1930s. This is when he first 
published his evocative scenes of both the strug- 
gling working class and their privileged counter- 
parts in Edwardian society. Brandt's documentary 
work coincided with the rise of the picture press in 
England and consequently, his early photographic 
series became synonymous with the extremes of 
British life between the wars. This work was striking 
for its dark grittiness, a mood that reflected both 
the political atmosphere and England's economic 
depression at the time. 

After World War II Brandt turned away from 
reportage. During the second half of his career his 
photographs were characterized more and more by 
mystery, experimentation, and a brooding quality 
that reinvigorated some of photography's oldest and 
most common genres; landscape, portraiture, and 
the nude. By the late 1970s Brandt had long been 
recognized as one of the masters of modern photo- 
graphy. While his work from earlier decades is in- 
cluded in major collections of photography around 
the world, his last body of work consisting of color 
photographs of still life's and three-dimensional 



box-like constructions was little seen or understood. 
While Brandt explored many genres and processes 
throughout his life, it is the work of the post-WWII 
period for which he is best known. 

Beginning in the 1930s and continuing through 
the 1960s Brandt created a distinct photographic 
language based on dramatic composition, stark 
lighting, and shadows. The empathy for his working 
class subjects often found in his social documentary 
work was slowly replaced by a haunting surrealism 
and a probing focus on the individual in both his 
nudes and his portraits of English writers and 
artists. In addition to having his work published in 
periodicals like Picture Post, Lilliput, and in both 
the British and American editions of Harper's 
Bazaar, Brandt also published his work in photo- 
graphy books. These publications, which include A 
Night in London (1938), Camera in London (1948), 
and Literary Britain (1951), and finally Perspective 
of Nudes (1961), are among the most influential 
photo books of the modern period. Brandt's pub- 
lished works, often focusing on the social interac- 
tions of upper and lower classes, reveal powerful 
narratives, created through the deliberate sequen- 
cing and placement of the images throughout each 
book. Brandt was often cited as an early influence of 
Robert Frank, whose own book, The Americans 
(1955) became a turning point in American social 
documentary photography. 

Brandt's early childhood was spent in Europe 
and his early career as a photographer was shaped 
in large part by his time in Paris, where he was 
surrounded by the artistic avant-garde, including 
Man Ray, Brassa'f, Eugene Atget, and the work of 
the Surrealists. Moving permanently to Britain in 
1931, the spirit of that country became an impor- 
tant theme. 

During World War II Brandt began a series 
depicting London at night, a series of images that 
perfectly captured both the eerie beauty of the city 
and the anxiety that gripped its inhabitants. While 
the city was under siege, the city's first defense was to 
extinguish all streetlights, creating an environment 
that had not existed since the introduction of the gas 
lamps of the previous century. "The glamorous 
make-up of the world's largest city faded with the 
lights," Brandt wrote in Camera In London (1948). 



160 



BRANDT, BILL 



Though the city may have lost its shimmering glitter, 
the shadowy urban nights that he photographed had 
a graphic allure similar to that of Brassai's Paris. 
Brassa'i and Andre Kertesz were both early influ- 
ences on the photographs in both Camera in London 
and A Night In London (1938). Work from the latter 
bears a striking similarity to Brassai's Paris de Nuit 
(1932). Another assignment during the war, com- 
missioned by the Ministry of Information in 1940, 
produced one of Brandt's most memorable picture 
stories; people huddling in improvised bomb shelters 
in locations throughout the city. At night Brandt 
visited tube shelters, church crypts, and cellars and 
photographed these overcrowded spaces with artifi- 
cial light. The impact of the series owes virtually as 
much to the strong contrast of light and dark as it 
does to the difficult subject matter of displaced, 
fearful families huddled in cold, uncomfortable 
spaces. Seen together, Brandt's photography during 
this period records the extremes of life during the war 
years while simultaneously displaying the innova- 
tions in night photography. 

The 1940s also saw Brandt turn to portrait com- 
missions as another source of income. He published 
portraits of poets, writers, painters, and film direc- 
tors for the next 40 years. In 1941 Lilliput magazine 
published a series of eight portraits that revealed his 
distinctive approach to this traditional photo- 
graphic genre. While his portraits captured single 
subjects usually in their homes, Brandt's vision 
often turned typical sitting rooms and libraries 
into strange environments. He avoided isolating 
the sitter's face or focusing on her or his expression. 
Still he was able to consistently reveal the intensity 
of the sitter's character by the juxtaposition of sitter 
and environment. Subjects such as the painter 
Francis Bacon and the writer Martin Amis appear 
lost in their private realities. 

While his early documentary works expand the 
notion of documentary photography as a tool for 
social change, Brandt's later work reveals his power- 
ful formal inventions. As he branched out from re- 
portage, Brandt began to explore the technical side of 
the medium and found darkroom work to be more 
interesting than the act of pressing the shutter. Near 
the end of World War II Brandt dedicated himself to 
photographing the female nude. Inspired perhaps by 
the distorted nudes created by Surrealist photogra- 
phers via reflections in various materials, Brandt 
experimented with distorting the female form, the 
image he produced, however, taking on a disturbing, 
psychological edge. Posed individually, either in 
stark English townhouse interiors or on the rocky 
British coastline, these nude studies stand in sharp 
contrast to the elegant views of the British aristoc- 



racy and the humble tableaux of grimy coal mines of 
his earlier works. While seemingly grounded in the 
reality of a figure in a naturalistic setting, these are 
among Brandt's most surreal images, and can be said 
to be the photographic equivalent of British artist 
Henry Moore's abstracted figure sculptures. 

Brandt considered the nudes to be the major artis- 
tic statement of his photographic career and he con- 
tinued to focus on it for almost three decades. Unlike 
virtually all other photographers who employed dis- 
tortion techniques to highlight the sensual or erotic 
in their nudes, Brandt seemed interested in avoiding 
any hint of eroticism. Brandt later noted that the 
Orson Wells's film Citizen Kane deeply influenced 
the look of these photographs, and it is clear that this 
cinematic vision is further enhanced by Brandt's use 
of a wide-angle lens with a fixed focus and no shutter. 
By using this antiquated equipment he was able to 
produce images where the human form was wildly 
distorted and viewed in unrealistically deep perspec- 
tive. While depicting the female nude, even in dis- 
torted forms was not new in visual art, Brandt's 
extreme formalism was striking and the results were 
images in which the sexual availability of the sitter 
was completely erased. In contrast to his earlier 
work, where the viewer is made to feel like an invisible 
observer of the photographed scene, the women in 
Brandt's later work often look directly at the camera 
meeting the viewer's gaze. 

In the 1 970s and 1 980s, following the nudes, Brandt 
began to explore entirely new processes. After work- 
ing for nearly 50 years in traditional black and white 
photography he began creating three-dimensional 
collages using rocks and debris found on the beach, 
and started photographing in color. This late work 
was personal and experimental. Initially this work 
seemed to have little apparent relation to his earlier 
photographic interests, resembling garish, deserted 
dreamscapes. This abstract work, however, drew 
heavily on his lifelong interest in Surrealism and 
points to the early influence of Man Ray's work in 
the 1920s. Although the collages and color photo- 
graphs were exhibited in London in the mid 1970s 
and again 10 years after Brandt's death in 1992, they 
were never fully embraced by either critics or the 
public and are seldom included in retrospectives of 
his work. Brandt's stature as a giant of British and 
indeed international postwar photography, however, 
is assured. 

Lisa Henry 

See also: Brassa'i; Documentary Photography; His- 
tory of Photography: Interwar Years; History of 
Photography: Postwar Era; Kertesz, Andre; Man 
Ray; Nude Photography; Portraiture; Surrealism 



161 



BRANDT, BILL 



Biography 

Born in Hamburg, Germany in 1904. Moved to London in 
1931. Died in 1992. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1938 London By Night; Galerie Chasseur d'Images, Paris, 

France 
1948 Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 
1963 George Eastman House, Rochester, New York 
1969 Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, and 
The Hayward Gallery, London, England, and traveling 
1974 The Kinsman Morrison Gallery, London, England 
1976 Marlborough Fine Art, London, England Marlbor- 
ough Gallery, New York, New York 
1979 Perspective of Nudes; Zeit Foto Salon, Tokyo, Japan 
Galerie Pule Pia, Antwerp, Belgium 

1981 Retrospective; Royal Photographic Society, National 
Center of Photography, Bath, England 

Early Photographs; University of Kent Library, Kent, 
England, and traveling 

1982 Photographs by Bill Brandt 1929-1975; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Ontario, Canada 

Bill Brandt: Portraits 1982; The National Portrait 
Gallery, London, England 

1983 Retrospective; International Center of Photography, 
New York, New York 

London by Night; The Photographers' Gallery, Lon- 
don, England 

1984 De Beyerd Center, Breda, The Netherlands 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Literary Britain; Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don, England 

1986 Behind The Camera; Aperture's Burden Gallery, New 
York. New York 

1994 Retrospective; Barbican Art Gallery, London, England 
Centre nationale de la photographie, Paris, France 

1999-2000 Retrospective; International Center of Photogra- 
phy, New York, New York 

2001 Brandt: Seen & Unseen; Edwynn Houk Gallery, New 
York, New York 

Retrospective; Museum of Photographic Arts, San 
Diego, California 



Toppers & Cloth Caps; The Special Photographers 
Gallery, Notting Hill Gate, London, England 

2002 Retrospective; Monash Galleries, Melbourne, Austra- 
lia, and National Portrait Gallery, Canberra, Australia 

2002-2003 Bill Brandt: A Retrospective; Milwaukee Art 
Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Yale Center for 
British Art, New Haven, Connecticut 

2004 Bill Brandt: A Centenary Retrospective; Victoria and 
Albert Museum, London, England 



Further Reading 

Brandt, Bill. The English at Home. Introduction by Ray- 
mond Mortimer. London: Batsford, 1936. 

. A Night in London. Paris: Arts et metiers Graphi- 

ques; and New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938. 

. Literary Britain. Hurtwood Press, 1984. 

. Perspective of Nudes. Preface by Lawrence Durrell. 

Introduction by Chapman Mortimer. London: Bodley 
Head, 1961. 

Bill Brandt: Nudes 1945-1980. Introduction by 



Michael Hiley. New York: The New York Graphic 
Society/Little Brown and Company, 1980. 

. Photographs , by Bill Brandt. Introduction by Mark 

Haworth-Booth. Washington, DC: International Exhi- 
bitions Foundation, 1980. 

Behind the Camera: Photographs by Bill Brandt. 



Mark Haworth-Booth. New York: Aperture, 1985. 
Brandt, Bill. London in the Thirties. Menston, England: 

Scolar Press, 1998. 
Brandt, Bill, and Mark Haworth-Booth. The Land: Twen- 
tieth Century Landscape Photographs. Cambridge, MA: 

Da Capo Press, 1976. 
Delany, Paul. Bill Brandt: A Biography. Jonathan Cape, 

2004. 
Jay, Bill. Bill Brandt: Portraits. New York: Harry N. 

Abrams, 1999. 
Jay, Bill, and Nigel Warburton. Brandt: The Photography of 

Bill Brandt. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999. 
Jeffrey, Ian. Bill Brandt: Photographs, 1928-1983. London: 

Thames and Hudson, 1994. 
Ross, Alan. Portraits (Photography and Film). London: 

Herbert Press, 1990. 



BRASSAI 



Hungarian-French 

Brassa'i's obsession with the diverse character of 
social relationships, urban spaces, and the objects 
and events that often go unnoticed in everyday ex- 
perience prompted expatriate American novelist 
Henry Miller to nickname him "The Eye of Paris." 



Brassa'i pursued a style of immediacy and intimacy 
to bridge the distances between subject matter, 
artist, and viewer. His landscapes of nighttime 
monuments and deserted streets and his portraits 
of both the unknown as well as the most famous 
artists and writers in mid-century Paris demonstrate 
photography's ability to bracket references to rea- 



162 



BRASSAI 



lity for heightened awareness and interpretation. 
Brassa'i often repeated that his "ambition was 
always to see an aspect of everyday life as if disco- 
vering it for the first time." While best known as a 
photographer, Brassa'i was also a writer and accom- 
plished in drawing, painting, and sculpture. 

Brassa'i was born Gyula Halasz in Brasso, 
Transylvania, then a part of Hungary. The pseu- 
donym means "a native of Brasso." In 1903-1904, 
Brassa'i's father, a professor of French literature, 
brought his family to live with him in Paris while 
he was conducting research at the Sorbonne, and 
at a young age, Brassa'i developed a love of Paris 
that would remain throughout his life. Brassa'i 
served in the Austro-Hungarian cavalry in World 
War I and afterwards briefly attended the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in Budapest. In December 1920, 
after Transylvania became part of Romania under 
Soviet influence, Brassa'i fled to Berlin and began a 
career as a journalist for Hungarian-language 
newspapers and magazines. In part to avoid being 
drafted into the Romanian Army, Brassa'i attended 
the Akademishce Hochschule where he cultivated 
the image of a rebellious bohemian. In Berlin, 
Brassa'i developed a close friendship with Lajos 
Tihanyi, a prominent Hungarian painter; met Las- 
zlo Moholy-Nagy and modern painters Oskar 
Kokoschka and Wassily Kandinsky; and read Go- 
ethe, whose appreciation of commonplace objects 
and events would inspire Brassa'i's emphasis on 
seemingly direct depictions of people and places. 
With runaway inflation in Germany, Brassa'i re- 
turned to Brasso in late spring 1922 for what 
would be his last visit to his birthplace. 

He arrived in Paris in early 1924 and wandered 
through the city, being fascinated with the details of 
the built environment and the lives of the city's 
inhabitants. Writing for publications in Germany, 
France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the 
United States, Brassa'i first began signing his articles 
"Gyula Brassa'i" to separate the opinion and trivial 
topics of his journalism from more artistic literary 
and visual works for which he planned to use the 
family name "Halasz," but by the 1930s, he began to 
use "Brassa'i" exclusively. 

Initially disparaging photography as illustra- 
tion, Brassa'i only began collecting old photo- 
graphs and postcards in 1924, and he did not 
begin to take his own photographs until the end 
of 1929 when he could afford to buy a camera, a 
Voigtlander, and then a Rolleiflex in 1935. With 
his own photography, Brassa'i began to recognize 
the potential of the medium for detailed obser- 
vation. Exploring Paris at night, Brassa'i focused 
his attention and his camera on deserted areas, 



buildings, and monuments and on human inter- 
actions at all levels of society from the bourge- 
oisie to prostitutes, ruffians, and the poor on the 
fringes of society. In late 1932, this material was 
published as Paris after Dark, with written text by 
Paul Morand. Offers for exhibitions and maga- 
zine assignments followed, and Carmel Snow and 
Alexey Brodovitch, editors of Harper's Bazaar, 
hired Brassa'i to begin a more than twenty-year 
relationship with the magazine. Working at a 
time of great popularity for illustrated magazines, 
Brassa'i produced photographs for substantial 
weekly publications, Surrealist and post-Surreal- 
ist journals, fashion magazines, and detective and 
sexually evocative "magazines legers," which 
were important sources of income for many per- 
iod photographers and for the promotion of mod- 
ern photography. 

Not until 1976 did Brassa'i publish The Secret 
Paris of the 30s. This series explored a range of licit 
and illicit locations of entertainment and pleasure, 
ranging from high society to fringe establishments, 
such as opium parlors, bordellos, and homosexual 
bars. Combining artistic and documentary interest, 
though often appearing to be candid journalistic 
press photography, Brassa'i's photographs were 
made with his subjects' agreement that they would 
be photographed but without knowledge of when. 
He conducted research to anticipate action and 
bought drinks for and gave payment to some of his 
subjects. Brassa'i's interest was not that his images be 
true but that they be convincing. He did not invent 
but observed, selected, and developed his ideas. 
Considering literal translation of an object to be a 
betrayal of reality, Brassa'i pursued imaginative 
resemblance and representation that was anchored 
in lived experience and the objective world. 

In 1932, Brassa'i was asked by Teriade to take 
photographs of Pablo Picasso, his work, and his 
studio for the first issue of Le Minotaure. Brassa'i 
published over 150 images in the first nine issues of 
the journal with half of the photographs being por- 
traits of artists and images of their work and their 
studios. Brassa'i worked on portraits of Picasso for 
four decades and was much stimulated by their asso- 
ciation. Picasso's etching on one of Brassa'i's nega- 
tives inspired his Transmutations series. Conversations 
avec Picasso grew from the notes Brassa'i began to 
collect after their first meetings, but not until 1960 
and with Picasso's suggestion did these materials 
become a book. Included are discussions of Picasso's 
working habits, philosophies, friends and wives, as 
well as discussion of Brassa'i's own work habits and 
interests. Picasso much appreciated the opportunity 
through Brassa'i to see his own work with "new eyes." 



163 



BRASSAI 



Brassai' also famously photographed the great painter 
Henri Matisse at work in his studio. 

Although often linked with the Surrealists, Bras- 
sa'i's relationship to Surrealism is complicated. Bras- 
sai did not meet Surrealist major domo Andre 
Breton until 1931, and by then, many of Brassa'i's 
friends, including Jacques Prevert, Robert Desnos, 
and Raymond Queneau had already been expelled 
from the official movement. Many of Brassa'i's 
images were influenced by Surrealism and were 
used to express Surrealist ideas, but Brassai refused 
to join the movement, and his interest in the physical 
world was incompatible with Surrealist emphasis on 
fantastic associations. Like Picasso, Brassa'i's images 
remain based on rational, visible, and mental con- 
structions of the complexity of the world. Brassa'i's 
photography expresses in a two-dimensional dis- 
course the authenticity of the subject of the image. 

Graffiti especially inspired Brassai because of its 
ancient history and its correspondence to the origins 
of writing. Over a thirty-year period Brassai kept 
careful notebooks and witnessed its changes over 
time. In regards to graffiti, but useful as a general 
statement of his philosophy of art, Brassai explained 
that a work of art 

stands alone and naked, like a conscript in front of a 
recruiting board, and it should be allowed to be its own 
judge. The way it was generated, its genealogy, the 
ambition or intention that inspired it, none of these has 
anything to do with its value, and can neither enhance 
nor reduce it, justify nor destroy it. 

(BrassaT, "Images latentes," L'Intransigeant, 15 
November 1932) 

In 1943-1945, when working as a photographer 
was not possible during the Nazi occupation and 
with Picasso's encouragement, Brassai began draw- 
ing again, and in 1946, he published, Trente dessins, 
a portfolio consisting mostly of nudes, with a poem 
by Jacques Prevert written in response to the 
images. After this publication, again with Picasso's 
influence, he began to sculpt palm-sized river stones, 
usually extracting female torsos from them. Later 
sculptures were larger and made use of other mate- 
rials, a practice that continued through the early 
1970s. Shortly before his death, Brassai completed 
Marcel Proust sous I'emprise de la photographie, a 
study of Proust's interest in photography and the 
role of photography and photographs in A la recher- 
eche du temps perdu. At the close of the twentieth 
century, Brassa'i's work was receiving considerable 
scholarly attention, both for his own contributions 
and his role as part of the Parisian avant-garde of 



the 1920s and 1930s, one of the most fertile periods 
of photographic practice of the century. 

Scott A. Sherer 

See also: History of Photography: Interwar Years; 
Photography in France; Surrealism 



Biography 

Born in Brasso, Transylvania, 1899. Became French citizen 
in 1947. Died in Beaulieu-sur-Mer, France, 7 July 1984. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1933 Brassai; Galerie Arts et Metiers Graphiques; Paris 

1945 Brassai, dessins; Galerie Renou et Colle; Paris 

1954 Brassai; Art Institute of Chicago (traveled to Walker 

Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; George Eastman 

House, Rochester, New York; Institute of Art, New 

Orleans, Louisiana) 
1956 Language of the Wall: Parisian Graffiti Photographed 

by Brassai; The Museum of Modern Art; New York, 

New York 
1958 Language of the Wall: Parisian Graffiti Photographed 

by Brassai; Institute of Contempoary Arts; London 

1963 Brassai, photographies , sculptures, gravures; Bibliothe- 
que Nationale; Paris (traveled to Residence du Louvre, 
Menton) 

1964 Les sculptures de Picasso et les photographies de Bras- 
sai; Galerie Madoura; Cannes, France 

1968 Brassai; Museum of Modern Art; New York (traveled 
to St. Louis Art Museum, Missouri; National Gallery of 
Victoria, Melbourne; Farmer's Blaxland Gallery, Sid- 
ney; Auckland City Art Gallery, Auckland; National 
Art Gallery, Wellington; Govett-Brewster Art Gallery, 
New Plymouth, New Zealand; Centro Venezolano 
Americano, Caracas; Museo de Arte Moderno "La Ter- 
tulia," Cali, Colombia; Museo de Arte Moderno de 
Bogota, Colombia; Museo de Zea, Medellin, Colombia; 
Institutio Nacional de Cultura, Lima, Peru; Museo de 
Arte Contemporanea, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Museo de Arte 
Moderna de Bahia, Salvador, El Salvado; Hayden Gal- 
lery, Boston) 

1973 Brassai; Dartmouth College of Art; Dartmouth, New 
Hampshire (traveled to Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C.; University of Iowa Museum of Art, 
Iowa; University of California, Berkeley; Winnipeg Art 
Gallery, Winnipeg; Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, 
Museum of Art, Utica, New York; Everson Museum, 
Syracuse, New York) 

1976 The Secret Paris of the 30s j Le Paris secret des annees 
trente; Marlborough Gallery; New York and traveling 

1979 Brassai, Artists and Studios; Marlborough Gallery; 
New York and traveling 

Brassai; The Photographers' Gallery, London (traveled 
to Brewery Arts Center, Kendal; The Scottish Photogra- 
phy Group Gallery, Edinburgh; Tolarno Galleries, Mel- 
bourne; Salford University, Salford, Australia) 

1987 Picasso vu par Brassai; Musee Picasso, Paris 

1988 Brassai, Paris le jour, Paris la nuit; Musee Carnavalet; 
Paris 



164 



BRASSAI 



Paris tendresse; Galerie de la FNAC; Paris 
1993 Brassai; Centre national de la photographie; Paris 

Brassai': del Surrealismo al informalismo; Fundacio 
Antoni Tapies; Barcelona 
1998 Brassai and Company; Art Institute of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

Brassai: The Eye of Paris; The Museum of Fine Arts; 
Houston (traveled to The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los 
Angeles; The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.) 



Group Exhibitions 

1931 Photographes d'aujourd'hui; Libraire-Galerie de la 
Plume d'Or, Paris, France 

1932 Modern European Photographers; Julien Levy Gallery, 
New York, New York 

1933 Groupe annuel des photographes Galerie de la Pleiade, 
Paris, France 

Exposition internationale de photographie, Palais des 
Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium 

1935 La photographie contemporaine international, Musee 
Rath, Geneva, Switzerland 

1936 Exposition Internationale de la photographie, Musee 
des Arts Decoratifs, Pavilion de Marsan, Paris, France 

1937 Photography 1839-1937; Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York 

1948 French Photographers; The Photo-League, New York 
Troisieme Salon national de la photographe; Bibliothe- 

que nationale de France, Paris 
1951 Five French Photographers; Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, New York 
1953 Post-war European Photography; Museum of Modern 

Art, New York, New York 
1959 Photography at Mid-century, George Eastman House, 

Rochester, New York 
1964 The Photographer's Eye; Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, New York 

1976 One Hundred Master Photographs; Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New York, New York 

1977 Documenta6; MuseumFridericianum,Kassel, Germany 

1980 Photographic Surrealism; Brooklyn Museum of Art, 
New York 

Les realisms 1919-1939; Centre Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, France 

1981 Paris-Paris: creation en France 1937-1957; Centre 
Georges Pompidou, Paris, France 

1982 Counterparts. Form and Emotion in Photography. The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 

1985 L 'amour fou. Photography and Surrealism; Corcoran 
Gallery of Art; Washington, D.C. (traveled to Centre 
Georges Pompidou, Paris, France) 

1987 Regards sur Minotaure; Musee Rath, Geneva, Switzerland 
L'oeil du Minotaure, Uhac, Brassai, Alvarez-Bravo, 

Bellmer, Man Ray; Galerie Sonia Zanettacci, Geneva, 
Switzerland 

1988 Une exposition de photographie franpaise a New York; 
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France 

1989 The New VisionL Photography between the World 
Wars; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New 
York 

1997 Le Paris des photographes; Bunkamura, Tokyo, and 
Suntory Museum, Osaka, Japan 



Selected Works 

Place de la Concorde on a Rainy Day, 1928 

Self-Portrait in an Opium Den, c. 1931 

Backstage at the Folies-Bergere, 1932 

Girl Playing Snooker , Montmartre, 1932 

Large-Scale Object: Cotton, 1932 

Lovers in a Cafe, 1932 

La Mome Bijou (alternate title: Bijoux of Montmarte), 1932 

Le Viaduc d'Auteuil, c. 1932 

Chez "Suzy", 1932-1933 

Graffiti, c. 1933 

Pharmacy, Beaune Hospital, France, 1951 



Further Reading 

Brassai'. The Artists of My Life. New York: Viking Press, 
and London: Thames & Hudson, 1982; as Les Artistes de 
ma vie, Paris: Denoel, 1982. 

. Conversations avec Picasso. Paris: Gallimard, 1964, 

1969, 1987, 1997; as Conversaciones con Picasso, 
Madrid: Aguilar, 1966; as Picasso and Company, preface 
by Henry Miller, introduction by Roland Penrose, Gar- 
den City and New York: Doubleday, 1966; as Picasso & 
Co., London: Thames & Hudson, 1967; as Conversations 
with Picasso, preface by Henry Miller, introduction by 
Pierre Daix, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 

Brassai and Henry Miller. Histoire de Marie. Paris: Editions 
du Pont du Jour, 1949. Aries: Actes Sud, 1997. 

. Henry Miller: the Paris Years, trans, by Timothy 

Bent, New York: Arcade Publishers, 1995. 

Brassai and Pablo Picasso. Graffiti. Stuttgart: Belser Verlag, 
1960; Paris: Les Editions du Temps, 1961; preface by 
Gilberte Brassai, Paris: Flammarion, 1993. Letters to 
My Parents, trans, by Peter Laki and Barna Kantor. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. 

. Marcel Proust sous I'emprise de la photographie. 

Paris: Gallimard, 1997. 

Brassai and Paul Morand. Paris de nuit. Editions Arts et 
Metiers Graphiques, Paris 1933; as Paris after Dark, 
London: Batsford Gallery, 1933; Nachtliches Paris, 
Munich: Schirmer/Mosel Verlag, 1979; Paris: Flamma- 
rion, and London: Thames & Hudson, 1987; as Paris by 
Night, New York: Pantheon Books, 1987; Paris de nuit, 
Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 1987. 

. Le Paris secret des annees 30. Paris: Gallimard, 

1976; as The Secret Paris of the 30' s, London: Thames 
& Hudson, and New York: Pantheon Books, and Frank- 
furt: S. Fischer, 1976; Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 1977. 

Berman, Avis. Smithsonian, 30, no. 7 (October 1999). 

de Montherlant, Henry, D. Aubier, and Brassai. Seville en 
fete; as Fest in Seville, Feldafing: Buchheim- Verlag, 1954; 
as Fiesta in Seville, London: Thames & Hudson, and 
New York: The Studio and Thomas Y. Crowell, 1956. 

Durrell, John and John Szarkowski. Brassai. New York: 
Museum of Modern Art, 1968. 

Sayag, Alain and Annick Lionel-Marie, eds. Brassai. Bos- 
ton: Bulfinch Press, 2000. 

Tucker, Anne Wilkes. Brassai: The Eye of Paris. Houston: 
Museum of Fine Arts, 1999. 

Walker, Ian. City Gorged with Dreams: Surrealism and Doc- 
umentary Photography in Interwar Paris. Manchester: 
Manchester University Press, 2000. 



165 



BRASSAI 




Brassai' (Guyla Halasz), "Bijou" of Montmartre. 1932 or 1933, Gelatin-silver print, 11 7s x 9 V%" 

(30.2 x 23.2 cm). David H. McAlpin Fund. 

[Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art) Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, New York] 



166 



BRAVO, MANUEL ALVAREZ 



MANUEL ALVAREZ BRAVO 



Mexican 

Arguably the most renowned photographer of 
Latin America, Manuel Alvarez Bravo is the corner- 
stone of this medium in Mexico. When he began 
photographing in the 1920s and 1930s, artists who 
constitute a veritable "who's who" of the lens imme- 
diately acknowledged his innate capacity: Edward 
Weston, Tina Modotti, Paul Strand, and Henri Car- 
tier-Bresson. The respect that he engendered was 
encapsulated in Cartier-Bresson's response when 
someone likened Alvarez Bravo's imagery to Wes- 
ton's: "Don't compare them, Manuel is the real 
artist." Alvarez Bravo's unique eye was such that 
the founder of surrealism, Andre Breton, sought 
him out in 1938 to commission an image for the 
cover of a surrealist exhibition catalogue. His recog- 
nition by such luminaries notwithstanding, Alvarez 
Bravo had little visibility within the United States 
prior to the modest 1971 exhibit at the Pasadena Art 
Museum in California. Subsequent exhibitions at 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. 
(1978) and San Diego's Museum of Photographic 
Arts (1990) made Alvarez Bravo a much more 
familiar figure, and his consecration was assured 
by the 1 997 exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art 
in New York. 

When Alvarez Bravo began photographing in the 
1920s, the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) had 
unleashed a national search for identity, and the 
question of what to do with Mexico's inherent exo- 
ticism was the burning issue for photographers. 
Perhaps influenced by his relationship with Weston 
and Modotti, Alvarez Bravo was the first Mexican 
photographer to take a militantly anti-picturesque 
stance, and he achieved international recognition 
for work that reached creative heights from the 
late 1920s through the mid-1950s, a period during 
which he perfected a sophisticated approach to 
representing his culture. Conscious both of Mexi- 
co's otherness and the way in which that has led 
almost naturally to stereotypical imagery, Alvarez 
Bravo has always swum counter to the stream of 
established cliches. 

Consider Sed publico (Public Thirst), the 1934 
photo of a boy drinking water from a village well. 
This image contains all the elements necessary to 



make it picturesque: a young peasant, dressed in 
the white clothing typical of his culture, perches on 
a battered village well to drink the water which flows 
from it; an adobe wall behind provides texture. But, 
the light in the image seems to concentrate itself on 
the foot that juts forward into the frame, a foot that 
is too particular, too individual to be able to "stand 
for" the Mexican peasantry, and thus represent their 
other-worldliness. It is this boy's foot, not a typical 
peasant's foot, and it goes against the expectations of 
picturesqueness raised by the other elements, "sav- 
ing" the image through its very particularity. 

A similar tactic can be observed in Senor cle 
Papantla {Man from Papantla, 1934), where an 
Indian stands with his back to the wall, facing the 
camera. Here, as with the image of the boy, the 
objective elements in the photo would seem to 
make it picturesque: white peasant clothing, bare 
feet, and adobe walls, as well as a sombrero and bag 
woven of reeds. But, having awakened our anticipa- 
tion of the exotic, Alvarez Bravo cuts back against it 
with an artistry that rejects the facile. The man 
refuses to dignify the camera by returning its look. 
It is often felt that the esthetic strategy in which the 
subject "retorts" the camera's gaze is that which 
most effectively represents people at their most 
active, because it negates somewhat the camera's 
tendency to reduce them to objects. But here, 
Alvarez Bravo gives us another turn of the screw by 
presenting us with an Indian who, in looking away, 
seems to say disparagingly: "Take all the pictures 
you want, outsider. Who cares what you do?" 

Alvarez Bravo's search for mexicanidad (Mexi- 
canness) led him to reconfigure national symbols. 
For example, Sand and Pines is an early image from 
the 1920s that demonstrates that a young Alvarez 
Bravo was much influenced not only by pictorial- 
ism, but also by the then pervasive interest in Japa- 
nese art. Infusing international art forms with 
Mexican meaning, Alvarez Bravo forms the back- 
ground to his "bonsai" with what is in essence a 
mini-Popocatepetl, one of the volcanoes that dom- 
inate the Valley of Mexico. Another example is the 
1927 photo of a rolled-up mattress. Here, he chose 
not to use the beautifully textured, folkloric petate 
which, woven of wide reeds, provided depth to the 
still lives created by Modotti and Weston. Instead, 



167 



BRAVO, MANUEL ALVAREZ 



Alvarez Bravo photographed a modern mattress, 
but with the twist that its bands of shading make it 
look like the well-known Saltillo sarapes. In his 
recurrent imagery of the maguey cactus we can see 
his interest in playing with a ubiquitous symbol of 
Mexican culture; in one photo he "modernizes" the 
maguey by making it appear as if the central flower 
stem that sprouts from these plants has been con- 
verted into a television antenna. 

The politics of Alvarez Bravo are always talked 
about in relation to his most famous photograph, 
Striking Worker, Assassinated, Oaxaca, 1934. None- 
theless, while it is certainly true that he rejects official 
nationalism as completely as he does the pictur- 
esque, this image is problematic: its meaning is deter- 
mined by the title ascribed to it, which may have 
been influenced by Alvarez Bravo's involvement in 
LEAR (League of Revolutionary Writers and Ar- 
tists) during the 1930s. It may be argued instead 
that the politics of Alvarez Bravo — and his search 
for Mexico's essence — can better be found in the 
ways he represents the daily life activities of humble 
people, rather than in overt social commentary. His 
imagery is a modest, almost transparent portrayal 
of individuals whom he seems to have "found" 
within their natural habitats rather than to have 
"created" through conspicuous visual rhetoric. A 
very understated esthetic that avoids overt expres- 
sivity, Alvarez Bravo's is an all but invisible tech- 
nique designed to capture anonymous people in 
ordinary activities, where they are neither romanti- 
cized nor sentimentalized. A perfect instance is La 
mama del bolero y el bolero, an exquisite image from 
the 1950s in which a mother visits her son to bring 
him lunch, and eats with him while he rests from his 
tasks of shining shoes. 

Manuel Alvarez Bravo has been a definitive influ- 
ence on Mexican and Latin American photography. 
His rejection of the facile, his insistently ambiguous 
irony, and his redemption of common folk and their 
daily subsistence have marked a path of high stan- 
dards for photographers from his area. 

John Mraz 

See also: Modotti, Tina; Photography in Latin 
America: Mexico; Strand, Paul; Weston, Edward 



Biography 

Born in Mexico City, 4 February 1902. Attended Catholic 
school from 1908 to 1914, but left in 1915 to work. Begins 
to educate self in photography, asking advice from photo- 
graphy suppliers, and learning English by reading the 
labels on developer bottles. The 1923 arrival of Edward 
Weston and Tina Modotti in Mexico City is crucial to 
Alvarez Bravo's development, and he buys his first camera 



in 1924. Wins first major award in 1931, and decides to 
pursue photography as full-time career, in part as a still 
photographer in cinema productions. Meets Andre Bre- 
ton in 1939, and his work is included in a Paris Surrealist 
exhibit. In 1942, the Museum of Modern Art (New York) 
acquired their first works by Alvarez Bravo and, in 1955, 
his photographs were included in Edward Steichen's The 
Family of Man. During 1959, Alvarez Bravo stopped 
working in the film industry, and became the photogra- 
pher of important art books for El Fondo Editorial de la 
Plastica Mexicana, Mexico City, of which he was a foun- 
der. Alvarez Bravo left the Fondo in 1980 to work with the 
Mexican-based media empire, Televisa, where his collec- 
tion of photography was exhibited and published in a 
three-volume set. In 1996, Alvarez Bravo's collection 
moved to the newly-created Centro Fotografico Alvarez 
Bravo in Oaxaca City, Mexico. Bravo died in Mexico City, 
October 19, 2002. 



Selected Individual Exhibitions 

1942 Manuel Alvarez Bravo; Photo League Gallery, New 

York, New York 
1968 Manuel Alvarez Bravo: fotografias de 1928-1968; Pala- 

cio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Mexico 

1971 Manuel Alvarez Bravo; Pasadena Art Museum, Pasa- 
dena, California, and traveled to The Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New Cork, New York; San Francisco Museum 
of Modern Art, San Francisco, California; George East- 
man House, Rochester, New York 

1972 Manuel Alvarez Bravo: 400 fotografias; Palacio de Bel- 
las Artes, Mexico City, Mexico, and traveled to The Art 
Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Galerie Munici- 
pal de Chateau-d'Eau, Toulouse, France; Musee Nice- 
phore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saone, France; Museo de 
Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela 

1978 M. Alvarez Bravo; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washing- 
ton D.C. 

1983 Dreams-Visions-Metaphors: The Photographs of Man- 
uel Alvarez Bravo; Israel Museum, Jerusalem, and tra- 
veled to The National Museum of Photography, Film 
and Television, Bradford, United Kingdom; Museum of 
Modern Art, Oxford, United Kingdom 

1989 Mucho sol: Manuel Alvarez Bravo; Palacio de Bellas 
Artes, Mexico City, Mexico, and traveled to Museo de 
Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela 

1990 Revelaciones: The Art of Manuel Alvarez Bravo; 
Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, California, 
and traveling 

1997 Manuel Alvarez Bravo; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1935 Exposicion fotografias: Cartier-Bresson, Alvarez Bravo; 

Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Mexico 
1939 Mexique; Galerie Renou et Colle, Paris, France 
1955 The Family of Man; The Museum of Modern Art, New 

York, New York, and traveling 
1964 The Photographer's Eye; The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, New York 

1978 Imogen historica de la fotografia en Mexico; Instituto 
National de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico City, Mexico 

1979 Les invites d'honneur: Manuel Alvarez Bravo (Mexi- 



168 



BRAVO, MANUEL ALVAREZ 




Manuel Alvarez Bravo, Public Thirst (Sed publica), 1933, Gelatin Silver Print. 

[© Colette Alvarez-Urbajtel. Victoria & Albert Museum, London) Art Resource, New York] 



169 



BRAVO, MANUEL ALVAREZ 



que), Aaron Siskind (USA), et Henri Cartier-Bresson 
(France); Musee Reattu, Aries, France 

1986 50 anos de la exposition de Manuel Alvarez Bravo y 
Henri Cartier-Bresson; Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico 
City, New York 

1989 On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty 
Years of Photography; National Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington, D.C., and traveled to The Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, Los Angeles, California 



Selected Works 

Arena y pinitos {Sand and Pines), 1920s 

Peluquero (Barber), 1924 

Colchon (Matress), 1927 

Los agachados (The Bent Ones), 1934 

Sed publica (Public Thirst or The Public Fountain), 1934 

Senor de Papantla (Man from Papantla), 1934 

Obrero en huelga, asesinado (Striking Worker, Assassinated), 

1934 
La buena fama durmiendo (The Good Reputation Sleeping), 

1938 
La mama del bolera y el bolero (The Mother of the Shoeshine 

Boy and the Shoeshine Boy), 1950s 



Further Reading 

Coleman, A.D. Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Aperture Masters of 
Photography. New York: Aperture, 1987. 

del Conde, Teresa. Mucho sol: Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Mex- 
ico City: Fondo de Cultura Economico, 1989. 



Kismaric, Susan. Manuel Alvarez Bravo. New York: The 
Museum of Modern Art, 1997. 

Livingstone, Jane. M. Alvarez Bravo. Washington D.C.: 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1978. 

Luna Cornea. 1 (Issue dedicated to Manuel Alvarez Bravo.) 
Winter (1992-1993). 

Oilman, Arthur, and Nissan Perez. Revelaciones: The Art of 
Manuel Alvarez Bravo. San Diego: Museum of Photo- 
graphic Arts, 1990. 

Paz, Octavio, and Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Instante y revela- 
tion. Mexico City: Fondo Nacional para Actividades 
Sociales, 1982. 

Perez, Nissan, and Ian Jeffrey. Dreams-Visions-Metaphors: 
The Photographs of Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Jerusalem: 
Israel Museum, 1983. 

Poniatowski, Elena. Manuel Alvarez Bravo: el artista su 
obra, sus tiempos. Mexico City: Banco Nacional de Mex- 
ico, 1991. 

Scime, Giuliana. Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Barcelona: Orbis, 
1994. 



Interviews with Manuel Alvarez Bravo 

Pacheca, Cristina. "Manuel Alvarez Bravo: La fotografia 
como el realismo maximo." La luz de Mexico: entrevistas 
con pintores y fotografos. Mexico City: Fondo de Cul- 
tura Economico, 1995. 

Hill, Paul, and Thomas Cooper. "Manuel Alvarez Bravo." 
Dialogue with Photography. Manchester: Cornerhouse 
Publications, 1979. 



JOSEF BREITENBACH 



German- American 

Josef Breitenbach embraced photography in its 
entirety as a professional and artistic photographer, 
collector of historical photography, and instructor of 
photography. Shaped by the desperation and inge- 
nuity of exile, a passion for photography, and a keen 
interest to preserve the "other Germany," Breiten- 
bach participated in the creative foment of the refu- 
gee artists, intellectuals, and scientists in Paris, 
France, in the 1930s. His photographs are poetic in 
the tradition of Eugene Atget and at times, recall the 
psychological depth of Christian Schad's portraits. 
Creating disparate bodies of work in Germany, 
France, and the United States, it was only in the 
late decades of the twentieth century that his con- 
tribution has been fully recognized. 



Breitenbach was born into an upper middle-class 
family of Franconian Jews in Munich on April 3, 
1896. Although his parents were newcomers to this 
Bavarian metropolis, the move to Munich brought 
upward economic, social, and political mobility. 
Upon graduating in 1912 from the Oberrealschule 
(modern high school), Breitenbach undertook a 
commercial apprenticeship, as he would eventually 
take over the family business, a successful wholesale 
wine business. He also became an activist in the 
youth section of the Social Democratic Association, 
a pacifist organization. In spite of this, Breitenbach 
was drafted into the army in early 1916, but was 
discharged for health reasons at the end of the year. 

His civilian life resumed and gravitated around 
the circle of Kurt Eisner, where he met Oskar 



170 



BREITENBACH, JOSEF 



Maria Graf and his colleagues Erich Miihsam and 
Ernst Toller. In 1918, Breitenbach played an active 
part in the successful November Revolution to 
overthrow the Bavarian government and became a 
member of the Provisional Central Workers' Coun- 
cil. Eisner became the first minister-president of the 
Free State of Bavaria and Breitenbach was given a 
small post in the new administration as diplomatic 
courier for the Bavarian embassy in Switzerland. 
Kurt Eisner was in power for only a few months 
when his political opponents assassinated him. His 
death precipitated the proclamation of the "Soviet 
Republic" by the Bavarian left, and marked the end 
of Breitenbach's political ambitions. 

Breitenbach remained associated with the So- 
cial Democratic party in the 1920s, but his life 
adopted a new focus — family, business, and art. 
He married Pauline Schmidtbauer in 1918, more 
than a year after the birth of their son Hans. The 
marriage ended in divorce in 1926. He took over 
his father's business in 1922, and it went bankrupt 
in 1930. It is not clear if this was due to his lack 
of interest in the business. But what is certain is 
that the many business trips through Central Eu- 
ropean wine regions became photographic excur- 
sions and led to his study of viniculture, which 
won the gold medal at the Milan Photography 
Competition in 1928. 

In 1932 Breitenbach opened his own photo- 
graphic studio and began a steady engagement as 
stage photographer for the Miinchener Kammer- 
spiele (Munich Studio Theater). His portraits of 
great actors such as Alexander Moissi, Albert Bas- 
serman, and Karl Valentin earned him modest artis- 
tic recognition and financial success. His promising 
career, however ended abruptly in the summer of 
1933, when the Nazis came to power. 

It seems that his life was spared because of a photo- 
graph he made of Franz von Papen, Hitler's deputy 
in the National Socialist government. Legend has it 
that SS agents visited Breitenbach with the intention 
of taking him into custody. Breitenbach confronted 
them with the Papen portrait and the accompanying 
letter of thanks. Caught off guard by this first-class 
reference, the SS left Breitenbach to confirm that 
they had not descended on the wrong person. Brei- 
tenbach wasted no time in leaving the country for 
France. For the National Socialists, the participants 
in the November Revolution of 1918 were the most 
hated of opponents. They were decried as "Novem- 
ber criminals" and were the victims of the first wave 
of terror, which liquidated the political opposition. 
Breitenbach, therefore, was a target of the Nazis 
more because of his earlier political commitment 
than his Jewish birth. 



Breitenbach found himself in Paris among throngs 
of artists and intellectuals who formed a network of 
new alliances referred to as the "other Germany." 
With his son Hans he took up residence in a Latin 
Quarter hotel. The series of bureaucratic hurdles that 
restricted the lives of the exiles made Breitenbach's 
initial stay in Paris difficult. However, Breitenbach 
did not arrive as an anonymous person in Paris. The 
Comite National de Secours aux Refugies Allemands 
Victimes de l'Antisemitisme recommended him on 
October 10, 1933 to the Police Prefecture. Such pro- 
tection helped him set up a business. Two months 
after his arrival in Paris he was invited to show his 
work in an exhibition of exiled photographers at the 
Librairie Lipschutz, held from November 20-30, 
1933. The exhibition was organized by the Comite 
Francaise pour la Protection des Intellectuels Juifs 
Persecutes, a group of university professors dedicated 
to assisting exiled Jews in France. After only a year, 
Breitenbach had established himself as a professional 
and artistic photographer in Paris. He held his first 
solo exhibition in Paris at the Galerie de la Pleiade. 

During these years Breitenbach experimented with 
numerous techniques, including multiple printing, 
solarization, hand-coloring, and bleaching. It was in 
one area, however, that Breitenbach was a true inno- 
vator. In 1937 he began using a process, developed by 
French botanist Dr. Henri Devaux, to capture in 
visual form odors from various things such as cam- 
phor, cigars, coffee beans, and pine needles. These 
"odor emanations" resemble his work in photograms, 
with which he also experimented. 

Breitenbach also continued his work in portraiture, 
shooting the leading figures of the day, including 
playwright Bertolt Brecht, novelist James Joyce, and 
painters Vasily Kandinsky and Max Ernst. He was 
also a beloved teacher of photography, who promised 
"thorough individual specialist training" in courses of 
several months or in compact seminars. His most 
important pupil was Ruth Snowman, who became 
also his lover and business agent and would aid him 
in escaping France. It was in 1935 that Breitenbach 
began to work as a photojournalist, documenting 
Brecht's theater productions in Paris and the exhibi- 
tion Free German Art, among other events. Although 
Breitenbach made only a modest living, he received 
artistic recognition and was accepted into the Societe 
Frangaise de la Photographie in 1938 and the Royal 
Photographic Society of London 1939, the leading 
photographic associations of the time. 

On September 26, 1938, the seventieth expatriate 
list announces "the forfeiture of the German citi- 
zenship" of Josef Breitenbach; a year later he is in- 
terned by the French authorities, his career once 
again shut down. Breitenbach was released from 



171 



BREITENBACH, JOSEF 



internment on November 18, 1940 and emigrated 
to New York, finally ending his long flight from 
National Socialism. 

In the United States Breitenbach worked for a 
number of magazines including Fortune under 
Walker Evans. The painter Josef Albers invited 
him to teach at the short-lived but now legendary 
Black Mountain College, North Carolina, in 1944. 
Later, he would teach at both the New School for 
Social Research and Cooper Union in New York, 
retiring from teaching finally in 1975. He created his 
last major body of work in Asia on intermittent 
trips from teaching and under the auspices of the 
United Nations. After his death in 1984, his archive 
was donated to the Center for Creative Photogra- 
phy in Tucson, Arizona. 

Cristina Cuevas-Wolf 

See also: History of Photography: Interwar Years; 
Manipulation; Photogram; Portraiture 



Biography 

Born in Munich on 3 April, 1 896. Attended the Oberrealschule 
(modern high school), graduates in 1912. Completed a 
commercial apprenticeship, but self-educated in photo- 
graphy. Drafted in early 1916. Active in the November 
Revolution, 1918; Member of the "Provisional Central 
Workers' Council." Diplomatic courier for the Bavarian 
embassy in Switzerland, 1918. Photographic excursions 
through Central Europe's wine regions, 1920s. Gold 
medal at the Milan Photography Competition, 1928. 
Opens his own photographic studio, 1932. Works as 
stage photographer for the Munchener Kammerspiele 
(Munich Studio Theater), 1932. Registered as a photo- 
graphic studio in Paris in September 1934, elected member 
of the Societe Francaise de la Photographie in 1 938 and the 
Royal Photographic Society of London in 1939. Interned 
by the French authorities, September 1939; accepted as 
voluntary "Prestataires," 30 May, 1940. Immigrates to 
United States, 1941; becomes U.S. citizen 1946. Works 
for various magazines in New York, early 1940s. Serves 
as chief of still photography, United Nations Reconstruc- 
tion Agency, Korea, 1952-1953. Teaches at Black Moun- 
tain College, 1944, at both the Cooper Union, 1946-1966 
and New School for Social Research, 1949-1975. Died in 
New York on 7 October, 1984. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1934 Portraits, Pay sages, Theatre; Galerie de la Pleiade, 
Paris, France 

1935 Galerie Fernand Nathan, Paris, France 

1944 Black Mountain College, Black Mountain, North 
Carolina 

1948-1949 A-D Gallery, New York, New York 

1950 Pictorial Photographs by Josef Breitenbach; Smithso- 
nian Institute, Washington, D.C. Portraits and Land- 
scapes by Joseph Breitenbach; Brooklyn Museum, 
Brooklyn, New York 

1954 Korea; Limelight Gallery, New York, New York 



1961 New School for Social Research, New York, New 

York 
1965 Wanderung: 250 Photographien 1930 bis 1965; Miinch- 

ner Stadtmuseum, Munich, Germany 

2000 Photographs by Josef Breitenbach; Fox Talbot Mu- 
seum, Lacock, United Kingdom 

2001 Photographs by Josef Breitenbach; Scottish National 
Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland 

2001-2002 Josef Breitenbach, 1896-1984; Une Photographie 
Impure, Musee Nicephore Niepce, Chalon-sur-Saone, 
France 



Group Exhibitions 

1933 Joint exhibition of exiled photographers, Librarie 

Lipschutz, Paris, France 
1935 Documents de la vie sociale; Galerie de la Pleiade, 

group exhibition of the AEAR (Association des Ecri- 

vains et Artistes Revolutionnaires) 
1955 Family of Man: Museum of Modern Art, New York, 

New York 

1960 Photography in the Fine Arts II: Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, New York 

1961 Photography in the Fine Arts III: Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, New York 

1961 Photography in the Fine Arts IV: Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, Massachusetts 



Selected Works 

La Tour Eiffel, Paris, 1928 

Seefeld in Tirol, 1928 

Mr. Josef Schnaffner , Decorateur , Munich, c. 1932 

Karl Valentin in "The Bartered Bride" 1933 

Max Ernst, Paris, 1938 

GrafVittorio Cerutti and Wife, Paris, 1933-1939 

Late Harvest, near Calais, August, 1939 

Korea, 1964 



Further Reading 

Berlanga, Paul, and Stephen Daiter Gallery. Josef Breiten- 
bach: Munich, Paris, New York, Chicago: Stephen Dai- 
ter Gallery, 2003. 

Breitenbach, Josef. Installation Views of the Exhibition Freie 
Deutsche Kunst and Two Other Exhibitions. 1938. 

Breitenbach, Josef. Women of Asia. New York: The John 
Day Co., 1968. 

Dryansky, Larisa. Josef Breitenbach. Paris Chalon-sur- 
Saone: Amateur; Musee Nicephore Niepce, 2001. 

Holborn, Mark. Josef Breitenbach, Photographer. New 
York: Temple Rock Company, 1986. 

Holz, Keith, and Wolfgang Schopf. Im Auge Des Exits: 
Joseph Breitenbach Und Die Freie Deutsche Kultur in 
Paris 1933-1941. 1. Aufl. ed. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001. 

Immisch, T. O., Ulrich Pohlmann, and Klaus E. Goltz. 
Staatliche Galerie Moritzburg, and Miinchner Stadtmu- 
seum. Fotomuseum. Josef Breitenbach: Photographien 
Zum 100. Geburtstag. Miinchen: Schirmer/Mosel, 1996. 

Miinchner Stadtmuseum Fotomuseum. Die Sammlung Josef 
Breitenbach ZurGeschichte Der Photographie : Eine Aus- 
stellung Im Fotomuseum Des Munchener Stadtmuseums 
Vom 20. Juli 1979 Bis 9. September 1979, Exh. cat. 
Miinchen: Miinchner Stadtmuseum, 1979. 



172 



BROWNIE 



BROWNIE 



The proliferation of amateur snapshot photography 
and its impact on contemporary society in the twen- 
tieth century can be traced to pivotal developments 
in both camera technology and the marketing of the 
medium to the masses at the end of the nineteenth 
century. Entrepreneur George Eastman (18 54— 
1932) began his career in banking but soon turned 
his budding interest in photography toward profes- 
sional ends, founding the Eastman Dry Plate Com- 
pany (later Eastman Kodak Company) in 
Rochester, New York in 1880. While at the fore- 
front of the manufacture of dry plates in the United 
States, Eastman realized photography's cumber- 
some equipment and processing requirements was 
daunting for potential users and strove to introduce 
a radically simplified process. Although the paper 
roll film holder Eastman soon devised (along with 
other manufacturers) helped to supplant the dry 
plate negative, the small 'detective' camera he first 
equipped with this new type of film in 1886 was still 
too complicated and expensive to achieve broad 
success in the marketplace. By 1888, Eastman cre- 
ated a new version of the hand-held roll film cam- 
era — a small wooden box fitted with a simple lens 
and loaded with film capable of recording 100 cir- 
cular images, 2Vi inches in diameter. The name 
Kodak was coined for this latest manifestation of 
the hand camera — chosen by Eastman for the 
authoritative look of the word's two letter 'Ks' 
and for the ease of its pronunciation in various 
foreign languages. Yet the widespread success of 
this camera can be attributed to neither its catchy 
name or even wholly to its innovative film format, 
but rather to Eastman's groundbreaking marketing 
of the total photographic endeavor. 

In addition to being simple enough that "any- 
body, man, woman or child, who has sufficient 
intelligence to point a box straight and press a but- 
ton" could make successful photographs, the pre- 
loaded Kodak camera was returned intact after the 
exposures were made to the Eastman Company for 
development and printing and was finally sent back 
to the customer re-loaded and ready for use (East- 
man in Coe and Gates, The Snapshot Photograph 
[1977] page 17). Eastman's ingenious marketing 
strategy, encapsulated in the company's slogan, 
"You press the button, we do the rest," and laid 



the foundation for a widespread democratization of 
photographic practice in the decades to follow 
(Ford, The Story of Popular Photography [1989] 
page 62). 

Yet the Kodak camera was still relatively expen- 
sive — at the cost of $25 in 1888, it was well outside 
the range of many, and by 1898, the Eastman Com- 
pany introduced a less expensive, easy-to-operate 
camera aimed at further broadening the pool of 
amateur photographers. This simple box camera, 
called the Brownie, was devised by Frank A. Brow- 
nell, who had designed and manufactured cameras 
for the Eastman Company since 1885 and who 
would be its chief camera manufacturer until 1907. 
The Brownie was made of wood and jute board with 
an imitation leather covering and was equipped with 
a simple fixed-focus lens and rotary shutter. It was 
capable of producing successful exposures in rela- 
tively strong sunlight with subjects in focus from 
several feet to around 100 feet. The Brownie had 
no viewfinder but was marked with V-shaped sight 
lines on the top of the box which aided, when held at 
waist level, in aiming the camera toward the subject. 
The Brownie was pre-loaded with roll film, and 
yielded six 2/ / 4-inch square images per strip, which 
could be tracked through a built-in red indexing 
window. At the cost of $1.00 (film included), the 
Brownie did indeed satisfy the demand for a mark- 
edly less expensive camera accessible to the amateur 
practitioner. With developing, printing, and mount- 
ing of prints equally affordable at $0.40, sales of 
the Brownie camera soared, reaching more than 
1 00,000 cameras by the end of 1 900. 

By 1910, approximately one-third of all Ameri- 
cans owned a camera — that many of these were 
Brownie cameras must be attributed to a significant 
factor beyond its technical simplicity — namely 
Eastman Company's deliberate marketing of the 
new camera to children, both through a barrage of 
advertisements and in the very naming of the cam- 
era itself. Brownie was very much a household word 
in turn-of-the-century America before becoming 
the name of Eastman's latest camera. It described 
a type of small elf culled from popular legend to 
occupy the pages of author and illustrator Palmer 
Cox's children's stories. First published in the juve- 
nile magazine, St. Nicholas, the brownies were 



173 



BROWNIE 



further immortalized in numerous books, each of 
which bore the same introductory description of 
these creatures: 

Brownies, like fairies and goblins, are imaginary little 
sprites, who are supposed to delight in harmless pranks 
and helpful deeds. They work and sport while weary 
households sleep, and never allow themselves to be 
seen by mortal eyes.... 

(Cox, The Brownies: Their Book 1 887, n.p.) 

This description of the Brownie, when associated 
with the Eastman's camera, speaks both to common 
assumptions about the nature of photography as 
revealing of something of the intangible aspect of 
the visual world unseen by the naked eye, as well as 
to its fit with Eastman's targeted users — children. 
The original 1900 packaging of the Brownie camera 
featured one of Cox's mischievous creatures play- 
ing against a colorful red, yellow, and green back- 
ground on all four sides of the carton. In addition, 
these same brownie characters pitched the notion 
of photographing with the camera as a playful toy 
in advertisements for the ten years from 1900 to 
1910. Ultimately, this manufactured relationship 
surfaced in one of Cox's own illustrations, which 
featured his character armed with the camera bear- 
ing his name. 

In addition to the marketing of the Brownie cam- 
era with this popular children's character, Eastman 
Company also appealed to youth as potential 
photographers through extensive illustrated ad- 
vertisements. In fact, it is estimated that images of 
children, engaged with this new photographic 'toy,' 
previously known to many of them solely within the 
formal confines of the portrait studio, comprised 
more than one-third of all those advertisements 
produced by the company between 1917 and 1932. 
Reproduced extensively in popular juvenile maga- 
zines of the day such as St. Nicholas, The Youth 's 
Companion, American Boy and Boy's Life, as well as 
in the professional dealer publication, Kodak Trade 
Circular, such Brownie advertisements were often 
accompanied by the slogan, "Any Schoolboy or 
Girl Can Make Good Pictures with the Brownie 
Camera." Ads produced after 1910 often focused 
on young boys in particular, targeting their poten- 
tial for a more sophisticated understanding of the 
camera's advanced features and capabilities, as 
opposed to the carefree leisurely practice of the 
"Kodak Girls" of Eastman's earlier campaigns. 
Eastman Company expanded upon the marked 
success of such campaigns with various special pro- 
motions such as a Brownie Camera Club. In cele- 
bration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding 
of the company, Eastman offered young girls and 



boys a free camera for their twelfth birthday during 
1930 — specifically, a unique variation of the No. 2 
Hawkeye Brownie covered in tan imitation leather 
and marked with a gold foil anniversary seal. In 
just a few days in May 1930, approximately 550,000 
of these special edition Brownies were distributed 
to children. 

Following the first Brownie introduced to the 
public in 1900, to the last camera that carried this 
name, nearly 100 different models were produced. 
The first variation, simply called the No. 2 Brownie, 
was introduced in 1901 and varied from the original 
(thereafter call the No. 1) in several ways. The No. 2 
Brownie was equipped with a reflective viewfinder 
as well as three aperture options and produced 2% x 
3%-inch images. While this second version of the 
Brownie cost twice as much as its predecessor, it was 
extremely popular and served as the model for 
numerous variations in design produced through 
the 1950s. In fact, by 1930, the price of the No. 2 
Brownie was not prohibitive, representing only 1 5% 
of the average weekly wage of Eastman Company's 
factory employee. 

The vastly popular Nos. 1 and 2 Brownies, widely 
imitated by competing companies in both the Uni- 
ted States and abroad, were also produced in an 
ongoing line by Eastman Company in the coming 
decades. In Great Britain, George Houghton and 
Sons devised a version of the Brownie in 1901 called 
the No. 1 Scout, while the American company 
ANSCO sold a competing line of cameras bearing 
the name Buster Brown, beginning in 1906. Those 
variations of the original Brownie camera produced 
by Eastman Company included several larger, and 
more expensive, folding camera models, produced 
between 1904 and 1926. In 1934, designer Walter 
Dorwin Teague created the Baby Brownie in a series 
of smaller models equipped with 127 roll film. The 
design of the Baby Brownie embodied both newly 
evolving capabilities in the molding of those plastics 
used to form the camera body, as well as the sleek, 
streamline aesthetics of the era. Specialty editions of 
already existing models were produced throughout 
the 1930s, including the Boy Scout Brownie (mar- 
keted in 1932 and 1933-1934), which featured the 
insignia of the American Boy Scouts against a geo- 
metric design on the camera's front panel as well as a 
similar model commemorating the World's Fair 
(marketed in 1939-1940). Other embellishments 
included Brownie models produced in a range of 
colors, such as the No. 2 Portrait Brownie. In addi- 
tion to being outfitted with a special adjustable lens 
for close-up portraiture, this camera, marketed 
especially to women, was available in six colors as 
well as the standard black. 



174 



BRUGUIERE, FRANCIS JOSEPH 



Although Eastman Company's initial advertise- 
ments of the Brownie cameras emphasized its per- 
fect suitability for children, such promotion likewise 
underscored the camera's inherent simplicity for all 
amateur users, young and old alike, as well as its 
natural associations with the notions of adventure 
and imagination. Its removal of the need to under- 
stand the technical aspects of photographic proces- 
sing and printing furthermore helped to introduce 
the snapshot to a vast array of new practitioners, 
who produced a myriad of images of family life, 
travel, leisure, and work, largely marked by an infor- 
mal spontaneity as yet unseen in the history of the 
medium. A new element of the everyday entered into 
photography's vernacular, which stood in opposi- 
tion to both the rare occasion of the family portrait 
and the elevated concerns of the photographic artist. 

Yet the snapshot's thorough saturation in con- 
temporary popular culture, with its origins in these 
turn-of-the-century amateur practitioners, has been 
met with both chagrin and critical interest. While 
considered far outside the purview of the art estab- 
lishment by some, the last few decades have like- 
wise seen the snapshot made the subject of scholarly 
attention and museum exhibition, while the sim- 



ple aesthetic potential of the Brownie camera has 
been utilized by artists such as photographer Wil- 
liam Christenberry. 

Karen Jenkins 

See also: Camera: Point and Shoot; Eastman Kodak 
Company; Vernacular Photography 



Further Reading 

Coe, Brian. Kodak Cameras: The First Hundred Years. 
Hove, East Sussex: Hove Foto Books, 1988. 

Coe, Brian and Paul Gates. The Snapshot Photograph: The 
Rise of Popular Photography 1888-1939. London: Ash & 
Grant, Ltd., 1977. 

Cox, Palmer. The Brownies: Their Book. New York: Apple- 
ton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1887. 

Ford, Colin, ed. The Story of Popular Photography. North 
Pomfret, Vermont: Trafalgar Square Publishing, 1989. 

Lothrop, Jr., Eaton S. A Century of Cameras: From the 
Collection of the International Museum of Photography 
at George Eastman House. New York: Morgan & Mor- 
gan, Inc./Dobbs Ferry, 1973. 

West, Nancy Martha. "Operated by Any School Boy or 
Girl: The Marketing of the Brownie Camera." In 
Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia. Charlottesville & Lon- 
don: University Press of Virginia, 2000. 



FRANCIS JOSEPH BRUGUIERE 



American 

Francis Bruguiere produced some of the most 
avant-garde photography experiments of the early 
twentieth century. Always drawn to the abstract, 
Bruguiere blended the sharp lines of modernism 
with a passion for darkroom effects. Until he 
found his own voice, however, Bruguiere's first 
explorations were in a more traditional vein and 
thus largely neglected in the photographic canon 
today. Perhaps this censure was also due to Bru- 
guiere's frequent collaborations combined with his 
late involvement with one of the premiere move- 
ments to establish photography as a fine art, Alfred 
Stieglitz's Photo-Secession. Nevertheless, Bruguiere 
forged a unique vision that did not end with the 
demise of Stieglitz's group, but began after it. 



Bruguiere was born to parents of French and 
Spanish heritage in 1879 in San Francisco, Califor- 
nia. From a wealthy background, he attended a 
private school in the East and toured Europe. In 
1901, he met and married Eliza Jones, a Broadway 
actress, who bore him a son three years later. In 
1905, Bruguiere visited New York. Instead of being 
drawn to the enigmatic Stieglitz, as many Photo- 
Secessionists were, he was instead drawn to Frank 
Eugene. Originally a painter, Eugene was known 
for incorporating liberal handwork into his nega- 
tives and prints and was often criticized for his 
extreme techniques. At Eugene's encouragement, 
Bruguiere began to investigate photography as an 
art form and opened a studio in 1906. The two 
remained friends and corresponded for the rest of 
their lives. 



175 



BRUGUIERE, FRANCIS JOSEPH 



Typical of the aesthetics and subject matter of 
Pictorialists, misty scenes of nudes comprised Bru- 
guiere's early work. In 1915, Bruguiere and the Bay 
Area Photo-Secessionist Anne Brigman curated the 
photography section of the Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion in San Francisco. It was not shown in the Palace 
of Fine Arts, where one could see Impressionist and 
Post-Impressionist masters, leading his fellow 
Photo-Secessionists to boycott. Despite becoming 
a Photo-Secessionist in 1905, Bruguiere remained 
on the outskirts of the movement geographically 
and philosophically, allying himself with more 
minor members. He exhibited only once at the 
Photo-Secession gallery "291" in New York and 
contributed only one photograph to its journal, 
Camera Work — one issue before Stieglitz stopped 
its production in 1917. 

Bruguiere moved to New York in 1919 and im- 
mediately began to investigate a more "modern" 
aesthetic. There he opened a studio and began pho- 
tographing for Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and Vanity 
Fair. Bruguiere also engrossed himself in the theatre, 
becoming the official photographer for the New 
York Theatre Guild (1919-1927). It was during a 
photography session for Harper's Bazaar that he 
met Rosalinde Fuller, the British actress who would 
become his model and mistress for the rest of his life. 

In 1923, Bruguiere discovered Sebastian Droste, 
a young German dancer, and began a daring film 
project titled The Way. Droste and Fuller were the 
sole actors in this drama, an early example of sur- 
realistic leanings in America. Scenes of The Way 
included jarring multiple exposures, "film-noir- 
esque" lighting, and eerie heavy makeup. Bruguiere 
intended The Way to concern "(the) thoughts if 
people who imagine rather than act realities. The 
main idea is that of a man who seeks happiness. 
From the beginning of his Pilgrimage to the end, he 
lives in a world of dreams." Unfortunately, Droste 
died in 1925 and the film was never finished; it 
survives only in Bruguiere's posed still photographs. 

Using techniques developed to light the stage, 
Bruguiere began to explore issues of time and space 
by photographing cut paper. Although Bruguiere's 
experiments recall cubist interests in abstract form, 
his primary goal was to allude to motion. This theme 
was further developed when he photographed Tho- 
mas Wilfred's "color organ," or clavilux, in 1921. 
An outgrowth of an interest in "synaesthesia," or 
the crossing of the senses, color organs allowed peo- 
ple to "see" compositions of light from a keyboard. 
Bruguiere saw in these performances a popular turn- 
of-the-century notion — the fourth dimension. He 
wrote: "that is the effect I have long wanted to 



give. The effect of movement in the eye of the 
beholder, though the object itself was absolutely 
stationary when photographed." 

In 1928, Bruguiere moved to London and be- 
came acquainted with two men with whom he 
would later collaborate: critic Oswell Blakeston 
and graphic designer E. McKnight Kauffer. Bru- 
guiere produced several books in which photo- 
graphs were integrated with, and sometimes stood 
in for, text: Lancelot Sieveking's Beyond this Point 
(1929) and Blakeston's Few Are Chosen (1931). 
With Kauffer, Bruguiere created novel advertise- 
ments that combined photographs, text, and sur- 
realistic imagery for Shell Oil, the British Postal 
Service, and Charnaux Corset Company. 

Perhaps the epitome of Bruguiere's blending of 
various media can be seen in his collaboration with 
Blakeston on England's first abstract film, Light 
Rhythms (1930). This film exists today only in 
description and notation as the original was 
destroyed in World War II. Arranged into move- 
ments and accompanied by a piano score, Bru- 
guiere's cut paper abstractions were lit by moving 
lights in pre-arranged sequences. In later investi- 
gations into cinematic effects, Bruguiere photo- 
graphed New York buildings at severe angles for 
a never-finished film he dubbed Pseudomorphic. 

During the 1930s and 1940s, Bruguiere occupied 
himself with further variations on photographic 
processes, including solarization and the cliche- 
verre. Both of these processes do not necessarily 
rely on an object or even a camera to produce 
their effects. The strange almost aura-like results 
of solarization, popularized by Man Ray in the 
1920s, are created by exposing a print to light dur- 
ing the development process and engage chance, a 
topic of interest to the Surrealists. 

In 1937, Bruguiere was commissioned to design 
the entrance to the British Pavilion at the Paris 
Exposition, covering the 50-foot-high walls with 
large photomurals. Shortly after the exposition, 
Bruguiere moved to the country to devote time to 
painting. Due to poor health, he returned to Lon- 
don where he began an unfinished autobiography. 
Before his death in 1945, Bruguiere explored C. G. 
Jung, mandalas, and Eastern philosophies. His 
multi-disciplinary acumen — ranging from theater, 
music, film, to graphic design — prefigured a type of 
artistic activity that was to become more common 
later in the century, especially with the artists of the 
postmodern era. His legacy, however, can be seen 
in the abstract work of later photographers such as 
Frederick Sommer and Carl Chiarenza. 

Leslie K. Brown 



176 



BRUGUIERE, FRANCIS JOSEPH 



See also: Abstraction; Modernism; Photo Secession; 
Photo Secessionists; Solarization; Sommer, Freder- 
ick; Stieglitz, Alfred 

Biography 

Born in San Francisco, California, 16 October 1879. 
Attended boarding school and toured Europe. Studied 
with Photo-Secessionist Frank Eugene in New York 
and met Alfred Stieglitz, New York, 1905. Opened a 
photography studio, San Francisco, California, 1906. 
Employed as the official photographer for the New 
York Theatre Guild, 1919-1927; photographed for 
Vanity Fair, Harper's Bazaar, and Vogue; collaborated 
on advertisements with E. McKnight Kauffer for Shell 
Oil, the British Postal Service, and Charnaux Corset 
Company; designed gateway to the British Pavilion for 
the Paris Exposition, 1937. Substantial collections re- 
side at at the International Museum of Photography 
and Film at the George Eastman House, Rochester, 
New York, the Center for Creative Photography, Tuc- 
son, Arizona, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 
California, and the Oakland Museum of Art, Oakland, 
California. Died in London and was buried in Middle- 
ton Cheney, England, 8 May 1945. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1916 Francis Bruguiere; Paul Elder Art Room, San Fran- 
cisco, California 

1927 Photographs and Paintings by Francis Bruguiere; The 
Art Center, New York, New York 

1929 Photographic Designs by Francis Bruguiere; The War- 
ren Gallery, London, England 

1977 Bruguiere: Announcing a Witkin Gallery Portfolio; The 
Witkin Gallery, New York, New York 



Group Exhibitions 

1910 International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography; Al- 
bright Knox Gallery, Buffalo, New York 

1915 Pan-Pacific International Exposition; San Francisco, 
California 

1929 Film und Foto; Deutsche Werkbund, Stuttgart, Ger- 
many 

1933 Francis Bruguiere in Collaboration with E. McKnight 
Kauffer; Lund, Humphries Galleries, London, England 

1937 Photography 1839-1937; Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York 

1960 The Sense of Abstraction in Contemporary Photogra- 
phy; Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York 

1976 Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection; Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1979 Photography Rediscovered: American Photographs, 
1900-1930; Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, New York; and The Art Institute of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois 



1981 Cubism and American Photography, 1910-1930; Ster- 
ling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, 
Massachusetts, and traveling 

1997 The Friends of Anne Brigman: Bay Area Pictorialists, 
1900-1925; Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Bar- 
bara, California, and traveling 



Selected Works 

Portrait of Frank Eugene, 1905 

A Portrait, Camera Work, 1916 

Thomas Wilfred's Color Organ Projections, 1922 

Stage Model for Norman Bel Geddes's set design for The 

Divine Comedy, c. 1924 
The Way, series, 1923-1925 
Cut Paper Abstractions, series, c. 1927 
Light Rhythms, series, 1930 
Advertisement by E. McKnight Kauffer and Bruguiere for 

Charnaux Corset Company, c. 1932 



Further Reading 

Benedict, Burton. Anthropology of a World's Fair: San 
Francisco's Panama- Pacific International Exposition of 
1915. Berkeley, CA: Lowie Museum of Anthropology 
and Scholar Press, 1985. 

Bruguiere, Francis. San Francisco. San Francisco, CA: H.S. 
Crocker, Co., 1918. 

Bruguiere, Francis, and Oswell Blaketon. Few Are Chosen: 
Studies in the Theatrical Lighting of Life's Theatre. Lon- 
don: Eric Partridge Ltd. at the Scholartis Press, 1931. 

Enyeart, James. Bruguiere: His Photographs and His Life. 
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. 

Enyeart, James L. With reminiscence by Rosalinde Fuller. 
Bruguiere: Announcing a Witkin Gallery Portfolio. New 
York: Witkin Gallery, 1977. 

Henderson, Linda Dalrymple. "Mysticism, Romanticism, 
and the Fourth Dimension." In The Spiritual in Art: 
Abstract Painting, 1890-1985. Organized by Maurice 
Tuchman and edited by Edward Weisberger. Los 
Angeles, CA: Abbeville Press, 1986. 

Homer, Willian Innes. Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Seces- 
sion. Boston: New York Graphic Society, and Little, 
Brown and Company, 1983. 

Moritz, William. "Abstract Film and Color Music." In The 
Spiritual in Art: Abstract Painting, 1890-1985. Orga- 
nized by Maurice Tuchman and edited by Edward Weis- 
berger. Los Angeles, CA: Abbeville Press, 1986. 

Sieveking, Lancelot de Giberne. Beyond this Point. London: 
Duckworth, 1929. 

Sterling, George. The Evanescent City. San Francisco, CA: 
A.M. Robertson, 1915. 

Young, Stark. "The Color Organ." Theatre Arts Magazine 
6 (January 1922): 20-32. 

Vandamm, Florence. The Vandamm Collection: Theater 
Photographs from the Studios of Florence Vandamm and 
Francis Joseph Bruguiere from 1915-1960 in the New 
York Public Library, Library and Museum of Performing 
Arts. Teaneck, NJ: Somerset House, 1980. 



177 



BURGIN, VICTOR 



VICTOR BURGIN 



English 

Equally known for his theoretical writings and for 
his artworks, Victor Burgin has had a profound 
impact on photography since the late 1960s. Com- 
prising photography, text, video, and critical writ- 
ing, his creative practice challenges traditional 
dualistic categories, operating in the in-between 
spaces between art and theory, image and text, 
photography and film, narrative and coincidence, 
inner and outer realms, psychic and social realities. 
As Maya Deren did for American avant-garde film, 
as Joseph Kosuth did for early conceptual art, and 
as Allan Kaprow did for happenings — artists who 
were impassioned advocates for their particular 
media, art histories, and conceptual positions — 
Burgin has extensively contextualized the ideas 
and concerns fueling his work. In the process he 
has staunchly defended the relevance of photo- 
graphic images to contemporary society. He has 
done this on two fronts: in terms of the hidden 
ideologies images represent from the point of view 
of social, economic, and gendered institutions, and 
in terms of the way the psychological unconscious 
fuels our subjective projections onto what we see in 
the world around us. 

Burgin's interests have moved from the semiotics 
of Roland Barthes to the class consciousness of 
Karl Marx and Louis Althusser to the psychoana- 
lytic theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, 
along the way including feminism, film theory, 
postmodernism, and cultural studies. Often giving 
a very close reading of his influences, Burgin finds 
in each of these theorists language that articulates 
the complexities of interpretation and meaning, 
with a methodological focus on demystifying so- 
cial phenomena — sign, image, class, and sex respec- 
tively — formerly assumed to be fixed and natural. 
Burgin's genius is to apply these theories and meth- 
ods to the task of denaturalizing photography, which 
also suffers from essentialist assumptions about 
its truth-value. Throughout all of his investigations 
is a persistent questioning of the way social institu- 
tions and personal experiences mediate photo- 
graphs, an emphasis on the connotative, rhetorical 
meanings of photographic images that belie their 
obvious empirical, denotative meanings. 



A few key pieces early on lay Burgin's theoretical, 
aesthetic groundwork. Photopath (1967), first pre- 
sented in the landmark exhibition When Attitudes 
Become Form, presents a row of photographs of a 
hardwood floor laid out exactly to match the areas 
photographed underneath them; the subtle one-to- 
one displacement, however, briefly confuses the real 
and the imaged, suggesting the faint ghosting of 
memory on the actual event. In Performative Narra- 
tive (1971), nearly identical images of an office desk 
are paired with 16 different text narratives. The slight 
differences in both are governed by a strict set of 
binary possibilities: file folder open or closed, desk 
chair pushed in or out, events described closer or 
farther in time, closer or farther in space. The syste- 
matic exploration of these possibilities contrasts 
sharply with the more evocative connotations of the 
scenes, as the emotional resonance of the photo- 
graphs shifts depending on who we think took the 
photo, whose experience we think it captures, and 
how all those involved relate to one another. The 
street poster Possession (1976), initially posted 
throughout the city center of Newcastle upon Tyne, 
England, appropriates the visual rhetoric of mass 
media but with a linguistic twist; while the image 
shows a conventionally beautiful couple embracing, 
relying similar to advertising on the appeal of the 
image to draw a passerby's glance, the text questions 
the status quo distribution of wealth and property. 
Rather than convince us of the accuracy of the cam- 
era's reportage, these early photographic projects ask 
viewers to become critically aware of our own con- 
tribution to creating meaning for the images at hand. 

One consequence of denaturalizing photography 
is that all perception can then be understood to arise 
out of a complicated intermingling of factual, cultural, 
and psychological associations. In Burgin's more 
recent work, which includes video portraits of New 
York, London, Paris, Weimar, and Berlin, and a col- 
lection of essays titled In) Different Spaces: Place and 
Memory in Visual Culture (1996), the experience of 
place becomes the subject of this critical analysis. For 
example, Venise (1993) explores the Mediterranean 
port city of Marseilles, but is juxtaposed with foot- 
age of San Francisco. A voice-over narration that 
tells the story of Vertigo and its dual manifestations 
in Alfred Hitchcock's film set in California and the 



178 



BURGIN, VICTOR 



original novel set in Paris and Marseilles. Other ele- 
ments add to this layered doubling to emphasize 
the theme of migration: colonial imagery from a 1936 
French film, North African music on the soundtrack. 
As the multi-threaded videos suggest, even while 
walking the streets the real and the imagined are hope- 
lessly confounded by past experiences of other cities, 
memories of other times, snippets of literary, histor- 
ical, and filmic representations, and our own idiosyn- 
cratic needs and wants. For Burgin, the object of our 
gaze, much as the object of our love, is never what 
we think it is; we never see something purely but al- 
ways filtered through a network of prior recollect- 
ions and desires. This explains in part the complexity 
of Burgin's video work: the open-ended narratives, 
the repetitions and patterns that provide structural 
support in lieu of a singular storyline, the tendency to 
appropriate other films and other artworks into his 
imagery, the shifting authorial voice of its speakers. 
As in his writings, Burgin quotes many other artists 
and authors in his artwork: Edward Hopper's Office 
at Night, Edouard Manet's Olympia, Johann Wolf- 
gang von Goethe's Elective Affinities, Freud's case 
histories, E.T.A. Hoffman's Gradiva, Hitchcock's 
films, the personal letters of Friedrich Nietzsche and 
Lou Salome, the correspondences between Freud 
and his collaborator Sandor Ferenzi. By putting his 
images in a complex stream of other images, culled 
together through the peculiarities of his own imagina- 
tion, Burgin defeats the single point of view of the 
isolated photograph. He allows photography to 
work around its own limits, or rather, its material, 
analogue basis, to begin to represent the harder-to- 
show subjective side of meaning. 

In artists' books and exhibition catalogues such 
as Between (1986), Some Cities (1996), and Victor 
Burgin (2001) from his retrospective in Barcelona, 
Burgin has generously shared a detailed view of his 
motivating preoccupations. While such articulation 
should not be taken as narrowly definitive of the 
work — the work itself being more robust than what 
the artist has to say about it — it gives a rare chance 
to understand in depth one artist's relationship to 
his chosen profession. Those who love photography 
are fortunate to have such a record at our disposal. 

Jan Estep 

See also: Artists Books; Barthes, Roland; Concep- 
tual Photography; Interpretation; Photographic 
"Truth"; Postmodernism; Representation; Semiotics 



Biography 

Born in Sheffield, England, 1 94 1 . Attended Royal College of 
Art, London, A.R.C.A (1st Class), 1965; Yale Univer- 



sity, New Haven, M.F.A., 1967; Professor Emeritus of 
History of Consciousness, University of California, 
Santa Cruz; Millard Professor of Fine Art, Goldsmiths 
College, University of London. US/UK Bicentennial 
Arts Exchange Fellowship, Berlin, 1976-1977; Deutscher 
Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) Fellowship, 
Berlin, 1978-1979. Allocation de recherche et de sejour, 
Ministere de la Culture et de la Communication, Delega- 
tion aux Arts Plastiques (video et nouvelles technologies 
de l'image), Paris, 1991. Living in London and Paris. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1977 Victor Burgin; Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindho- 
ven, Netherlands 

1979 Zoo; DAAD Gallery, Berlin, Germany 

1986 Office at Night; Renaissance Society at the University 
of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1986 Danai'desjDames; Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Albert and Vera List Visual Arts Center, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts 

1986 Between; Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, 
England 

1991 Passages; Musee d'art moderne Villeneuve d'Ascq, 
Villeneuve d'Ascq, France 

1993 Family Romance; Center for Research in Contempor- 
ary Art, University of Texas at Arlington, Texas 

1997 Szerelmes Levelekj Love Letters; Miicsarnok Museum, 
Budapest, Hungary 

1998 Case History; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San 
Francisco, California 

1999 Lichtung; Weimar 99 Cultural Festival, Weimar, Ger- 
many 

2000 Nietzsche's Paris; Architectural Association Gallery, 
London, England 

2001 Victor Burgin; Fundacio Antoni Tapies, Barcelona, 
Spain 

2002 Listen to Britain; Arnolfini, Bristol, England 

2003 Victor Burgin; LisboaPhoto 2003 Festival, Cordoaria 
Nacional, Torreao Nascente, Lisbon, Portugal 



Group Exhibitions 

1969 When Attitudes Become Form; Institute of Contempor- 
ary Art, London, England 

1970 Information; Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
New York 

1971 Guggenheim International Exhibition; Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York 

1972 Documenta 5; Museum Fredericianum and Neue Gal- 
erie, Kassel, Germany 

1972 36 Biennale de Venezia; Venice, Italy 

1980 The Third Biennale of Sydney; The Art Gallery of New 
South Wales, Sydney, Australia 

1987 Difference: On Sexuality and Representation; The New 
Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, New York; 
The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois; Institute of Contemporary Arts, Lon- 
don, England 

1987 The Turner Prize; Tate Gallery, London, England 

1989 On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty 
Years of Photography; Art Institute of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, Illinois; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. 
C; and traveling to Los Angeles County Art Museum, 
Los Angeles, California 



179 



BURGIN, VICTOR 





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Victor Burgin, The Bridge, 1984, detail from seven section photo-text installation. 
[Reproduced with permission of the artist] 



180 



BURNING-IN 



1989 The Art of Photography: 1839-1989; Museum of Fine 
Arts, Houston, Texas; Royal Academy of Art, London, 
England; Ministry of Culture of the Soviet Union, Mos- 
cow; National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia 

1995 1965-1975: Reconsidering the Object of Art; Museum 
of Contemporary Art/The Temporary Contemporary, 
Los Angeles, California 

1996 Hall of Mirrors: Art and Film Since 1945; The Museum 
of Contemporary Art/The Temporary Contemporary, 
Los Angeles, California 

1996 Face a I'Histoire 1933-1966: L'artiste moderne face a 
Tevenement historique; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 
France 

2000 Media) Metaphor; 46th Corcoran Biennial, Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 



Selected Works 

Assemblee dans un Pare, 2004 

Listen to Britain, 2002 

Watergate, 2000 

Nietzsche's Paris, 1999-2000 

Lichtung, 1998-1989 

Love Stories #2, 1996 

Venise, 1993 

Office at Night, 1985-1986 

The Bridge, 1984 

Gradiva, 1982 

US 77, 1977 

Possession, 1976 

Performative Narrative, 1971 

Room, 1970 

Photopath, 1967 



Selected Publications 

Exhibition catalogues 

Burgin, Victor, Stephen Bann, Peter Osborne, Francoise 
Parfait, and Catsou Roberts. Relocating. Bristol: Arnol- 
fini, 2002. 



Burgin, Victor, Norman Bryson, Nuria Enguita Mayo, 

Francette Pacteau, and Peter Wollen. Victor Burgin. 

Barcelona: Fundacio Antoni Tapies, 2001. 
Burgin, Victor, and Anthony Vidler. Shadowed. London: 

Architectural Association, 2000. 
Burgin, Victor. Passages. Lille: Musee d'art moderne de la 

Communate Urbaine de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1991. 
Burgin, Victor. Between. London: ICA, and Oxford and 

New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986. 
Burgin, Victor. Victor Burgin. Eindhoven: Stedelijk van 

Abbemuseum, 1977. 



Theoretical Writings 

Burgin, Victor. The Remembered Film. London: Reaktion 
Books, 2004. 

Burgin, Victor. Inj Different Spaces: Place and Memory in 
Visual Culture. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1996. 

Burgin, Victor. 77;<? End of Art Theory: Criticism and Post- 
modernity. London: Macmillan Press; and Basingstoke, 
and New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1986. 

Burgin, Victor, James Donald, and Cora Kaplan, eds. For- 
mations of Fantasy. London: Methuen, 1986. 

Burgin, Victor, ed. Thinking Photography. London and 
Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd.; and New Jersey: 
Humanities Press International, 1982. 



Artists' Books 

Burgin, Victor. Some Cities. Berkeley and Los Angeles: 

University of California Press; and London: Reaktion 

Books, 1996. 
Burgin, Victor. Venise. London: Black Dog Publishing, 

1997. 
Burgin, Victor. Family. New York: Lapp Princess Press and 

Printer Matter, 1977. 
Burgin, Victor. Work and Commentary. London: Latimer, 

1973. 



BURNING-IN 



Burning-in is a darkroom technique employed by 
photographers to fine-tune the tone and shadows in 
one or more areas of a print by adding more light to 
those areas than the rest of the image receives. Once 
a photographer has determined how long his expo- 
sure should be and has made a print at that expo- 
sure time, he might decide that there are areas of the 
print that are too light, but that increasing the over- 
all exposure time would make most of the print too 



dark. Burning-in allows him to add more light only 
to selected areas of the print while still maintaining 
the original exposure time for the rest of the image. 
Burning-in is often used to darken areas that are too 
light so that, hopefully, more information from the 
negative will show up on the final print. 

It is important to remember that burning-in oc- 
curs after the initial exposure time and is the addi- 
tion of light to specific areas of the print. While 



181 



BURNING-IN 



burning-in can be a helpful technique, overuse of 
burning-in can create areas that are grey and 
murky, and can decrease contrast, especially in 
black and white prints. Burning-in requires prac- 
tice, and the added "burning" time changes with 
each negative printed. 

Burning-in an area on an image can be done with 
or without a specific "burning-in" tool. Some photo- 
graphers prefer to use their hands, held together in 
such a way that there is a small hole between the 
hands or fingers through which light can pass. In 
some ways, this is easier than using a burning-in 
tool with a static opening, because the size of the 
hole a photographer's hands are making can be 
changed during the burning-in time and is infinitely 
variable. A burning-in tool is usually a piece of opa- 
que board with a small hole cut or torn somewhere 
near the middle of the board. The tool (whether 
board or hands) is then held between the light and 
the easel, and is moved rapidly back and forth to 
create a small "spotlight" or light directed onto the 
image in the area that needs additional light. The 
rapid back-and-forth movement creates a feathered 
effect that ensures that the burned-in area will blend 
with the surrounding areas and with the rest of the 
image. If the burning-in tool remains static, the area 
of added light will stand out from the rest of the 
image with clearly-defined borders. 

Once a photographer has determined that an area 
needs to be burned-in, he places an unexposed piece 
of photographic paper into the easel and exposes it 
for the already-determined length of time. Then, 
without moving either the easel or the enlarger, and 
without changing the aperture setting, he turns back 
on the enlarger lamp to add more light to selected 
areas. This is most easily done with a foot pedal, as 
that allows the photographer to have both hands free 
to cover the image and only allow light to fall in the 
selected area. However, a foot pedal is not necessary, 
and burning-in can be accomplished with any kind of 
timing device. It is important that nothing be moved 
before or during the burning-in, as re-exposing areas 
of the image after movement will cause blurring on 
the final image — so not only should the photogra- 
pher be sure not to move anything before adding 
light, he should also be careful not to bump the 
enlarger or the lens with his burning-in tool while 
making the exposure. 

The time needed to burn-in areas agreeably can 
vary widely. Since burning-in occurs after the initial 
exposure time, burning-in times are almost limitless. 
If desired, the photographer can make a test strip in 
the area that needs to be burned-in, taking as his 
starting time the overall exposure time and increas- 
ing the time from there. Once satisfied with the tone 



of the area on the test strip, the photographer can 
make a full-sized print and burn-in the area for the 
amount of time indicated by the test strip. The photo- 
grapher can also use trial and error to determine how 
much additional time an area needs, making edu- 
cated guesses based on each print he attempts. 

Obviously, past a certain point, continued light in 
an area of a print will turn that area black. This can 
be used to the photographer's advantage if he is 
interested in creating, for instance, an artificial vig- 
netted-edged effect — here, the photographer would 
burn-in each edge for a sufficient amount of time to 
turn the edge black, making sure to feather the 
edges into the rest of the print. Using this technique, 
the photographer can change the appearance of the 
format he is printing, such as by burning-in the 
edges to a circular or oval shape. 

Burning-in can also be used to create other visual 
effects in the darkroom. Just as edges of burned-in 
areas are softened by moving the burning-in tool for 
the duration of the additional exposure, hard edges 
can be created by holding a piece of opaque paper 
with a specifically cut out area stationary between 
the light and the easel. While most photographers 
want any burned-in areas of their prints to blend 
into the non-burned-in areas, there are certainly 
ways to play with the obviousness of burning-in. 
Burning-in can be helpful in evening out tones in 
prints made from uneven or thick negatives, the 
additional light often bringing out information 
that did not come through in the initial exposure. 

Most digital image manipulation software in- 
cludes a variable-sized burning-in tool, which can 
be moved across the image to darken certain areas. 
However, it often seems that digital burning-in 
quickly de-saturates and muddies colors, rendering 
them less vivid than non-burned-in areas. While it 
can be a useful tool, burning-in seems best used spar- 
ingly and in small areas, both digitally and in tradi- 
tional darkrooms. 

Jenny Allred Redmann 

See also: Darkroom; Dodging; Enlarger; Exposure; 
Manipulation 



Further Reading 

The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography. New York: Focal 
Press Ltd. (McGraw-Hill Book Co.), 1969. 

International Center for Photography: Encyclopedia of Photogra- 
phy. New York: Pound Press (Crown Publishers Inc.), 1984. 

McDarrah, Gloria S., Fred W. McDarrah, and Timothy S. 
McDarrah. The Photography Encyclopedia. New York: 
Schirmer Books, 1999. 

Swedland, Charles. Photography: A Handbook of History, Materials, 
and Processes. Atlanta: Holt, Rinehard and Winston, Inc., 1974. 



182 



BURRI, RENE 



RENE BURRI 



Swiss 

The work of Rene Burri continued the tradition of 
engaged, documentary photography in the second 
half of the twentieth century. Traveling with his 
camera to a myriad of places around the world, he 
is one of the most important representatives of "live 
photography." Born in 1933 in Zurich, Burri was 
educated at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich (Zur- 
ich School for Applied Arts) between 1 949-1 953 . His 
teachers included Johannes Itten who taught ele- 
ments and color instruction and Hans Finsler who 
taught photography. Burri's initial interest was in 
film. While still at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Burri 
received a scholarship to create a documentary 
about his school. In 1953, he also served as camera 
assistant to Ernst A. Heininger for the Disney film, 
Switzerland. His interest in film continued through- 
out his life, and in 1 964 Burri was a founding member 
of Magnum Films. 

After military service, Burri began to work with his 
35-mm Leica. Through the intervention of his friend, 
Werner Bischof, who also motivated him to continue 
developing his style, Burri's coverage of deaf-mute 
children at the Zurich Institute for Musical and 
Rhythmic Education appeared in Life magazine (it 
was previously printed in Science et Vie). This began 
a significant career in international photojournalism 
with world travels and numerous photographs pub- 
lished in Look, Fortune, Paris-Match, Twen, Stern, 
Geo, The New York Times, and The Sunday Times. 
Many of his best-known series, however, appeared in 
the Swiss magazine Du, including Gauchos of 1959 
and a series on famed architect Le Corbusier. 

Through Werner Bischof, Burri had become 
acquainted in 1955 with Magnum Photos and its 
founder Henri Cartier-Bresson. Bresson became a 
friend and, following Hans Finsler, Burri's second 
great teacher. Whereas Finsler taught him to view 
things in an austere manner, emphasizing graphics, 
Burri was able, via Cartier-Bresson, to confirm his 
ideas about photojournalism, that it should be 
humane and has a moral obligation to inform. The 
combination of these divergent tendencies is signi- 
ficant. Burri is at base a storyteller, for whom pho- 
tographic composition always plays an important 
role. Even in the shots that sometimes appear to 
be fortuitous, a specific moment can be found in 



which elements such as the cropping, camera angle, 
composition, and lighting harmonize with the con- 
tent. Such pictures, therefore, sometimes appear to 
be constructed. 

I am conscious of my great facility in constructing images, 
that probably comes from my knowledge and experience 
of graphic arts. But technique should never impose itself, 
know-how should never be distracting. The means are 
made to clarify the end, not to obscure it. 

(Burri 1984) 

Portraits of artists such as Pablo Picasso (1957 
and 1960), Alberto Giacometti (1960), and actress 
Ingrid Bergman (1960) or the icon-like portrait of 
revolutionary Che Guevara (1963) with a cigar ana- 
lyze the character of the sitter despite the fortuity of 
the foreground. With these portraits Burri demon- 
strates a pronounced knowledge of human nature, 
proving himself to be a meticulous observer, who 
understands how to concentrate and imbue the sum 
of his impressions into single, empathetic photo- 
graphs. Burri described his procedure as follows: 

There are a few ground rules: The photographer is the 
clown. With his camera, he can induce something that a 
journalist cannot. Although a person can tell a journalist 
everything, a camera can cause the subject to be sud- 
denly confronted with himself. To create intimacy with- 
out being perceived is crucial, but not always possible. 
Some people become too affected by the scene. Every- 
one is vain, but some can transpose it better than others. 
Only a very few manage to conceal the vulnerable 
places. 

(Ulmer 1999) 

In 1962 Die Deutschen (The Germans), Burri's 
first book, was published by Robert Delpire with a 
forward by French cultural theorist Jean Beaudril- 
lard. In this photoseries Burri explored his mother's 
nasince the end of the 1950s. On the one hand, he 
analyzed himself in a sort of critical search for his 
identity in the former Germany of his mother's 
time. Following the tradition set by Henri Cartier- 
Bresson with Die Europder (The European), 1950— 
1955 and his fellow Swiss, Robert Frank with Die 
Amerikaner (The Americans) 1954-1958, Burri's 
photographs received considerable acclaim, while 
the book itself (now a collector's item) was not a 
commercial success. His second book, Gauchos, 



183 



BURRI, RENE 



with a text by famed Argentinean author Jorge Luis 
Borges, appeared in 1968. 

He achieved more success with his aerial cityscapes 
in Brazil such as Sao Paulo (1960). Using a bird's eye 
view of the city center, which flattens the architec- 
ture, and shooting for dramatic contrasts of both 
light and geometric and organic forms, a breathtak- 
ing panorama is presented that emphasizes the ano- 
nymity of the city and the alienation of its human 
residents, who are depicted as tiny silhouettes. 

Idyllic places are rarely depicted in Burri's pic- 
tures. Similarly, illustrated confirmations of cliches 
about places and countries are also rare. Rather, in 
his photographs he explores national identities 
through documenting the living history while con- 
necting it with the past, especially evident in such 
series as Terre de Guerre and In Search of the Holy 
Land, which depict war zones, to his Argentinean 
Gauchos and Amerikanscher Traum: Photographien 
aus der Welt der NASA und des Pentagon series. 
Burri succeeds in depicting a world wherein com- 
mon human concerns are emphasized while the 
unique qualities of particular places are captured. 

International contracts sent Burri to Czechoslo- 
vakia in 1955, France and Libya in 1957, the Mid- 
dle East and Egypt during the 1956 Suez Canal 
crisis and the 1967 Six-Day-War, South America 
for numerous assignments, Korea and Japan in 
1961, Vietnam during the Vietnam War in 1963, 
and China in 1964 among many other places. These 
trips resulted in photoseries and books such as 
Nasser's Egypt (1958), Fidel Castro's Cuba (1963), 
The New Petrol Kings (1974), A Day in the Life of 
America (1974), Searchers for Gold, Brazil (1977), 
Palestinian Fighters (1979), and A Day in the Life of 
Australia — March 6, 1981 (1981). 

Burri most characteristically works in black and 
white, although he also worked with color since 
1976. Parallel to his work in photography, Burri 
also produced films for advertisement and industry 
that include The Physical Face of China (1965), 
Three Villages of China (1965), The Industrial Revo- 
lution (1965), Jerusalem (1967), What's It All About? 
(1967) — with this film he won the New York Inter- 
national Film and Television Festival Award in 
1967 — Jerusalem After the Six-Day-War (1967), 
The Two Faces of China (1968), Bracia Si, Uomini 
No (1970, with Peter Ammann), Xerox in Concert 
(1971, with Philipp Gittelmann), Jean Tinguely 
(1972), and Indian Summer (1973). 

Franz-Xaver Schlegel 

See also: Bischof, Werner; Cartier-Bresson, Henri; 
Finsler, Hans; Life; Look; Magnum Photos; Portrai- 
ture 



Biography 

Born in Zurich, Switzerland, April 9, 1933. Studied at the 
Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich (Zurich School for Ap- 
plied Arts), 1949-1953. Basic courses from Johannes 
Itten; Photography from Hans Finsler and Alfred Will- 
imann. From 1953 on active as a photojournalist and 
published first photo reports. Served in the military and 
bought his first Leica in 1954. Set up studio with Wal- 
ter Binder, 1954. In 1955, a photographer for Josef Miil- 
ler-Brockmann; became an independent photographer. 
Member of the photo agency Magnum, associated in 
1955. In 1956, correspondent in New York and Paris. In 
1959 became a full member of Magnum and in 1964, a 
founding member of Magnum Films. President of Mag- 
num France, vice president of Magnum in Europe, and 
opened the Magnum Gallery in 1982 together with Bruno 
Barbey. Married Rosellina Bischof in 1963 and had two 
children: Yasmine and Oliver. Became Art Director of the 
Schweizer Illustrierte in 1988. Honors: International Film 
and Television Festival Award, New York, 1967; Dr. 
Erich-Salomon-Preis der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Pho- 
tographic (DGPh) (Dr. Erich Salomon Award for the 
German Society of Photography) in Cologne, 1988; and 
was named Chevalier d'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by 
the French Minister of Culture, 1991. Rene Burri has 
remarried and lives in Zurich and Paris. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1965 China; Galerie Form, Zurich, Switzerland 
1967 Selected Works; The Art Institute of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

1971 Selected Works; Galerie Rencontre, Paris, France 

1 972 Rene Burri; Raffi Photo Gallery, New York, New York 
1972 Rene Burri; Galleria II Diaframma, Milan, Italy 
1980 Die Deutschen; Folkwang Museum, Essen, Germany 

1983 Antologica; Kunsthaus, Zurich, Switzerland 

1984 One World; Kunsthaus, Zurich, Switzerland, and tra- 
veling 

1984 Rene Burri; Musee de l'Elysee, Lausanne, Switzerland 
1984 Rene Burri; Palais de Tokyo, Japan, Centre national 
de la photographie, Paris, France 

1997 Rene Burri; Galerie Argus Fotokunst, Berlin, Germany 

1998 Die Deutschen; Photokina, Cologne, Germany, and 
traveling 

1998 77 Strange Situations; Villa Tobler, Zurich, Switzer- 
land 

2004 Rene Burri: Photographs; Maison Europeenne de la 
Photographie, Paris, France, and traveling 



Group Exhibitions 

1960 European Photography; Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

1960 The World as Seen by Magnum; Takashimaya Depart- 
ment Store, Tokyo, Japan, and traveling 

Photography of the Twentieth Century; George East- 
man House, Rochester, New York 

1965 Musee Reattu, Aries, France 10 fotografos; Havana, 
Cuba 

1967 Photography in the Twentieth Century; National Gal- 
lery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, and traveling 

1972 Behind the Great Wall of China; The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, New York, and traveling 



184 



BURRI, RENE 



1974 Photographie in der Schweiz von 1840 bis heutej Photo- 
graphic Suisse depuis 1840 a nos jours; Kunsthaus Zurich, 
Zurich, Switzerland, and traveling 

1977 Concerning Photography; The Photographers' Gallery, 
London, England, and traveling 

1979 Images des hommes; Brussels, Belgium 

1980 The Imaginary Photo Museum; Photokina, Cologne, 
Germany 

1981 Magnum Paris; Palais du Luxembourg, Paris, France 

1982 Photojournalism 1960-1980; Stedelijk Museum, Ams- 
terdam, the Netherlands 

Terre de guerre; Galerie Magnum, Paris, France 

1984 Sammlung Gruber; Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany 
Swiss Photography from 1840 until Today; Pro Helvetia 
Foundation, Zurich, Switzerland, and traveling 

1986 Von Photographen gesehen: Alberto Giacometti; Biind- 
ner Kunstmuseum, Chur, Germany 

1990 Dialogue avec Le Corbusier; Harthof, Basel, Switzer- 
land 

1999 China: Fifty Years Inside the People's Republic; Asia 
Society, New York, New York 

2001 Magic Moments II; Landesvertretung Rheinland- 
Pfalz, Berlin, Germany, and traveling 



Selected Works 



Deaf-mute children (series), 1955 
The Suez-Crisis (series), 1956 



Pablo Picasso, 1957 

Ingrid Bergman, 1957 

Nasser's Egypt (series), 1958 

Argentine Gaucho (series), 1959 

Le Corbusier, 1960 

Che Guevara, 1963 

Lotosblilten im See im Sommerpalast bei Peking, 1964 

A Day in the Life of America (series), 1974 

The New Petrol Kings (series), 1974 

Searchers for Gold, Brazil (series), 1977 

Palestinan Fighters (series), 1979 

The Impossible Mirror (series), 1998 

Blind Indifference (series), 1998 



Further Reading 

Auer, Michele, and Michel Auer. Encyclopedic Internatio- 
nale des Photographes de 1839 a Nos Jours/ Photogra- 
phers Encyclopedia International 1839 to the Present. 
Hermance (CH): 1985. 

Bayer, Jonathan, ed., Concerning Photography. London: 
The Photographer's Gallery, 1977. 

Billeter, Erika, ed. Das Selbstportrait im Zeitalter der Photo- 
graphie. Bern: 1985. 

Browne, Turner, Elaine Partnow, eds. Macmillan Biogra- 
phical Encyclopedia of Photographic Artists & Innovators. 
New York and London: Collier MacMillan, 1983. 

Burri, Rene. Die Deutschen. Zurich: 1962. 




Rene Burri, Amazonas, Brazil, 1977. 
[© Rene Burrij Magnum Photos] 



185 



BURRI, RENE 



Burri, Rene, and Michael Koetzle. Rene Burri: Photo- 
graphs. London: Phaidon Press, 2003. 

Fabian, Rainer, and Hans Christian Adam. Bilder vom 
Krieg. Hamburg: 1983; English: Images of War: 130 
Years of War Photography. London: New English 
Library, 1985. 

Gruber, L. Fritz, and Renate, eds., The Imaginary Photo 
Museum. New York: Harmony Books, 1981. 

Guillain, Robert, Francois Meilleau, and Pierre Landy. Le 
Japon que j'aime. (Photographs by Rene Burri). Paris: 
1965. 

Hara, Hiromu, Ihei Kimura, eds. Photography of the World 
'60. Tokyo and New York: 1960. 



Loetscher, Hugo. Swiss Photography from 1840 until Today. 

Zurich: 1984. 
Lyons, Nathan. Photography in the Twentieth Century. New 

York: 1967. 
Magnaguagno, Guido. Rene Burri: One World. Fotografien 

und Collagen 1950-1983. Bern: 1984. 
Szarkowski, John, ed. The Photographer's Eye. New York: 

Little Brown & Co., 1966. 
Stephan, Peter, ed. Fotografie! Das 20. Jahrhundert. 

Munich: 1999. 
Ulmer, Brigitte. Der Fotograf ist meistens ein Clown (The 

Photographer is Usually a Clown). In Tagesanzeiger 

(Zurich) 26 Juni 1999. 



LARRY BURROWS 



British 

Shot by shot, story by story, Larry Burrows devel- 
oped an enduring vision of the war in Vietnam, 
where he photographed for nine years from 1962 
until his presumed death under fire in a helicopter 
on the Vietnam-Laos border in 1971. In the process, 
Burrows developed his reputation as one of the 
preeminent photojournalists of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Working for Life magazine, Burrows created 
remarkable photo essays in both black-and-white 
and color that chronicle the escalating involvement 
of the United States in Vietnam, from advisers to 
full combatants after 1965, and the emotional and 
physical toll of the war on Vietnamese and Amer- 
icans alike. Besides the powerful legacy of his Viet- 
nam photographs, Burrows photographed a range 
of other subjects across several continents in his 25- 
year career. 

Born Henry Leslie Burrows in London in 1926 to 
working class parents (his father was a truck driver 
for the railroad, his mother was a housewife), Bur- 
rows never attended college. He honed his craft 
through a lengthy apprenticeship, first as a dark- 
room assistant at Keystone Photographic Agency 
in London in 1941, then getting a job in 1942, at age 
16, as a photographic laboratory technician in Life 
magazine's London bureau. Rejected by the mili- 
tary because of his poor eyesight, Burrows served in 
the Home Guard during World War II and experi- 
enced the blitz firsthand. He worked in Life's lab 
until 1945, other than for a period during 1944 
when he was conscripted by the government to 



work in the British coal mines in support of the 
war effort. His duties at Life ranged from fetching 
tea and coffee for people in the office to processing 
film and printing photographs taken by some of the 
legendary combat photographers of World War II, 
including Robert Capa. 

Burrows' professional career as a photographer 
began in 1945. He was a freelance photographer 
from 1945-1961, often under contract to Life. In 
this period, he photographed more than 700 assign- 
ments, working mainly in Europe, the Middle East, 
and Africa, although he also went to India, Paki- 
stan, and the United States. His varied subjects 
included celebrities such as novelist Ernest Hem- 
ingway, shots at bullfights in France and Spain, 
politicians such as Winston Churchill, violent con- 
flicts in Lebanon and the Congo, and archaeological 
excavations. In this period Burrows also worked on 
a project photographing great artworks in Europe 
for reproduction in Life, an experience that honed 
his sensitivity to pictorial composition and taught 
him to understand and use color like an artist, as a 
means to create emotion and bring out the nuances 
of a visual story. 

In 1961 Burrows became a Life staff photogra- 
pher, based in Hong Kong, a position he held until 
his death in 1971. Although Vietnam subsumed 
much of his time during the last 10 years of his life, 
he also produced photo essays on subjects in places 
from India to New Zealand, photographing the 
architectural wonders of India's Taj Mahal and 
Cambodia's Angkor Wat, the beauty of New Gui- 
nea's birds of paradise, Emperor Hirohito of Japan 



186 



BURROWS, LARRY 



and Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia, the 1964 Olym- 
pic Games, a historical piece on the British East 
India Company, and the 1970 cyclone in the Ganges 
Delta in what was then East Pakistan. 

In 1 962 Burrows went to Vietnam for the first time. 
The war was a small story in 1 962 as far as the United 
States was concerned: President Kennedy had only 
recently sent American soldiers as advisers to the 
South Vietnamese Army, with no commitment of 
combat troops. Burrows, then 36, grasped at once 
that Vietnam had the potential of an epic story. 
According to David Halberstam in his introduction 
to Larry Burrows: Vietnam (2002), Vietnam "was the 
assignment [Burrows] had always wanted.... He was 
drawn to it by both its elemental humanity and its 
parallel cruelty and violence, and by the fact that it 
lent itself so well to what he wanted to do — the 
magazine photo spread." Burrows used the essay 
format brilliantly to tell compelling stories, including 
his first long Vietnam feature in Life, titled In Color: 
The Vicious Fighting in Vietnam, We Wade Deeper 
into Jungle War, a 14-page story with a foldout cover 
published on January 25, 1963, which helped convey 
to Americans the quality of that cruel civil war fought 
by small bands of soldiers in the countryside, pitting 
Vietnamese against Vietnamese. In this and subse- 
quent essays, Burrows demonstrated his pioneering 
understanding of when and how to use color effec- 
tively for war photography, showing human dramas 
against landscapes of often stunning beauty. 

Burrows had the advantage over press photogra- 
phers working for daily newspapers, who worked on 
tight deadlines, of having time to conceptualize and 
develop a story, often spending months immersing 
himself intellectually and visually in a long photo 
essay. Press photographers in Vietnam had extraor- 
dinary freedom of access to combat zones, and Bur- 
rows was fearless about getting close to the action. 
Stories abound about his courage and dedication, 
including strapping himself to the open doorway of 
an airplane to shoot photos for his 1966 essay, The 
Air War. 

A chronological survey of Burrows's Vietnam 
photo essays demonstrates his intellectual grasp of 
the important trends of the ever-escalating war, with 
its terribly mounting violence and evolving psycho- 
logical texture. One Ride with Yankee Papa 13, a 
spread of 22 photographs published in Life on April 
16, 1965, chronicled a dangerous helicopter mission 
during which marines attempted to rescue wounded 
comrades, one of whom died. Focusing in particular 
on a young crew chief, Burrows's photo story con- 
veyed the soldier's emotional journey in the course of 
the mission from grinning newcomer to devastated 
veteran. Operation Prairie, published on October 28, 



1966, documented a bloody six-month Marine infan- 
try campaign that took a devastating toll in U.S. 
casualties. One photo from that story, Reaching Out 
(during the aftermath of taking hill 484, South Viet- 
nam), which shows bandaged soldiers covered in 
mud, is one of Burrows's most frequently reproduced 
photos. Although Burrows said he began working in 
Vietnam with leanings as a hawk, his ten-page photo 
essay, Vietnam: A Degree of Disillusion, published on 
September 19, 1969, expressed, Burrows wrote in one 
of his captions, "a degree of disillusion and demor- 
alization in the Army and the population that sur- 
prised and shocked me." 

On February 10, 1971, as the invasion of Laos 
was imminent, Burrows and four other combat 
photographers — Kent Potter, Keizaburo Shima- 
moto, Henri Huet, and Tu Vu — rode aboard a 
South Vietnamese helicopter that was shot down 
by antiaircraft guns along the Vietnam-Laos bor- 
der. Burrows, who was 44 years old, left behind his 
wife Vicky, son Russell, and daughter Deborah. 
Twenty-seven years later, in 1998, an American 
search and recovery team excavated the crash site 
in Laos, recovering pieces of film and a Leica cam- 
era that most likely had belonged to Burrows. 

Jean Robertson 

See also: Capa, Robert; Life Magazine; War Photo- 
graphy 



Biography 

Born in London, England, 22 May 1926. Self-educated in 
photography. Darkroom assistant, Keystone Photographic 
Agency, London, 1941; Photographic laboratory techni- 
cian, Life Magazine, London, 1942-1945; conscripted into 
British coal mines during World War II, 1945; freelance 
photographer, mostly under contract to Life magazine, 
working primarily in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, 
1945-1961; Life staff photographer, based in Hong Kong, 
with responsibility for an area from India to New Zealand, 
including Vietnam, 1961-1971. Three-time winner of the 
Overseas Press Club's Robert Capa Gold Medal; awarded 
British Press Pictures of the Year, 1965, 1966; awarded the 
World Press Photo, The Hague, 1966; named Magazine 
Photographer of the Year by the National Press Photogra- 
phers' Association (NPPA), 1967; recipient of the Order of 
Iron Mike (US Marine Corps), 1967. Missing, presumed 
dead, Laos, 10 February, 1971. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1998 Larry Burrows at War: Vietnam 1961-1972; Laurence 
Miller Gallery, New York, New York 



187 



BURROWS, LARRY 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

1987 Realities Revisited: 15 British Photographers; Centre 
Saidye Bronfman; Montreal, Quebec, Canada 

1989 Eyes of Time: Photojournalism in America; Interna- 
tional Center of Photography, George Eastman House; 
Rochester, New York, and traveling 

2003 Oases: Group Exhibition; Laurence Miller Gallery, 
New York, New York 



Selected Works (Photo essays published in Life) 

Marines Move into Lebanon, 1958 

In Color: The Vicious Fighting in Vietnam, We Wade Deeper 

into Jungle War, 1962-1963, Life 
One Ride with Yankee Papa 13, 1965 
Birds of Paradise, 1965 
The Air War, 1966 



Marines Blunt the Invasion from the North, 1966 

Operation Prairie, 1966 

Vietnam: A Degree of Disillusion, 1969 



Further Reading 

Burrows, Larry. Larry Burrows, Compassionate Photogra- 
pher. New York: Time Incorporated, 1972. 

Burrows, Larry. Larry Burrows: Vietnam. Introduction by 
David Halberstam. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. 

Page, Tim, and Horst Faas. Requiem: By the Photographers 
Who Died in Vietnam and Indochina. New York: Ran- 
dom House, 1997. 

Pyle, Richard, and Horst Faas. Lost Over Laos: A True 
Story of Tragedy, Mystery, and Friendship. New York: 
Da Capo Press, 2003. 



NANCY BURSON 



American 

The works of Nancy Burson have earned a place 
within the history of postmodern photography 
largely as images that challenge the viewer's percep- 
tion of visual reality, normality, beauty, and often, 
abject ugliness. While Burson's portraits share sur- 
face similarities with the works of Diane Arbus and 
Ralph Eugene Meatyard from the previous two dec- 
ades, they are more directly related to conceptual 
photography as well as being emblematic of con- 
temporary experiments with digital photography, 
exploring techniques of manipulation, simulation, 
and reproduction. However, Burson has always 
moved omnivorously among photographic media 
and approaches, and her work is difficult to classify. 
Burson's oeuvre can be roughly organized into 
three phases: her early work (1979 to 1991) dealt 
with fantasy or surreal faces. These computer-gene- 
rated works included composite imagery, aged por- 
traits, and digitally manipulated faces that resulted 
in bizarre and sometimes frightening anomalies. 
Examples include Warhead I, a computer-generat- 
ed "portrait" composed of media images of world 
leaders based on quantities of nuclear arsenals of 
each country. The composite image is 55% of Ronald 
Reagan, 45% of Leonid Brezhnev, and less than 1% 
each of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, 



French President Francois Mitterrand, and Chinese 
leader Deng Xiaoping. The work is presented as a 
full frontal portrait in a format similar to a mug 
shot, without background. The second phase of her 
work — made between 1991 and 1995 — includes 
"straight" photographic portraits of what Burson 
calls "special faces," namely persons whose features 
have been deformed or marred by disease or other 
natural abnormalities. The third phase (1996 to 
the present) includes disparate images that com- 
bine straight and manipulated technologies, among 
these, color Polaroids of "faith healers" (the Healing 
series), and collaborative projects that meld art 
with science and technology, including The Human 
Race Machine (2000), an interactive installation 
that allows a viewer to picture himself or herself as 
a different race or an amalgam of races. 

In 1968, shortly after a move to New York City 
from Denver (where Burson had studied painting at 
Colorado Women's College), she viewed an exhibi- 
tion at the Museum of Modern Art that signaled a 
turning point in her career. The Machine as Seen at 
the End of the Mechanical Age traversed six centuries 
of historical intersections between art and technol- 
ogy with a particular emphasis on technological art 
of the 1 960s. Burson was thus inspired to conceive an 
interactive ageing machine, an installation that 
would allow a viewer to age himself or herself with 



BURSON, NANCY 



the aid of a computer. In 1976, the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology's Architecture Machine 
Group (today the MIT Media Laboratory) adopted 
Burson's project. However, it would take several 
years for the technology to advance in order for 
Burson and her collaborators to realize The Age 
Machine. In 1981, the artist and engineer Thomas 
Schneider jointly received a patent for "The Method 
and Apparatus for Producing an Image of a Person's 
Face at a Different Age," which has been subse- 
quently used by the United States government, 
including the FBI, to locate missing children based 
on the computer-generated photographs of what 
they would look like if they had been "aged." Reflec- 
tive of her ongoing investigations about the self and 
the myriad representations of identity, sameness, 
and difference, Burson continued to refine the tech- 
nology with the aid of computer scientists David 
Kramlich and Richard Carling. In 1990, Kramlich 
and Burson presented The Age Machine at MIT, an 
interactive computer station whereby a viewer could 
sit at a console and scan an image of his or her face, 
input some data, and within seconds the machine 
would create a speculative portrait of the sitter 25 
years in the future. 

Burson relied on this collaboration to create a 
number of arresting "portraits," or composite pic- 
tures in which the structure or features of numerous 
individuals are blended in the creation of a hybrid, a 
person who only exists in fantasy or virtual reality. 
Examples of these include a series of Untitled color 
Polaroids of subjects whose warped features appear 
partly human, partly alien. Other composites that 
meld faces of different races, ages, and sexes, as well 
as media images of celebrities and politicians, result 
in sometimes eerie, sometimes humorous visages that 
blur the line between the universal and the particular, 
self and other. Although some viewers might inter- 
pret Burson's composites as simply bizarre or voy- 
euristic — fodder for a circus sideshow — the artist 
believes that they represent a relevant curiosity 
about identity, selfhood, and the truth of the photo- 
graph. According to curator Dana Friis-Hansen, 
"plotting gut instincts about the self and human 
nature against the mechanics and metaphors of tech- 
nology led Burson to her considerable achievement: a 
humanizing technology" (Friis-Hansen, 1990, 8). 

Moreover, her work reveals connections not only 
to the massive history of portraiture but to the his- 
tory of physiognomy (the study of personality traits 
based upon facial characteristics), as well as phrenol- 
ogy, a nineteenth-century pseudoscience that pur- 
ported to establish links between cranial and facial 
structure and intelligence and racial superiority. 
While Burson's composites engage with or perhaps 



echo this history, they do not claim to define or make 
statements about the aforementioned races or 
"types" as her historical antecedents did. Rather, 
Burson is drawn to the question of whether seeing 
can be equated with believing and whether visual 
perception can effectively communicate reality. 
Never one to assume that seeing is simply believing, 
Burson's photography has continually sought to 
explore the imagistic, the psychological, and the 
spiritual aspects of the visual world. 

After spending approximately 15 years on the 
forefront of digital and computer technology in 
order to create her fantastical faces, Burson then 
turned to a more traditional approach to the med- 
ium. She began shooting "straight" portraits of 
subjects — adults and children — whose faces were 
deformed by various diseases such as cancer or 
genetic abnormalities. In effect the photographer 
turned from digitally altered faces to those that 
had been biologically altered, if not permanently 
marred. Burson explained that her interest in 
photographing children with Apert syndrome and 
other craniofacial disorders was spurred by her own 
pregnancy in 1989. Preoccupied with the possibility 
of genetic deformities, as a prelude to the straight 
works, she began to produce composite "portraits" 
based on images she found in medical casebooks. 
These Untitled images from the late 1980s are meant 
to be read as ambiguous representations of genetic 
disorder based on multiple images, rather than a 
specific individual visage. When she turned to flesh 
and blood rather than virtual subjects, the photo- 
grapher reexamined the blurry notion of photo- 
graphic truth (essentially asking, "Does the 
camera lie?") but also forced the viewer to recognize 
his or her preconceived notions about Burson's 
difficult subjects. The result is that the viewer is 
caught up in the artist's own vision as the camera 
captures the sometimes stark and grotesque faces of 
the deformed. 

Apert syndrome, an extremely rare and random 
genetic disorder, affects and deforms the bones of 
one's head, hands, and feet. Subjects with the 
syndrome often have overly tall or asymmetrical 
skulls, sunken features, and webbed hands and 
feet. Burson's first subject of this kind was Natha- 
niel, the young son of a friend, Jeanne McDer- 
mott. One mother's painful recognition that the 
world might never accept her son based on his 
appearance spurred McDermott to ask Burson to 
photograph him. She desired other people to see a 
different vision of her beloved child, one in which 
his humanity would connect rather than differ- 
entiate him from others. McDermott wrote in 
Nancy Burson: Faces: 



189 



BURSON, NANCY 



So deeply embedded is our experience of the visual 
world with what we see from the moment of birth, that 
vision never was and never will be a mechanistic pro- 
cess of recording reality 'just as it is.' This is particu- 
larly true when it comes to faces. According to studies, 
within the first five seconds of meeting someone, we 
make up our minds about a person's character and 
moral nature based largely on how we see his face. 

(Burson and McDermott 1993, n.p.) 

Burson echoes this notion in her claim that her 
faces are mirrors for the viewer, reflecting one's pro- 
jections and ideas in sometimes startling ways. The 
untitled series was made with a plastic Diana camera, 
a simple child's camera that results in square nega- 
tives and blurry images, as aperture and focus cannot 
be manipulated. These snapshot images communi- 
cate a poignancy and beauty that brazenly confronts 
the taboo of looking at the "other" among us. Bur- 
son's images of sufferers of Apert syndrome do not 
shy away from the reality of her subjects' deformities, 
but they also do not fetishize them. Rather, these 
images reflect a warmth and tenderness without 
resorting to sentimentalizing or editorializing. The 
hazy gray tones, close-up point of view, tight crop- 
ping, and seemingly haphazard compositions endow 
these pictures with an air of mystery and surrealism 
while also capturing the everyday or snapshot 
aesthetic. She followed this series in 1994-1995 with 
24 x 20-inch color Polaroids of faces altered by can- 
cer, reconstructive surgery, and prosthetics. 

Since 1996 Burson has created photographs that 
echo her investigations into science and technol- 
ogy, often returning to the computer-generated 
image. In 1997-1998 she photographed androgy- 
nous men and women in a series called He/ She. The 
sex of the sitter is not made clear to the viewer (all 
of the Polaroids are untitled) as Burson specifically 
sought faces that blurred conventionally masculine 
and feminine features. Burson writes 

My goal is to emphasize the commonality of people 
rather than their differences or separateness....the series 
intentionally challenges the individual's notion of self- 
perception, by allowing viewers to see beyond super- 
ficial sexual differences to our common humanity. 

(Artist's Statement 2004) 

The artist's focus on universality and humanity 
more closely aligns her work with modern (rather 
than postmodern) theories of the self. In addition, 
the He/She portraits do not present these ideas in 
any didactic way, but rather function on a purely 
aesthetic level. 

As part of a series titled Pictures of Health, Bur- 
son teamed with Russian scientist Konstantin Kor- 



otkov in 2000 to photograph the "aura" emitted 
through a person's fingertips using a Gas Discharge 
Visualization camera. The camera — used in Europe 
and Russia for diagnostic purposes — records energy 
fields, or auras. Two of these works that Burson 
describes as "aural fingerprints," titled The Differ- 
ence Between Negative and Positive Thought and The 
Difference Between Love and Anger, were made 
from the hands of hands-on healers who generated 
a wide range of emotional states within themselves. 
Burson then photographically "mapped" a range of 
auras based on the emotional temperature, as it 
were, of the healer. Other recent, related works 
made in collaboration with geneticists at the Na- 
tional Cancer Institute include images of healthy 
and unhealthy DNA. The images are created as 
scanned electron microscope photographs that Bur- 
son outputs as Iris prints. 

Lynn M. Somers-Davis 

See also: Arbus, Diane; Camera: Diana; Conceptual 
Photography; Digital Photography; History of 
Photography: the 1980s; Manipulation 



Biography 

Born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1948; currently lives and 
works in New York City. Raised in the Midwest; studied 
painting at Colorado Women's College in Denver, CO, 
1966-1968; subsequently moved to New York, NY. Vis- 
iting professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 
and adjunct professor at New York University. Colla- 
borated with Creative Time and the Lower Manhattan 
Cultural Council completing several important public 
art projects including the billboard There's No Gene 
For Race and the poster/postcard project Focus on 
Peace (2000). The Focus on Peace project distributed 
30,000 postcards and 7,000 posters around the site of 
the World Trade Center to coincide with the anniversary 
of 9/11. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1974 Nancy Burson; Bertha Urdang Gallery, New York, 
New York 

1977 Nancy Burson; Hal Bromm Gallery, New York, New York 

1978 Nancy Burson; C. W. Post College, Long Island Uni- 
versity, Brookville, New York 

1985 Nancy Burson; International Center of Photography, 
New York, New York 

Nancy Burson; Institute of Contemporary Art, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts 

1986 Nancy Burson; Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, Virginia 

1987 Nancy Burson; Torino Fotographia, Turin, Italy 
1990 Nancy Burson: The Age Machine and Composite 

Portraits; M.I.T. List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, traveled to Museum of Contemporary 
Photography, Columbia College, Chicago, Illinois; 
Jayne H. Baum Gallery, New York, New York 



190 



BURSON, NANCY 



1991 Nancy Burson; Galerie Michele Chomette, Paris, France 

1992 Faces; Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas; 
traveled to Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado; 
Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, Florida; Contemporary 
Arts Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 

Nancy Burson and David Kramlich: The Age Machine; 
New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, New 
York 

1993 Nancy Burson; Jayne H. Baum Gallery, New York, 
New York 

University of Rhode Island, Fine Arts Center Gal- 
leries, Kingston, Rhode Island 

1996 Nancy Burson: Volte-Face; Espace Van Gogh; Rencon- 
tres Internationales de la photographie, Aries, France 

1997 Nancy Burson; Museum of Contemporary Photogra- 
phy, Chicago, Illinois 

1998 Nancy Burson: Portraits; Forum for Contemporary 
Art, St. Louis, Missouri 

2000 There's No Gene for Race (billboard); Creative Time, 
New York, New York 

2002 Focus on Peace: A project of Lower Manhattan Cul- 
tural Council in Partnership with Creative Time; New 
York, New York 

Seeing and Believing: The Art of Nancy Burson; Grey 
Art Gallery, New York New York; traveled to Blaffer 
Gallery, Houston, Texas; Weatherspoon 

Museum, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 
North Carolina; PhotoEspana, Madrid, Spain 



Group Exhibitions 

1985 Identity; Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France 

1987 Fake; New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, 
New York 

1988 Fabrications: Staged, Altered, and Appropriated Photo- 
graphs; Carpenter Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts 

The Spiral of Artificiality; Hallswalls Contemporary 
Arts Center, Buffalo, New York 

1989 Image World: Art and Media Culture; Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, New York The Photography 
of Invention: American Pictures of the 1980s; Smithsonian 
Institution, National Museum of American Art, Washing- 
ton, D.C.; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Illi- 
nois; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Photography Now; Victoria and Albert Museum, Lon- 
don, England 

1990 The Indomitable Spirit; International Center of Photo- 
graphy, New York, New York: Los Angeles Municipal 
Art Gallery, Los Angeles, California; Sotheby's, New 
York, New York 

1991 Power: Its Myths, Icons and Structures in American 
Culture, 1961-1991; Indianapolis Museum of Art, India- 
napolis, Indiana; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Rich- 
mond, Virginia; Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio 

1992 In Vitro: De Les Mitologies de la Fertilitat als Limits de 
la Ciencia; Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, Spain 



1994 Elvis + Marilyn: 2 x IMMORTAL; Institute of Con- 
temporary Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, and traveling 

Metamorphoses: Photography in the Electronic Age; 
Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New 
York, New York, and traveling 

Body and Soul: Contemporary Art and Healing; De- 
Cordova Museum and Sculpture Park, Lincoln, Massa- 
chusetts 

1995 Photography After Photography: Memory and Repre- 
sentation in the Digital Age; Aktionsforum Ptraterinsel, 
Munich, Germany, and traveling 

1996 Counterculture: Alternative Information from the Un- 
derground Press to the Internet; Exit Art, New York, 
New York 

1997 The Nineties: A Family of Man?; Forum d'Art Con- 
temporain, Casino Luxembourg 

In the Realm of Phantoms, Photographs of the Invisi- 
ble; Museum Abteiberg, Monchengladbach, Germany; 
Kunstalle Krems, Austria; and Fotomuseum Win- 
terthur, Switzerland 

1998 In Your Face; Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
In Visible Light, Photography and Classification in Art, 

Science, and the Everyday; Museum of Modern Art, 
Oxford, England 

1999 Ghost in the Shell: Photography and the Human Soul, 
1850-2000; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los 
Angeles, California 

2000 Le Siecle du corps: Photographies 1900-2000; Musee 
de L'Elysee, Lausanne, Switzerland 

The Human Race Machine; London Millennium 
Dome, London, England 

2002 photoGENEsis: Opus; Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
Santa Barbara, California 

The Other Face: Metamorphosis of the Photographic 
Portrait: Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany 

Time Framed; Nederlands Foto Instituut, Rotterdam, 
The Netherlands 

2003 Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American 
Self International Center of Photography, New York, 
New York 

Geometry of the Face; Royal Library, National 
Museum of Photography, Copenhagen, Denmark 

Suture: An Exhibition of "Medical Photographs"; Ste- 
phen Bulger Gallery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

White: Whiteness and Race in Contemporary Art; Cen- 
ter for Art and Visual Culture, University of Maryland, 
Baltimore, Maryland 

Selected Works 

First Beauty Composite, 1982 

Warhead I (55% Reagan, 45% Brezhnev, less than 1% each 
of Thatcher, Mitterand, and Deng), 1982 

Mankind (Oriental, Caucasian, and Black, weighted accord- 
ing to current population statistics), 1983-1985 

Eton Patz Update (Age 6 to Age 13), 1984 

Untitled series (portraits of persons with Apert Syndrome), 
early 1990s 

Aged Barbie, 1994 



191 



BURSON, NANCY 




Nancy Burson, The President (second version), 1988, Polaroid print on paper, original in color. 
[Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC/Art Resource, New York] 



192 



BURSON, NANCY 



Untitled series (portraits of persons with craniofacial 

disorders), 1994-1995 
He/She series, 1996-1997 

Untitled (Guys Who Look Like Jesus series), 2000 
Healing series, c. 1996-2001 

The Difference Between Negative and Positive Thought, 2000 
The Difference Between Love and Anger, 2000 

Further Reading 

Atkins, Robert, and Thomas Sokolowski. From Media to 
Metaphor: Art About AIDS. New York: Independent 
Curators Inc., 1991. 

Burson, Nancy, with Jeanne McDermott. Faces: Nancy 
Burson. Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers, 1993. 

. "Love and Death." World Art 13 (1996); 84. 

Burson, Nancy, with Michael L. Sand, Lynn Gumpert, and 
Terrie Sultan. Seeing and Believing: The Art of Nancy 
Burson. Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers, 2002. 



Burson, Nancy, with Richard Carling, and David Kram- 
lich. Composites: Computer Generated Portraits. New 
York: William Morrow, Beech Tree Press, 1986. 

Dery, Mark. "Fast Forward: Art Goes High Tech." ART- 
news 92 (February 1992); 74-83. 

Friis-Hansen, Dana. Nancy Burson: The Age Machine and 
Composite Portraits. Exh. cat. Cambridge, MA.: MIT 
Press, 1990. 

Grundberg, Andy. Crisis of the Real: Writings on Photo- 
graphy 1974-1989. New York: Aperture, 1990. 

Haworth-Booth, Mark. Photography Now. Exh. cat. Lon- 
don: Dirk Nishen, 1989. 

Heiferman, Marvin, Lisa Phillips, and John G. Hanhardt. 
Image World: Art and Media Culture. Exh. cat. New 
York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1989. 

Herbert, Lynn. Faces: Nancy Burson. Exh. cat. Houston: 
Contemporary Arts Museum, 1992. 

Hirsch, Robert. Seizing the Light: A History of Photogra- 
phy. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000. 



193 



c 



CABLE RELEASE 



A cable release is a device that allows the camera 
shutter to be remotely activated. Seen in practical 
terms, the device allows the photographer to be 
"hands-off," because even the almost undetectable 
movement caused by the body's pulse can be 
enough to blur the image in a shot with the camera. 
In technical terms, a cable release is a plunger that 
the photographer grasps, a cable, and a pin or 
some device to trigger the camera shutter. 

Yet the cable release can be useful in other appli- 
cations in which the photographer wants to be 
away from the camera while taking the picture. 
The cable can be of various lengths, and is most 
widely used in animal and nature photography 
where the photographer may need to screen himself 
or herself separately from view, apart from the cam- 
era set-up; candid photography, where the photo- 
grapher's presence fixed to the camera may dampen 
spontaneity; children's photography, where the sub- 
ject may need to be actively distracted by the photo- 
grapher, and in instances when the photographer 
wants to appear in the picture. 

Professional studio photographers employ cable 
releases routinely if engagement by the photogra- 
pher carrying on a conversation with the subject 
leads to better portraits, less squirming or move- 
ment by the subject, and may permit the subject to 



be more natural and relaxed. The use of large-for- 
mat cameras, where the parameters of the scene are 
set by ducking the head under a light-dampening 
blanket, historically used in studio portraiture, cer- 
tainly can be seen as inhibiting a natural response 
in a subject. In nature photography, some means of 
being away from the camera is often essential a 
camera being much easier to hide than a person. 
Cable releases attached to trip wires where the 
photographer is nowhere in the area have also 
been increasingly used in remote locations where 
sitting for hours awaiting a shy or nocturnal animal 
is simply not practical. 

A variation on the conventional mechanical sys- 
tem featured in most cable releases is the use of an 
air bulb to trigger the device that then clicks the 
shutter. Some feel this is more gentle, reliable and 
dependable. The air bulb is attached by a tube to a 
piston that is moved by the increase in air pressure 
that occurs when the bulb is squeezed. This motion 
in turn then triggers the cable release socket on the 
camera to trip the camera shutter. Typically the 
fixed mechanical cable release is short and places 
the photographer near the camera. The tube on the 
air or bulb release sort of system may be longer, at 
times up to 20 feet, allowing the photographer to 
be further away. It also can be released by foot 



195 



CABLE RELEASE 



pressure, freeing up both hands for gesturing or 
otherwise communicating with the subject. 

In many modern cameras the cable release is 
electronic. The plunger is a button that is powered 
by the power source for the camera, the cable is 
wire, and the shutter is triggered by the electrical 
impulse from the plunger. Many modern cameras 
do not have mechanical sockets for the straightfor- 
ward cable release; they depend entirely on the elec- 
trical system. Other modern external release systems 
are able to entirely dispense with the cable. A beam 
of microwaves, light, or radio waves replaces it. No 
different a change than from the old cable connected 
television remote to the more modern one that 
allows much more movement and convenience. 
Cameras, like many other devices in the modern 
world, have become wireless. 

Each of these devices has its application. In most 
medium format and large format photography, it is 
simply convenient to use a mechanical cable release 
whether the camera is handheld or attached to a 
tripod. In the case of large format, it is almost always 
the case that the camera is on a tripod. To go to the 
trouble of the larger format, the tripod, and then to 
hand trip the shutter is simply a contradiction. 

In the case of studio photography where there 
may be elaborate lighting setups firing a number of 
the lights, synchronization of these lights more often 
than not requires some form of cable release. There 
are combinations of slaves and triggers that are 
operated by light, radio frequency, or microwaves 
that make these setups possible and manageable. 
This is moving toward the elaborate iteration of 
the cable release, but the intent is the same — coordi- 



nation of various pieces of equipment and removal 
of the photographer's hand from the camera. 

In photography such as macro-photography, 
product photography, or other close-up require- 
ments in which extreme sharpness is important, it 
is critical that the release of the shutter be as smooth 
as possible. Thus, to reduce blur, some sort of cable 
shutter release system is essential. Simple mechan- 
ical cable releases are inexpensive and are an afford- 
able way in which to improve the ability to get an 
optimal exposure. They do jam, bend, and other- 
wise occasionally fail, and like all camera gear, 
cable releases should be packed and cared for 
gently. Air releases are usually marginally more 
expensive but remain one of the more affordable 
of all photo accessories. Electronic cables are con- 
siderably more expensive, and the wireless systems 
even more so, and each photographer's require- 
ments will dictate the type of equipment best suited 
to his or her needs. 

It is also important when selecting a camera that 
one thinks about what sort of work will be done 
with it and whether or not a cable release system 
will be required, for there are some cameras that 
are not equipped with any attachment point for 
any sort of external release mechanism. There are 
instructions for homemade cable releases that can 
be found in books and on the internet that may 
help if one is confronted with this sort of problem, 
although it is best avoided. 

Lambert McLaurin 

See also: Camera: An Overview; Time Exposure 



GENEVIEVE CADIEUX 



Canadian 

The extraordinary force of Genevieve Cadieux's 
work derives from the visual coherence and 
breadth with which her often very large creations 
repeatedly bring corporeal intimacy and absorp- 
tive anxiety into an inescapably public forum. 
They engulf and destabilize the viewer through 
simultaneous attraction and repulsion, while con- 



currently calling into play multiple resonances 
around both aesthetic and social issues. Born in 
Montreal in 1955 but raised in Ottawa where she 
obtained a BA with a specialisation in visual arts 
from the University of Ottawa, she sometimes 
referred to the influence which her father's reper- 
tory cinema had upon her tendency to visualize her 
works in large-screen filmic format, or as installa- 
tions in often darkened rooms. For example, in the 



196 



CADIEUX, GENEVIEVE 



early installation Voices of Reason/ Voices of Mad- 
ness, 1983, as much as in the recent video Para- 
mour, 1998-1999, the viewer is offered close-ups of 
female heads during an endlessly repeated frag- 
mentary event, pregnant with an implied narrative 
of psychic torment. In the first work, the viewer 
steps before a color slide projection of a woman's 
head with only the eyes lighted, staring at the 
opposite wall, where another woman's head, in a 
black-and-white projection, gradually dissolves 
into a milky focus and an anguished expression. 
Suddenly, the viewer is shocked by a loud shot, 
and the face gradually returns to focus, to begin 
again. In the second, the woman anxiously asks 
again and again, "Haven't you ever loved a 
woman? Haven't you ever desired a woman? Not 
once, not for a single moment? Never, ever?" to be 
answered each time by a male voice from behind the 
viewer, "No, never." 

However, Cadieux's work cannot be enlisted to 
feminism, as almost any label tends to oversimplify 
the range and depth of her references. The woman's 
questions in Paramour, for example, are derived 
from a text of Marguerite Duras, an appropriation 
of literary sources which Cadieux had previously 
displayed in La Blessure d'une cicatrice ou Les 
Anges (The Wound of a Scar or The Angels), 1987. 
In that large diptych, the left panel contained a 
painted image of Le Petit Prince, hero of Saint- 
Exupery's famous children's book, his features 
effaced and with the inscription below "Voila le 
meilleur portrait que plus tard, j'ai reussi a faire 
de lui" [Here is the best portrait that I was later 
able to make of him], while the right panel repro- 
duced one of the most famous of the Storyville 
Portraits by E.J. Bellocq — a prostitute seen from 
the rear, her head scratched out in the emulsion. In 
Cadieux's work, she seems to be drawing a butter- 
fly on the wall. This juxtaposition, taken from two 
volumes collected by Cadieux in what she called 
her "archives," combined and amended both lit- 
erary and visual sources in a duality which proble- 
matized portraiture and identity through metaphors 
of inadequacy and scarring, and the conflation of 
child, prostitute, and angel. That Cadieux was 
suggesting an implicit damage or disability when 
contemplating the sensitive self seems confirmed 
by another work which also used the Petit Prince 
quotation, A flew depeau (On Edge or Skin Deep), 
1987. There, the left panel of the diptych repro- 
duced the quotation in Braille, while the right was 
a clouded mirror; a blind viewer would not see a 
reflection in the mirror, while a sighted viewer 
would not understand the Braille unaided, and 
neither could easily decode the fragmentary or 



elusive view of self, based as much on suggestible 
memory as on immediate experience, into which 
they were being drawn. 

These examples also foreground two other 
defining formal features of Cadieux's work — its 
multi-media range, including a crucial use of 
often punning titles, and its intimate focus on 
bodily damage or enlargement as an evocative 
mechanism. She frequently uses blown-up scars 
or parts of the body or skin contextualized by 
positioning with landscape or architectural ele- 
ments. For example, the instability of meaning in 
titles such as La Felure, au choeur des corps, recalls 
the postmodern insistence on language games, and 
is matched with the surreal juxtaposition of two 
giant lips kissing between two healed scars. This 
intense interest in the body's pleasures and the 
marks of corporeal pain, linked to a size which 
engenders a sense of both overwhelming force 
and of powerless voyeurism, reflects other postmo- 
dern fascinations. This work, constructed at room 
size and displayed as Canada's contribution at the 
Venice Biennale of 1990, confirmed Cadieux's 
international stature. She has been exhibited exten- 
sively in 13 countries in Europe as well as in 
Canada, the United States, Japan, Brazil, and Aus- 
tralia, and she has taught in France (1993-1994, 
1996), Spain (1997), and in the United States 
(1998) as well as Canada. Together with some 
other Canadians such as Jeff Wall and Evergon, 
she helped to define and influence a tendency 
among young Canadian art photographers to use 
large color photographic imagery to construct 
ironic or surreal worlds. 

However, no other Canadian has so effortlessly 
moved between sculpture, painting, photography, 
and video formats, appropriations, installations 
with sound, and classic references to diptych, trip- 
tych, and serial forms, all often connected to land- 
scapes, interior or exterior architecture or specific 
sites. She came to photography later in her artistic 
training, underlining that, fundamentally, the pre- 
sence of the artist is felt in her works more in the 
concept, which determines medium and form, than 
in the physical mark. This allows her to roam 
between a very precise realism (e.g., Elle, 1993, a 
cast of her mother's arm) and an evocative abstrac- 
tion. The texture of the pores of the skin in many of 
her works can seem indistinguishable from the 
grain of photographic emulsion, an effect she 
admits is deliberate. She also calls upon a range of 
previous classical genres, from nudes to portraiture 
to landscape, set within a range of social contexts, 
from medicine to technology; but they are created 
usually for a museum space which can tolerate and 



197 



CADIEUX, GENEVIEVE 



assimilate the works according to that oxymoron, 
conventional avant-gardist criteria. In portraiture, 
already referred to above, she has made deft use of 
her own family members to explore by suggestion 
themes of attraction and alienation, and of aging. 
In three of her most well-known works, Hear Me 
With Your Eyes of 1989, Family Portrait of 1991, 
and La Voie lac tee of 1992, she has used, respec- 
tively, her actress sister in a triptych which revealed 
her at two intense moments some 10 years apart; an 
installation of three large free-standing lightboxes 
featuring enigmatic details of her father, mother, 
and sister turned away from each other at the cor- 
ners of a triangle; and a billboard-size view of her 
mother's lush mouth installed on the roof of the 
Musee d'art contemporarin in Montreal. Except for 
Family Portrait, these works are not, at first, evident 
as portrait statements; nonetheless, their effective- 
ness depends on the viewer's sense of identification 
with the physical and psychological presence, even 
the suffering, of another which underlies the impact 
of portraiture. 

Cadieux's work has also been likened to porno- 
graphy (e.g., Loin de moi, et pres du lointain [Far 
From Me, Near to the Distance] 1993, a photo- 
graph showing a flaccid penis) although the only 
work to be censored to date is Blue Fear, which 
contrasted an older man's naked back set against a 
pair of large staring eyes. This work so disturbed 
the older citizens of Plymouth, England, that, in 
1992, the work was rejected for exhibition; notably, 
it was to have been installed on Plymouth Hoe, a 
seaside recreational site, not in a museum. How- 
ever, the body does fascinate her, very like photo- 
graphic emulsion, which is also sensitive and which 
makes a record; it is like the body which ages and, 
in Cadieux's words, "qui enregistre le temps, la 
peau qui enregistre les blessures" [and which 
records time, skin which records wounds]. 

Lilly Koltun 

See also: Conceptual Photography; Photography in 
Canada; Postmodernism; Wall, Jeff 



Biography 

Born in Montreal, Canada, 17 July 1955. Obtained a BA 
with specialization in visual arts from the University of 
Ottawa, Canada in 1977. In 1993, won a Deutscher 
Akademischer Austauschdienst to work in Berlin for 
some months; over 1993-94, was artist in residence at 
the Ecole nationale superieure des beaux-arts in Paris, 
France; in 1996, taught at the Ecole d'art de Grenoble in 
France; in 1997 at the Universitat Politecnica de Valen- 
cia in Spain; and in 1998 at the College of Architecture 



and the Arts, University of Illinois, Chicago. Lives in 
Montreal, Canada, and teaches fine art there at Concor- 
dia University. 

Individual Exhibitions 

1977 Saw Gallery; Ottawa, Canada 

1981 Galerie France Morin; Montreal, Canada 

1982 Works by Genevieve Cadieux; Agnes Etherington Art 
Centre, Queen's University; Kingston, Canada; and The 
Gallery Stratford, Stratford, Canada 

1988 Genevieve Cadieux; The Power Plant; Toronto, Canada 

1990 Canada XLIV Biennale di Venezia: Genevieve Cadieux; 
Canadian Pavilion; Venice, Italy 

1991 Genevieve Cadieux; Centre d'art contemporain de Ge- 
neve; Geneva, Switzerland 

Kent Fine Art; New York 

1992 Genevieve Cadieux; Institute of Contemporary Art; 
London, England 

Genevieve Cadieux; Institute of Contemporary Art; 
Amsterdam, Netherlands 

Genevieve Cadieux; Musee departemental d'art con- 
temporain de Rochechouart; Rochechouart, France 

Roppongi Square installation, organized by Sagacho 
Exhibit Space; Tokyo, Japan 

1993 Genevieve Cadieux; Centre d'art contemporain de 
Montreal; Montreal, Canada 

1994 Genevieve Cadieux; Bonner Kunstverein; Bonn, Ger- 
many 

Genevieve Cadieux; Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst 
Antwerpen (MUHKA); Antwerp, Belgium 

Genevieve Cadieux; Nouveau Musee/Institut d'Art 
contemporain; Villeurbanne, France 

1995 Body Currents; Cleveland Center for Contemporary 
Art; Cleveland, Ohio 

Angles Gallery; Santa Monica, California; and Pitts- 
burgh Center for the Arts; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
(1996) 

Genevieve Cadieux; Tate Gallery; London, England 

1997 Genevieve Cadieux; Kunstforeningen; Copenhagen, 
Denmark 

Stephen Friedman Gallery; London, England 

1998 Galleria S.A.L.E.S.; Rome, Italy 
Miami Art Museum; Miami, Florida 

1999 Genevieve Cadieux; Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gal- 
lery, University of British Columbia; Vancouver, Canada 

2000 Genevieve Cadieux; Americas Society, New York 
Beaverbrook Art Gallery; Fredericton, Canada 
Genevieve Cadieux; Musee des beaux-arts de Mon- 
treal; Canada 

Genevieve Cadieux; Art Gallery of Hamilton; Canada 

2001 Trafic, FRAC Haute-Normandie; Sotteville-les-Rouen, 
France 

Galerie Nathalie Obadia; Paris, France 



Group Exhibitions 

1978 Cadieux, Duchow, Erskine, Flomen, June; Galerie 
Optica; Montreal, Canada 

1984 Avant-scene de I'imaginairej Theatre of the Imagina- 
tion; Musee des beaux-arts de Montreal, Canada 

1985 Aurora Borealis; Centre international d'art contem- 
porain de Montreal; Montreal, Canada 



198 



CADIEUX, GENEVIEVE 



1987 XlXth Bienal International de Sao Paulo: Ruidos Do 
Norte /Northern Noises/ Resonances boreales; organized 
by the Winnipeg Art Gallery, Canada; Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Elementa Natures; Musee d'art contemporain de Mon- 
treal; Montreal, Canada 

1988 Enchantment and Disturbance; The Power Plant; Tor- 
onto, Canada 

La Ruse historique: I'art a Montreal/The Historical 
Ruse: Art in Montreal; The Power Plant; Toronto, Canada 

Vlhh Biennale of Sydney: From the Southern Cross: A 
View of World Art c. 1940-1988; Art Gallery of New South 
Wales & Pier 2/3; Walsh Bay, Sydney, Australia; National 
Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia 

1990 VHIth Biennale of Sydney: The Readymade Boomer- 
ang: Certain Relations in 20' Century Art; Art Gallery of 
New South Wales; Sydney, Australia 

New Works for Different Places: TSWA Four Cities 
Project; organised by TSWA for four venues in U.K. 
(censored in Plymouth, England) 

Passage de I'image; Musee national d'art moderne; 
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Fundacio Caixa de 
Pensions, Barcelona, Spain (1991); Wexner Center for 
the Visual Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, U.S. 
A. (1991); San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San 
Francisco, California (1992) 

XLIV Biennale di Venezia; Venice, Italy 

1991 Crossroads; Art Gallery of York University; Toronto, 
Canada 

Outer Space, organised by South Bank Centre, London 
at Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; 
Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, England; Camden Arts Centre, 
London, England; Arnolfini Art Gallery, Bristol, England 

The Interrupted Life; New Museum of Contemporary 
Art; New York 

1993 1M=C.299792458'S; San Sebastian; Spain 

Das Bild des Korpers; Frankfurter Kunstverein; 
Frankfurt am Main, Germany 

Passageworks; Rooseum Center for Contemporary 
Art; Malmo, Sweden 

1994 Cocido y crudo; Museo Nacional, Centro de Arte 
Reina Sofia; Madrid, Spain 

1995 Presence: Recent Portraits; Angles Gallery; Santa 
Monica, California 

Large Bodies; Pace Magill Gallery; New York 
Spirits on the Crossing: Travellers to/from Nowhere - 
Contemporary Art in Canada 1980-94; Setagaya Art 
Museum; Tokyo, Japan; and National Museum of Mod- 
ern Art; Kyoto, Japan; Hokkaido Museum of Modern 
Art; Sapporo, Japan 

1996 Corps etr angers; National Gallery of Canada; Ottawa, 
Canada 

Fotografische Momenten; Museum van Hedendaagse 
Kunst; Ghent, Belgium 

Happy End; Kunsthalle Diisseldorf; Diisseldorf, Germany 

1997 From Here to There; Fundacio Calouste Gulbenkian, 
Centro de Arte Moderna Jose de Azeredo Perdigao; 
Lisbon, Portugal; and Centro Portugues de Fotografia; 
Porto, Portugal (1998) 

Ohjectif corps; Musee des beaux-arts de Montreal; 
Montreal, Quebec 

1998 Voices; Witte de With; Rotterdam, Netherlands; and 
Fundacio Joan Miro; Barcelona, Spain; Le Fresnoy, studio 
national des arts contemporains; Tourcoing, France (1999) 

Disidentico, maschile femminile e altro, produced by 
the Centre International Mostre, Rome, Italy at Palazzo 



Branciforte; Palermo, Italy; and Museo di Castelnuovo; 
Naples, Italy 

1999 Billboards. Art on the Road; Massachusettes Museum 
of Contemporary Art; North Adams, Massachusetts 

The Time of Our Lives; New Museum of Contempor- 
ary Art; New York 

2000 The Bigger Picture: Contemporary Photography Re- 
considered; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada 

2001 Elusive Paradise. The Millennium Prize; National Gal- 
lery of Canada; Ottawa, Canada 



Selected Works 

Sequence no. 6, 1980 

Illusion no. 6, 1981 

Voices of Reason/ Voices of Madness, 1983 

The Shoe at Right Seems Much Too Large, 1986 

La Blessure d'une cicatrice ou Les Anges (or The Wound of a 

Scar or The Angels), 1987 
Nature morte aux arbres et an ballon, 1987 
Trou de memoire, la beaute inattendue (or Memory Gap, the 

Unexpected Beauty ) , 1988 
Storyville Portraits — Le Petit Prince, Montreal, Canada: 

Galerie Oboro et Galerie Rene 
Blouin, 1988 (editor of artist's book, in 60 copies) 
Hear Me With Your Eyes, 1989 
Blue Fear, 1990 

Portrait de famille (or Family Portrait), 1991 
Le corps du del, 1992 
La voie lactee, 1992 
Loin de moi, etpres du lointain (or Far From Me, Near to the 

Distance), 1993 
Elle, 1993 
Tears, 1995 
Juillet 94, 1995 
Souffle, 1996 
La mer et V enfant, 1997 
Elle et lui (avec main defemme), 1997 
Vague, 1997 
Paramour, 1998-1999 
Dilectio, 1999 
Pour un oui, pour un nom, 2000 



Further Reading 

[Interview with Genevieve Cadieux, December 1987] Gene- 
vieve Cadieux. Toronto: Power Plant, 1988. 

Dery, Louise, and Didier Prioul. Genevieve Cadieux. Que- 
bec, Canada: Musee du Quebec and Rome: Galleria S.A. 
L.E.S., 1998. 

Gale, Peggy. "Skin Deep, The Beauty and Resonance of 
Genevieve Cadieux's Installations Come From Her Mix- 
ing of Memory with Desire." Canadian Art, vol. 7, no. 1, 
Spring 1990: 58-65. 

Godmer, Gilles, and Jacinto Lageira. Genevieve Cadieux. 
Montreal, Canada: Musee d'art contemporain de Mon- 
treal, 1993. 

Papineau, Jean. "Genevieve Cadieux, Ecrans de reflexion, 
une interview de Jean Papineau." Parachute 56, (Oct., 
Nov., Dec, 1989): 20-22. 

Pearson, Gary, Jiirgen Brockmann, and Michael Haerdter. 
Hotel on Fire. Kelowna, B.C.: Kelowna Art Gallery, 
1997. 



199 



CADIEUX, GENEVIEVE 



Pohlen, Annelie, and Jan Fonce. Genevieve Cadieu., Bonn, 
Germany: Bonner Kunstverein, and Antwep, Belgium: 
Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen, 1994. 

Pontbriand, Chantal. Genevieve Cadieux: Canada XLIVeme 
Biennale de Venezi., Montreal, Canada: Les Editions 
Parachute and Musee des beaux-arts du Montreal, 1990. 

Pontbriand, Chantal, Laurence Louppe, and Scott Watson. 
Genevieve Cadieux. Vancouver: Morris and Helen Belkin 
Art Gallery and Musee des beaux-arts de Montreal, 1999. 



Prevost, Jean-Marc. Genevieve Cadieux. Limoges, France: 
Musee departemental d'art contemporain de Roche- 
chouart, 1992. 

St-Gelais, Therese. "Genevieve Cadieux, le regard et le 
visible." Parachute, 51: 4-10. 

Tarantino, Michael. "Genevieve Cadieux Close Up." Art- 
forum vol. XXVIII, no. 8, (April 1990): 160-64. 

Viau, Rene. "Genevieve Cadieux, entre regards et desires." 
Vie des arts vol. 38, no. 150, (Spring 1993): 20-24. 



CLAUDE CAHUN 



French 

In the mid-1980s, during the time of gender and 
identity debates, Claude Cahun(Lucy Schwob), a 
prominent figure of the Parisian avant-garde, was 
rediscovered. Her works created photographic pro- 
ductions of personal identity, in which the self- 
taught photographer thematized gender and identity 
in playful engagement with masks and role-playing. 
For feminist theory, which held self-representation 
as a central theme, Claude Cahun became an inter- 
esting case study. She seemed to anticipate the ques- 
tions raised by prominent feminist author Judith 
Butler about the influence of sexuality and develop- 
ment on identity and the problem of the social and 
sexual normalization of individuals. Accordingly, 
she was routinely connected to the postmodern stra- 
tegies of self-production promoted by such artists as 
Cindy Sherman. 

The theme of self-production followed Claude 
Cahun through all her artistic works in various 
media. She resisted specializing her artistic activity 
and worked as a poet, essayist, literary critic, trans- 
lator, actor, and political activist. The growing 
reception of her works in the 1980s was concen- 
trated primarily on her photography, however, 
which was in addition to language the most essen- 
tial medium of her artistic expression. 

The central works of this French artist were self- 
representations, made between 1912 and 1953, that 
portrayed her in ever-changing roles. Self-enlight- 
enment was not her obsession; rather, she was 
interested in the production of possible identities, 
the ambiguity of gender, and the desire and play 
with masquerade and alienation. She assumed the 



role of the dandy and dressed like a sailor and as a 
weight lifter; there are also many photographs of 
her as the Buddha. She displayed herself in a young 
girl's costume, with her blond hair falling in her 
face, or as a little girl with knitted sweater and 
close-cut hair. In the years 1917 to 1929, she most 
often posed facing the camera in front of a tempor- 
ary, tightly pulled sheet, and peered with a fixed 
gaze back at the viewer that challenged him to 
position himself opposite her. The unsettling effect 
of her portraits results from the uncertainty of 
identity that we try to resolve by relying on biolo- 
gical gender distinctions in the photographs. In her 
confusing play with these identity constructions, 
Cahun demonstrates the impossibility of locating 
a fixed, stable definition of self. 

In her frontal portraits, she harkens back to the 
statuary form of bourgeois studio portraits; she 
deploys in the background a tightly pulled cloth 
sheet, a citation from nineteenth-century portrait 
photography. She worked with mirrors and dou- 
bling effects — techniques used by the surrealists 
and by the photographer Florence Henri as their 
central method of self-representation. A truly radical 
artist, she paid no heed to the conventions of female 
beauty and the limits of her body. In Frontiere 
humaine (Human frontier), a distorted enlargement 
that appeared in the surrealist journal Bifur in 
1930, her head mutates into a grotesque, verti- 
cally stretched, anamorphic image of a skull. In 
another doubling montage, she presents herself as 
Siamese twins. 

In her most important book, Aveux non avenus 
(Unavowed Confessions 1930), autobiographical 
text fragments, dream sequences, and aphorisms 



200 



CAHUN, CLAUDE 



appear next to photomontages that were created 
with her partner, Suzanne Malherbe (alias Marcel 
Moore). In it she writes: 

I've spent my solitary hours disguising my soul. The 
masks were so perfect that whenever they crossed 
paths along the great square of my conscience they did 
not recognize each other. Tempted by their comic ugli- 
ness, I tried on the worst instincts; I adopted, I raised in 
me young monsters. But the makeup I had used could 
not be washed away. I scrubbed myself to remove the 
skin. And my soul, like a face flayed alive, no longer had 
a human form. 

Born Lucy Schob in 1894, the daughter of the 
publisher Maurice Schwob in Nantes, France, 
Cahun grew up in an intellectual Jewish bourgeois 
family. Her grandfather and then her father pub- 
lished the regional newspaper Le Phare de la Loire, 
and her uncle Marcel Schwob was the founder of the 
prestigious newspaper Mercure de France and also a 
symbolist writer who had an early influence. After 
studies in Nantes and Oxford, England, in 1914 
Cahun studied philology and philosophy at the Sor- 
bonne, Paris, and published her first article, "Vues 
et visions," in Mercure de France under the pseudo- 
nym Claude Courlis; after adopting a number of 
other pseudonyms, including Daniel Douglas, she 
began calling herself the gender-ambiguous Claude 
Cahun in 1917, and began her lifetime relationship 
with her stepsister Suzanne Malherbe in 1919. Their 
apartment in Montparnasse became a meeting place 
of Paris bohemians. 

Malherbe was a frequent collaborator as well; 
between 1929 and 1930, they created ten photo 
collages that divided the accompanying text into 
panels. This work reached back into a bank of self- 
portraits that Cahun used as a sort of self-refer- 
ence. In these collages, she is working through the 
fragmentation of the body — mostly faces, but 
often hands, arms, legs, and eyes — that float in 
the black visual space. The collaboration between 
Malherbe and Cahun also allegedly extended to 
many self-portraits in which Malherbe operated 
the shutter release. 

That Cahun' s work circles around the issue of 
self-identity was surely influenced by the fact that 
the patriarchal structure of society did not provide 
a role for a lesbian Jew. The typical role of the 
female artist in surrealism was that of model, 
muse, and lover of male artists. However, in the 
lesbian subculture of Paris in the 1920s, Cahun 
found support and also a forum for her works, 
which to that point in her life had never been 
exhibited. She became friends with the writers and 



editors Adrienne Monnier, proprietor of the book- 
store La Maison des Amis des Livres, a favorite 
meeting place for the Parisian literary community, 
and Sylvia Beach, a prominent lesbian expatriate 
and owner of the English-language Paris bookstore 
Shakespeare and Company. 

The 1930s led to increased politicization of 
Cahun's art, and she entered public life as an acti- 
vist. In 1932, she met Andre Breton and, alarmed 
by the growing fascist movement, joined for a short 
while L'Association des Ecrivains et Artistes Revo- 
lutionnaires (AEAR), a group of revolutionary 
artists. After a disagreement in 1933 between the 
organization and the surrealists, whose art was 
deemed in conflict with the aesthetic line of the 
Communist International, she left the group and 
formulated her critique of it in "Les Paris sont 
ouverts" (translated as Place Your Bets The Parises 
are Open; 1934). Here, she warned that blind party 
loyalty would impoverish poetry. In the same year, 
she became a member of the antifascist political 
coalition Contre-Attaque, founded by Georges 
Bataille and Andre Breton. In the 1930s, she main- 
tained loose contact with the surrealists and signed 
onto most of their declarations. 

During her collaboration with the surrealists in 
the mid- 1930s, she produced works that she exhib- 
ited in 1936 as part of the Exposition surrealiste 
d'objets in Paris and London. In conjunction with 
this, she published the text "Prenez garde aux objets 
domestiques" (Beware of Household Objects) in 
Cahiers d'Art. She also created a series of surrealist 
objects by assembling photographic tableaux, in 
which numerous artificial human substitutes, such 
as mannequins, marionettes, and dolls self-made 
from newspaper, were arranged on a surface with 
everyday objects. She created the series Poupee, 
which displayed a soldier made from the newspaper 
L 'Humanite, the central organ of the French Com- 
munist Party, and critically reflected on the position 
of the Communist Party during the Spanish Civil 
War. She staged another series with wooden mar- 
ionettes that she arranged in a scene beneath a glass 
bell jar. 

In 1937, to escape the looming Nazi threat, she 
moved with Malherbe to the Isle of Jersey, Eng- 
land; she illustrated a collection of poetry for chil- 
dren by Lise Deharme, Le Coeur de Pic (Pic's 
Heart), with still-life photographs resembling 
tableaux. During the Nazi occupation of France, 
Cahun and Malherbe were suspected of spreading 
antifascist propaganda and in 1944 were impri- 
soned, condemned to death, and remained in a 



201 



CAHUN, CLAUDE 



prison until liberated by the Allies in 1945; unfor- 
tunately, most of Cahun's works were destroyed 
during the war. 

Esther Ruelfs 

See also: Feminist Photography; Henri, Florence; 
History of Photography: Interwar Years; Manipula- 
tion; Montage; Photography in France; Representa- 
tion and Gender; Sherman, Cindy; Surrealism 



Biography 

Born Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob in Nantes, France, 
October 25, 1894; Schooled in Nantes. Father remar- 
ried, 1906, bringing stepsister Suzanne Malherbe into 
the household. Studied in Oxford, 1907-08; created 
her first photographic self-portraits in 1912; began 
study of philology and philosophy at the Sorbonne, 
1914; published "Heroines," translation of Havelock 
Ellis's Study of Social Psychology, 1925; worked as an 
actress in Pierre Albert-Birot's experimental theater, 
Le Plateau, 1929; met Andre Breton, 1932, joined 
L' Association des Ecrivains et Artistes Revolution- 
naires, which she left in 1933 after a disagreement 
between the organization and the surrealists. Joined 
the antifascist political coalition Contre-Attaque, 
1934; participated in Exposition surrealiste d'objets in 
Paris and London, 1936; moved with Malherbe to the 
Isle of Jersey, England, 1937. Died in Saint-Helier, 
Jersey, on December 8, 1954. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1980 Claude Cahun; Galerie Claude Givaudan; Geneva 

1992 Claude Cahun; Zabriskie Gallery; New York 
Claude Cahun, 1894-1954: Photographies des annees 

20 et 30; Galerie Zabriskie; Paris 

1993 Claude Cahun and Suzanne Malherbe; The Jersey 
Museum; Saint-Helier, Jersey 

1995 Claude Cahun, 1894-1954; Musee d'Art Moderne de la 

Ville de Paris Galerie Berggruen; Paris 
1997 Claude Cahun — Selbstdarstellungen; Kunstverein 

Miinchen, and traveling 



Group Exhibitions 

1985 L 'Amour fou: Photography and Surrealism; Corcoran 
Gallery of Art; Washington, D.C. 

Explosante fixe: Photographic et surrealisme; Musee 
National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou; 
Paris 

1991 Paris des annees trente: Le Surrealisme et le livre; 
Galerie Zabriskie; Paris, and traveling 

1992 Photographic et sculpture; Centre National de la 
Photographie; Paris 



1994 Mise en scene: Claude Cahun, Tacita Dean, Virginia 
Nimarkoh; Institute of Contemporary Arts; London 

Le Rive d'une ville: Nantes et le surrealisme; Musee 
des Beaux-Arts; Nantes 

Feminin — Masculin; Musee National d'Art Moderne, 
Centre Georges Pompidou; Paris 

1996 Inside the Visible; Institute of Contemporary Art; 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Rrose Is a Rrose Is a Rrose: Gender Performance in 
Photography; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; New 
York, New York 

1997 Double Vie — Double Vue; Fondation Cartier; Paris 
Claude Cahun; Ginza Artspace, Fondation Shiseido; 

Tokyo 

Floating Images of Women in Art History: From the 
Birth of the Feminism Toward the Dissolution of the 
Gender; Tochigi Prefectural Museum 

El rostro velado; Sala de Exposiciones Koldo Mit- 
xelena; San Sebastian 

1998 Mirror Images: Women, Surrealism, and Self-Repre- 
sentation; MIT, List Visual Arts Center; Cambridge, 
Massachusetts and traveling 



Selected Works 

Self-Portrait, c. 1928 

Self-Portrait, c. 1929 

Frontiere humaine (Human frontier), from Bifur, no. 5, 1930 

Self-Portrait , from Bifur, no. 5, 1930 

Humanite Figure (Poupee), 1936 



Further Reading 

Ander, Heike, and Dirk Snauwaert, eds. Claude Cahun: 
Bilker. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1997. 

Blessing, Jennifer, ed. Rrose Is a Rrose Is a Rrose: Gender 
Performance in Photography. New York: Guggenheim 
Museum Publications, 1997. 

Chadwick, Whitney, ed. Mirror Images: Women, Surreal- 
ism, and Self- Representation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT 
Press, 1998. 

Claude Cahun: Photographe: Musee d'Art Moderne de la 
Ville de Paris. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1995. 

De Zegher, M. Catherine, ed. Inside the Visible: An elliptical 
traverse of 20' century art in, of, and from the feminine. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1996. 

Leperlier, Francois, Claude Cahun. L'Ecart et la metamor- 
phose. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1992. 

Dean, Tacita, and Virginia Nimarkoh. Mise en scene: 
Claude Cahun. London: Institute of Contemporary 
Arts, 1994. 

Monahan, Laurie J. "Claude Cahuns radikale Transforma- 
tionen." Texte zur Kunst 3, no. 11 (Sept. 1993): 101-109. 

Sykora, Katharina. Unheimliche Paarungen. Androidenfas- 
zination unci Geschlecht in der Fotografie. Cologne: Ver- 
lag der Buchhandlung Walter Konig, 1999. 



202 



CAHUN, CLAUDE 




Claude Cahun, Self-portrait, 1928. 

[Reunion des Museees NationauxjArt Resource, New York] 



203 



CALLAHAN, HARRY 



HARRY CALLAHAN 



American 

Harry Callahan joined the premier ranks of Amer- 
ican photographers almost from the beginning of 
his career in the mid 1940s. By the time he was 
included in the popular 1955 exhibition The Family 
of Man at the Museum of Modern Art, New York 
(MoMA), his restless experimentation, always at 
the service of capturing the human and natural 
landscape and presenting it to further his values 
and expressive purposes, had made him one of the 
most important figures in twentieth-century photo- 
graphy. No matter his subject — and most often it 
was the stuff of ordinary life — Callahan infused his 
photographs with emotion and quiet elegance. He 
was also eloquent in speaking of his vision: 

You must start with a concept, with the idea that there is 
much more to the subject than meets the unaided eye. 
The subject is all-important. And I experiment with var- 
ious techniques to help me see things differently from 
the way I saw them before. That is seeing photographi- 
cally, and when you see photographically, you really 
see. 

(Greenough 1 84) 

Born in Detroit in 1912 to a middle-class family, 
Callahan studied chemical engineering and then 
business at Michigan State College from 1934 to 
1936. After completing his formal education, he 
worked as a shipping clerk for the Chrysler 
Motor Parts Corporation. In 1936, he married 
Eleanor Knapp, who would later serve as the sub- 
ject of many of his most enduring photographs. It 
was about this time that Callahan developed an 
interest in photography through a photo club at 
his workplace; he purchased his first camera, a 
Rolleicord 120, in 1938. After attending a 1941 
Detroit Photo Guild workshop taught by the land- 
scape photographer Ansel Adams, Callahan began 
to devote himself seriously to photography. During 
1944-1945, he worked as a processor in the Gen- 
eral Motors Corporation photo lab. 

Aside from his attendance of photo club lectures, 
Callahan was self-taught. A seminal episode in this 
education was a 1945 trip to New York that he 
described as a "personal fellowship" where he met 



many of the established photographers — including 
Lisette Model, Berenice Abbott, Minor White, and 
Paul Strand — and art curators of the day. Two 
major career developments occurred in the late 
1940s: in 1946, he was hired by Laszlo Moholy- 
Nagy, then director of the "New Bauhaus" — the 
Institute of Design (ID) in Chicago — as an instruc- 
tor in photography; and he began his long friend- 
ship with Edward Steichen, director of the 
department of photography at MoMA. Callahan 
was included in numerous group and solo exhibi- 
tions at MoMA in the 1940s and 1950s, introducing 
his work widely to the photography community. 

Relocating to Chicago from Detroit in 1946, 
Callahan spent the next 15 years teaching at ID 
and shooting some of his best-known photographs. 
He served as head of ID's Light Workshop (the 
photography department) beginning in 1949, after 
the resignation of his old Detroit Camera Club 
colleague Arthur Siegel. He held this position 
until 1961, when he left Chicago to assume the 
chairmanship of the photography department of 
the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) in Pro- 
vidence. He held this position until 1973, although 
he stayed on as a professor until 1977. 

Callahan was an influential instructor and a role 
model for countless students, many of whom would 
become important photographers in their own 
right, including Yasuhiro Ishimoto and Kenneth 
Josephson. His personal innovations and experi- 
mentations had a deep impact on ID's photogra- 
phy program, and his legacy to this now-legendary 
institution included hiring Aaron Siskind in 1951. 
Although the Bauhaus curriculum at ID empha- 
sized the study of light (which Callahan expressed 
in photographs that featured tracings of a flash- 
light beam created by moving his camera), his 
assignments often included projects that took his 
students into the streets of Chicago to record the 
interaction of architecture and the human figure 
with the raking light and shadows the urban infra- 
structure could create. Candid studies of people 
going about their business, their anonymity para- 
doxically revelatory, were typical of both Calla- 
han and his ID students and have formed a 
school of photography celebrated in such exhi- 



204 



CALLAHAN, HARRY 



bitions as Light and Vision: Photography at the 
School of Design and When Aaron Met Harry: 
Chicago Photography 1946-1971. Callahan's fa- 
mous 1950 series of close-ups of anonymous 
women shoppers in Chicago began a strain of 
photography that captured average people and 
celebrated their individuality; Lee Friedlander and 
Garry Winogrand perfected this style in the 1960s 
and 1970s, and it is sustained into the new century 
by photographers such as Beat Struli. 

During Callahan's short formative period, he was 
influenced by the intimate and contemplative nature 
studies by Adams; the European Modernism exem- 
plified by the Hungarian Moholy-Nagy; and the 
aesthetic purity of Alfred Stieglitz, the legendary 
photographer and curator. By the late 1940s, Call- 
ahan had forged a style of his own at the service of a 
clearly articulated goal, which was to be able to 
express his life and his observations about life 
through his photography. Thus, it is not surprising 
that prevalent in Callahan's work are elegant por- 
traits of his wife Eleanor and daughter Barbara, who 
was born in 1950. These posed yet strikingly intimate 
works include views of Eleanor in the streets of 
Chicago, such as Eleanor, Chicago, 1953, and the 
iconic studies of Eleanor nude in the confines of the 
domestic interior, such as Eleanor, Chicago, 1948, 
and his 8-inch by 10-inch view camera "snapshots" 
of Eleanor and Barbara going about their daily lives. 
At the same time, Callahan continued the tradition 
of Moholy-Nagy in his formalism and experimenta- 
tion with the photographic medium, although, rather 
paradoxically, these photographs also are intense 
and highly personal. Many of his experiments 
involve layered images, distortion, or manipulations 
of focus and contrast, such as Collage, Chicago, 
1957, which features hundreds of clippings from 
magazines. Callahan had known the architect Mies 
van der Rohe when they were on the ID faculty 
together, and van der Rohe's predilections for sim- 
plified form that was also generalized and abstract 
mirrored his own. Influenced by van der Rohe, Call- 
ahan created a series of multiple exposures of archi- 
tectural subjects typified by Chicago (ca. 1948). 

Throughout his career, Callahan photographed 
the natural landscape, including brooding, Minim- 
alist beach scenes taken in Cape Cod, Massachu- 
setts, and textural nature studies of leaves, grasses, 
tree branches, and twigs, such as the elegantly 
minimal studies of plant stems against a white 
background, such as Detroit (ca. 1947), which mi- 
mics the creases and lines of the nude female body 
of Eleanor (1947). These works have a strong sense 
of abstraction, and taken together with his more 
experimental multiple-exposure photographs, show 



his familiarity with painterly issues and the influ- 
ence of painter friends and colleagues such as Hugo 
Weber (a fellow ID teacher) and Robert Mother- 
well, whom he met when he taught a summer ses- 
sion at Black Mountain College in North Carolina. 

Although he is often thought of as a photogra- 
pher of the figure or the cityscape and landscape, 
Callahan also dealt with popular culture and the 
mass media. Some of his earliest work photo- 
graphed neon signs, transforming them with cam- 
era movements into expressive bursts of light. 
Especially in the 1960s, perhaps reacting to the 
general climate of sweeping social and political 
change in the United States, Callahan focused on 
cultural imagery, superimposing images taken from 
television with images of pedestrians, which con- 
trasted the powerful, carefully constructed media 
images with the mundane reality of everyday life. 
This strain in Callahan's work, although not as 
well known, prefigures much of the "image scaveng- 
ing," or appropriation, practiced by many artists of 
the 1980s to the turn of the century, including Bar- 
bara Kruger and Richard Prince. 

Although Callahan experimented with color 
from the beginning of his career, his photographs 
of the 1950s and 1960s were generally in black and 
white; color came to the fore in 1977 in architec- 
tural and landscape studies that featured intense, 
yet low-key, color. Callahan continued his photo- 
graphic explorations throughout his long career, 
returning in the 1990s to subjects that he first 
explored in the 1950s: landscape and street scenes 
featuring raking light that abstracts the image. 

Callahan was influenced by his travels, including 
a year-long trip to Europe in 1957, which was 
funded by a grant from the Graham Foundation. 
This sojourn in Aix-en-Provence, France, produced 
his well-known works of double-exposure images 
of Eleanor and the landscape of Provence. A 1963 
trip to Mexico was followed by extensive travels in 
Europe, South America, the South Pacific, Austra- 
lia, New Zealand, Japan, and China. He was 
honored with a retrospective at MoMA in 1976 
and a traveling retrospective organized by the 
National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, in 
1996. His photographs have been exhibited inter- 
nationally and are included in the collections of 
virtually every photography museum and photo- 
graphy department within general museums. A 
variety of magazines published his photographs, 
including Life, Newsweek, The New York Times 
and The Chicago Tribune magazines, U.S. Camera, 
Aperture, and Harper's Bazaar. 

Lynne Warren 



205 



CALLAHAN, HARRY 



See also: Adams, Ansel; Institute of Design; 
Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo; Museum of Modern Art; Sis- 
kind, Aaron; Steichen, Edward 



Biography 

Born in Detroit, Michigan, 22 October 1912. Attended 
Michigan State College but was self-educated in photo- 
graphy. Instructor in photography at the Institute of 
Design (ID), Chicago, 1946-49; head of ID's Light 
Workshop (the photography department), 1949-61; 
instructor for summer course at Black Mountain Col- 
lege, Black Mountain, North Carolina, 1951; Chairman 
of the Photography Department, 1961-73, and Professor 
of Photography at the Rhode Island School of Design, 
Providence, Rhode Island, 1961-77. Graham Founda- 
tion award for Advanced Studies in Fine Arts, 1956; 
Governor's Award for Excellence in the Arts, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, 1969; John Simon Guggenheim 
Memorial Foundation Fellowship, 1972; elected Fellow 
of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, 
1979; recipient of first Distinguished Career in Photo- 
graphy award from the Friends of Photography, Carmel, 
California, 1981; Brandeis Creative Arts Medal, 1985. 
Died in Atlanta, Georgia, 15 March 1999. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1947 Harry Callahan; 750 Studio Gallery; Chicago, Illinois 

1951 Photographs by Harry Callahan; Art Institute of Chi- 
cago; Chicago, Illinois 

1956 Harry Callahan; Kansas City Art Institute; Kansas 
City, Kansas 

1958 Harry Callahan Exhibition; George Eastman House; 
Rochester, New York 

1964 Photographs: Harry Callahan; Hallmark Gallery; New 
York and traveling 

1972 Harry Callahan: The City; George Eastman House; 
Rochester, New York, and traveling 

1976 Callahan; Museum of Modern Art; New York, and 
traveling 

1978 Harry Callahan: 38"' Venice Biennial 1978; United 
States Pavilion; Venice, Italy 

1979 Harry Callahan: Photographs in Color/The Years 
1946-1978; Center for Creative Photography; University 
of Arizona, Tucson, and traveling 

1983 The Photography of Harry Callahan, 1941-1982; Seibu 
Museum of Art; Tokyo 

1984 Eleanor and Barbara: Photographs by Harry Callahan; 
Art Institute of Chicago and traveling 

1985 Harry Callahan: Retrospective 1941-1982; Ffotogal- 
lery; Cardiff, Wales, and traveling 

1996 Harry Callahan; National Gallery of Art; Washington, 
DC, and traveling 



Group Exhibitions 

1948 In and Out of Focus; Museum of Modern Art; New 
York, New York 

1950 Four Photographers: Lisette Model, Bill Brandt, Ted Croner, 
Harry Callahan; Museum of Modern Art; New York 

1951 Abstraction in Photography; Museum of Modern Art; 
New York 



1953 Contemporary Photography; National Museum of 

Modern Art; Tokyo, Japan 
1955 The Family of Man; Museum of Modern Art; New 

York, and traveling 

1955 Subjektive Fotografia 2; Staatlichen Schule fur Kunst 
und Handwerk; Saarbrucken, Germany 

1956 American Artists Paint the City; United States Pavi- 
lion, 28 th Biennial; Venice, Italy 

1962 Photographs by Harry Callahan and Robert Frank; 
Museum of Modern Art; New York, and traveling 

1968 Photographs in the Twentieth Century; National Gal- 
lery of Canada; Ottawa, Ontario (organized by George 
Eastman House), and traveling 

1974 Landscape! City scape: A Selection of Twentieth-Cen- 
tury American Photographs; Metropolitan Museum of 
Art; New York, New York 

1980 The New Vision: Forty Years of Photography at the 
Institute of Design; Light Gallery; New York, New York 

1983 Harry Callahan and His Students: A Study in Influence; 
Georgia State University Art Gallery; Atlanta, Georgia 

1987 Photography and Art: Interactions Since 1946; Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art; Los Angeles, California 

1989 On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty 
Years of Photography; National Gallery of Art; Wa- 
shington, DC, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 
Illinois, and Los Angeles Country Museum of Art, Los 
Angeles, California 

1993 Light and Vision: Photography at the School of Design in 
Chicago, 1937-1952; Banning and Associates; New York 

1996 When Aaron Met Harry: Chicago Photography 1946-1971; 
The Museum of Contemporary Photography, Chicago 



Selected Works 

Detroit, ca. 1947 

Eleanor, 1947 

Eleanor, Chicago, 1948, 1948 

Chicago, ca. 1948 

Eleanor, Chicago, 1953, 1953 

Collage, Chicago, 1957, 1957 

Water's Edge, 1980 



Further Reading 

Butler, Susan. Harry Callahan: Retrospective 1941-1982. 
Cardiff, Wales: Ffotogallery, 1985. 

Greenough, Sally. Harry Callahan. Washington: National 
Gallery of Art, 1996. 

Kennedy, Anne, and Nicholas Callaway, eds. Eleanor: 
Photographs by Harry Callahan. Carmel, California: 
Friends of Photography, 1984. 

Maholy-Nagy, Laszlo. Malerei, Photographic , Film, Munich, 
1925 as The Bauhaus, Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago by 
Hans M. Wingler. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969. 

Martin, Gordon, and Aaron Siskind, eds. The Multiple 
Image: Photographs by Harry Callahan. Chicago: Insti- 
tute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1961. 

Paul, Sherman. Harry Callahan. New York: The Museum 
of Modern Art, 1967. 

Traub, Charles, ed. The New Vision: Forty Years of Photo- 
graphy at the Institute of Design. Millerton, New York: 
Aperture, 1982. 

Szarkowski, John. Callahan. Millerton, New York: Aper- 
ture, 1976. 



206 



CALLE, SOPHIE 



SOPHIE CALLE 



French 

Sophie Calle produces unique, even idiosyncratic, 
works at the intersection of performance, photo- 
graphy, and literature. She continually thwarts 
expectations by radically transforming her artis- 
tic methodology for almost every new project. 
Although Calle works within the lineage of con- 
ceptual art, at times recalling the earlier tactics 
of American conceptual artists of the 1960s and 
'70s Vito Acconci (surveillance) or Douglas Hue- 
bler (mapping), she always places herself in the 
midst of her practice, as personal narratives 
unfold within the varying structural contexts of 
gallery installations, photographic books, and 
video documentation. 

Calle was bom in Paris, France, 9 October 1953. 
Her parents divorced when she was only three years 
old. She was an introverted child who read avidly. 
Calle's father, a doctor, collected contemporary art 
including examples of Pop Art by the Americans 
Roy Lichtenstein, and Andy Warhol and the French 
painter Martial Raysse. Calle was heavily influenced 
by the turbulent politics of the late 1960s and has 
recalled, "At 15, 1 was a militant." At the age of 18, 
Calle traveled to Lebanon and witnessed the Pales- 
tinian struggles firsthand. After her initial sojourn 
abroad, she returned to likewise witness struggles in 
Paris between assorted factions of activists, and she 
involved herself with a group which assisted women 
in obtaining free contraception and abortion (then 
illegal in France) on demand. Throughout a seven- 
year period during the 1970s, Calle spent much of 
her time traveling abroad, including Canada, Mex- 
ico, and the United States. 

In 1979, Calle asked 29 different friends and 
acquaintances to sleep in her bed for eight-hour 
stretches during a one-week long period, and her 
resulting documentation culminated in a work 
called The Sleepers. Subsequently, Calle created 
Venetian Suite, which begins with the statement: 

At the end of January 1981, on the streets of Paris, I 
followed a man whom I lost sight of a few minutes 
later in the crowd. That very evening, quite by chance, 
he was introduced to me at an opening. During the 
course of our conversation, he told me he was planning 
an imminent trip to Venice. I decided to follow him. 



In The Hotel, while working as a chambermaid, 
Calle made clandestine photographs of the guests' 
belongings. In 1983, she called phone numbers 
taken from a lost address book, and then published 
documentation of her communications each day 
that August in the newspaper Liberation. Such ela- 
borate stunts and clever games have become a hall- 
mark of her creative approach. 

In The Blind (1986) one of Calle's most poignant 
pieces, she interviewed people who were born 
blind, querying them about their ideas of beauty. 
In the resulting works, Calle grouped photo- 
graphic portraits of the interviewees along with 
their statements ("White must be the color of pur- 
ity. I'm told white is beautiful. So I think it's 
beautiful. But even if it weren't beautiful, it 
would be the same thing.") and an image taken 
by the artist. A similar instance of physical absence 
coupled with verbal description is exemplified by 
the series Last Seen (1991), in which Calle solicited 
comments from museum employees about "miss- 
ing" works which then were on loan or had been 
stolen. The remarks shared with Calle ranged 
widely from being vague and speculative, to at 
times poetic or exacting in nature ("I don't remem- 
ber it at all. Except, I remember there was a guy 
with a top hat and maybe a mustache/I remember 
a predominant russet tone apart from the pale rose 
colored face and hands"). 

Calle's projects have incorporated both social 
and personal contexts. In Exquisite Pain (1984- 
2003), Calle displayed 92 photographs and re- 
counted a three-month period she spent in Japan 
as a student, and the subsequent and painful end of 
a romantic relationship. The photographs are 
stamped in red to record the artist's countdown 
"...DAYS TO UNHAPPINESS." The second 
part of the exhibition is devoted to images evoking 
and texts recording the period after Calle's lover 
fails to appear at their designated meeting place, a 
hotel room in New Delhi. Here, Calle places a 
diaristic description of her own angst alongside 
the responses of others to the question "When 
have you suffered the most?" The 2003 video 
Unfinished (and an accompanying group of photo- 
graphs) documents Calle's attempts to create a 
work using footage and photographs appropriated 



207 



CALLE, SOPHIE 



from the cameras installed in automatic teller 
machines. In dealing with the visual records of 
daily financial transactions, she pondered the var- 
ious ways by which she could realize a work drawn 
from this material. The images in turn seemed to 
thwart Calle's efforts, and the artist ended up with 
a work that she declared "unfinished." 

Collaboration has played a large role in many of 
Calle's projects. In 1992, Calle co-directed a fea- 
ture-length video with the American photographer 
Greg Shepherd entitled No Sex Last Night (Double 
Blind) , which documented their road trip taken in a 
Cadillac from New York to California. Each used a 
separate camera to record the journey and their 
increasingly tense relations. For the exhibition 
Double Game, Calle worked with the writer Paul 
Auster, who had previously created a fictional 
character based on Calle who appeared in his 
1992 novel Leviathan. Both also share an interest 
in private detectives, as Calle hired one to trace her 
steps in the 1981 work, The Shadow, and Auster's 
acclaimed New York Trilogy (1985-86) reworks the 
conventions of the detective novel. Calle later 
asked Auster if he would conjure another character 
for her to "inhabit" herself, and inspire works for 
the artist to then "create." The two have commu- 
nicated back and forth in this way, blurring the 
edges between fantasy and reality. 

Calle often merges realms of fact and fiction in 
her diverse body of work, creating a third compel- 
ling entity, which combines her voice or text, along 
with a series of images in accordance with a theme. 
She tends to spy on other participants, both willing 
and unwilling, and equally to reveal in calculated 
fashion more and more aspects of her own private 
(and public) identity. This frequently results in an 
effect resembling a mirage, hallucination, or hall of 
mirrors, as Calle departs from the exactitude of 
photographic facts and instead favors the poetic 
character of spoken truths. 

Martin Patrick 

See also: Photography in France; Representation 
and Gender 

Biography 

Born in Paris, France, 9 October 1953. Lives and works in 
Paris and New York. 



Individual Exhibitions 

1980 The Bronx; Fashion Moda Gallery; New York, New 
York 

1981 The Sleepers; Galerie Canon; Geneva, Switzerland 
1983 The Hotel; Galerie Chantal Crousel; Paris, France 



1986 The Blind; Galerie Crousel-Hussenot; Paris, France 

1989 Sophie Calle, A Survey; Fred Hoffman Gallery; Los 
Angeles, California 

1990 The Tombs; GaleriaLaMaquinaEspanola; Seville, Spain 

1991 Sophie Calle, a suivre...; ARC Musee d'Art Moderne 
de la Ville de Paris; Paris, France 

1993 Last Seen; Leo Castelli Gallery; New York, New York 

Sophie Calle: Proofs; Hood Museum of Art; Dart- 
mouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 

1994 Absence; Galerie Chantal Crousel; Paris, France 

1995 Proofs; University Art Museum, University of Cali- 
fornia; Santa Barbara, California 

The Detachment; Galerie Arndt& Partner; Berlin, Germany 

1997 Suite venetienne; White Cube; London, England 

1998 Doubles Jeux; Centre national de la photographie; 
Paris, France 

The Birthday Ceremony; Tate Gallery; London, Eng- 
land 

1999 Souvenirs de Berlin-Est; Musee d'art moderne et con- 
temporain; Strasbourg. France 

Appointment; Freud Museum; London, England 

2000 Die wahren Geschichten der Sophie Calle; Museum 
Fridericianum; Kassel, Germany 

2002 Sophie Calle; Sprengel Museum; Hannover, Germany 

2003 M'as-tu-vue; Musee national d'art moderne; Georges 
Centre Pompidou, Paris, France 



Group Exhibitions 

980 XI Biennale de Paris. Manifestation internationale des 
jeunes artistes; Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; 
Paris, France 

981 Autoportraits photographiques, 1898-1981; Centre 
Georges Pompidou; Paris, France 

982 Du Livre; Musee des Beaux-Arts; Rouen, France 

983 Iln'y a pas a proprement parler une histoire...; Maison 
de la culture; Rennes, France 

984 Photographie contemporaine en Prance; Centre 
Georges Pompidou; Paris, France 

985 Kunst mit Eigen-Sinn; Museum moderner Kunst; 
Vienna, Austria 

988 Beyond the Image. FotoFest '88; Houston Center for 
Photography; Houston, Texas 

989 Culture Medium; International Center of Photogra- 
phy; New York, New York 

Tenir I'image a distance; Musee d'art contemporain; 
Montreal, Canada 

L'invention d'un art; Centre Pompidou; Paris, France 

1990 The Ready-made Boomerang; Sydney Biennale; Syd- 
ney, Australia 

Seven Obsessions; Whitechapel Art Gallery; London, 
England 

Images in Transition: Photographic Representation 
Towards the 90s; National Museum of Modern Art, 
Kyoto/National Museum of Modern Art; Tokyo, Japan 

1991 Dislocations; Museum of Modern Art; New York, 
New York 

1992 Doubletake: Collective Memory and Contemporary 
Art; Hayward Gallery; London, England 

1993 Whitney Biennial; Whitney Museum of American Art; 
New York, New York 

1995 Femininj Masculin. Le sexe de Tart; Centre Georges 
Pompidou; Paris, France 

1996 Passions privees; Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 
Paris; Paris, France 



208 



CALLE, SOPHIE 




Sophie Calle, Autobiographies (The Plastic Surgery), 2000, gelatin silver print with text panel 
print: 67 x 47" (170.2 x 119.38 cm) text panel: 19 % x 19 %" (50.2 x 50.2 cm) Edition of 5 
French, 5 English. 
[Courtesy Paula Cooper Gallery, New York] 



209 



CALLE, SOPHIE 



1998 Premises; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; New 
York, New York 

1999 Museum as Muse; Museum of Modern Art; New 
York, New York 

2000 L 'empire du temps. Mythes et creation; Musee du 
Louvre; Paris, France 

2001 CTRL [Space]: Rhetorics of Surveillance from Ben- 
tham to Big Brother; ZKM; Karlsruhe, Germany 

2003 The Furtive Gaze; Museum of Contemporary Photo- 
graphy, Columbia College; Chicago, Illinois 



Selected Works 



The Sleepers, 1979 
Venetian Suite, 1980 



The Hotel, 1981 

The Address Book,l9S3 

The Blind, 1986 

Last Seen, 1991 

No Sex Last Night, 1992 

Memories of East Berlin, 1996 

Exquisite Pain, 1984-2003 

Unfinished, 2003 



Further Reading 

Calle, Sophie. M'as-tu vue. Munich: Prestel, 2003. 

. Doubles-Jeux. Aries: Actes Sud, 1998. 

Sophie Calle. Hannover: Sprengel Museum, 2002. 



CAMERA: 35 MM 



The 35-mm format is the most popular film and 
camera format today. Contributing to its popular- 
ity are its small compact size and ease of use. At the 
end of the twentieth century, over 90% of house- 
holds in the United States owned one or more 
cameras, most of these 35-mm format. 35-mm 
film is inexpensive and widely available, as is pro- 
cessing of this versatile film format. 

A 35-mm film camera can be one of two types: 
a rangefinder or a single-lens reflex. Many of to- 
day's popular "point-and-shoot" and one-time 
use cameras use 35-mm film. The term 35-mm di- 
rectly relates to the film size; the resulting images 
on film are 35-mm in the longest dimension. 35- 
mm film is a roll film, meaning it comes in a 
light-tight canister containing several feet of unex- 
posed film. 

A 35-mm camera is typically composed of three 
main parts: a light-tight body, which also houses 
the light meter and shutter, a lens, and a viewfin- 
der. In a rangefinder-type 35-mm camera, the view- 
finder is located in the top corner of the camera, 
independent of the photographic lens. Rangefinder 
35-mm cameras, also known as point-and-shoot 
cameras, typically have automatic features, such as 
automatic film loading, auto-advancing, automatic 
exposure, and built-in flash that fires when needed 
to boost exposure. Other features often found on 
this type of camera are zoom lenses, date/time 
imprinting, and advanced flash features such as 
fill-flash and red-eye reduction. Point-and-shoot 



cameras have evolved to a camera that is extremely 
portable, easy to use, and relatively inexpensive. 

The second type of 35-mm camera, the single- 
lens-reflex (SLR), has an incorporated viewfinder. 
The camera lens is both the viewfinder lens and 
the lens that is used to photograph with. The 
image enters the lens, and is reflected off of a 
mirror up to the viewfinder. The viewfinder of 
an SLR is composed of several mirrors and prisms 
to brighten the image and display it in proper 
orientation to the subject. When the shutter but- 
ton is depressed, the mirror swings out of the way, 
temporarily blocking the view through the view- 
finder, and allows the image to travel back to the 
film plane. 

35-mm SLRs have the advantage over point- 
and-shoot cameras in that they allow for inter- 
changeable lenses. The lens is modular, allowing 
the photographer to choose a specific lens accord- 
ing to his or her needs. SLRs also typically allow 
for a greater level of control over exposure and 
metering. For these reasons, 35-mm SLR cameras 
are the format of choice for many professional 
photographers, such as photojournalists and com- 
mercial photographers. 

Camera Components 

Body 

The camera body is simply a light tight box that 
houses the film. Inside the camera body is the film 



210 



CAMERA: 35 MM 



advance system. The film advance is designed to 
pull the film across the film plane (where the image 
will be formed). Once the photograph is made, the 
film advances the distance of one frame, or indivi- 
dual picture area. In many point-and-shoot cam- 
eras, advancing the film is done automatically. 
Once the shutter is closed, a motor winds the 
film to the next frame to ready the camera for 
the next exposure. In a manual SLR, advancing 
the film is done with a film advance lever. Motor 
drives can be added to SLRs to automatically 
advance the film. Some SLRs come with an inte- 
grated motor drive. 

The body also houses the shutter. A shutter is a 
device used to regulate the amount of time light is 
permitted to strike the film. The shutter is one of 
two controls used to regulate exposure. Shutters in 
35-mm cameras are typically of the focal plane 
variety, meaning they are located directly in front 
of the film, or focal plane. These shutters are com- 
posed of either a set of cloth slit curtains or metal 
leaves. The shutter speed is created by the curtains 
or leaves moving in sequence, exposing the film 
from side to side or top to bottom. The speed is 
dependent on how fast the traveling slit moves 
across the film. 

Shutter speeds can range from 1 second to as fast 
as '/too of a second. A standard shutter speed range 
is: 1 sec (slowest), Vi, %, V», Vis, l Ao, Vw, Vm, 'Aso, Vm, 
Viooo (fastest). Increments of these speeds are typi- 
cally double the time, or half the time, depending 
on the direction. For example, changing the shutter 
speed from Vw to l Ao doubles the amount of light 
striking the film, where as changing from a !4> to 
'/i25 cuts the amount of exposure in half. One of 
these increments is typically known as a stop. 

In addition to determining the amount of time 
light is allowed to strike the film, shutter speeds are 
also responsible for capturing motion. A long shut- 
ter speed will blur motion; a short shutter speed 
will capture it sharply. 

In order for the camera to evaluate the amount 
of light the film needs to make an exposure, it needs 
a light meter. Virtually all modern 35-mm cameras 
have built-in light meters, and depending on the 
camera, the light meter can either set the exposure 
controls automatically, or give the photographer a 
guideline of what the exposure needs to be, allow- 
ing for various effects. 

Lens 

The purpose of the lens is to focus the image on 
the film plane. Depending on the camera, this 
focusing can take place manually, by rotating the 



lens collar, or automatically, in the case of auto 
focus lenses and cameras. Auto focus lenses work 
via infrared or ultrasonic sensors that determine 
subject distance and then set the lens accordingly. 

The lens contains the second key element in ex- 
posure control, the aperture. The aperture is an 
iris-like device set inside the lens to control the 
amount of light that reaches the shutter. The ap- 
erture is controlled either automatically through the 
in-camera light meter, or manually through a series 
of increments. These increments are called f/stops. 
A typical f/stop range is as follows: f/2.8 (widest 
opening), f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22 (smallest 
opening). F/stops control how much of an opening 
there is inside the blades of the aperture. Each in- 
crement is half or double the next or last, respec- 
tively. For example, changing the aperture from f/ 
11 to f/16 will halve the amount of exposure, while 
changing from f/11 to f/8 will double it. 

Aperture also controls depth-of-field, or the 
amount of focus in an image. The smaller the aper- 
ture opening (higher number), the greater the 
amount of depth of field there will be in an 
image. For example, a small aperture would allow 
a person in a field to be focused as well as the field 
behind them. A wider aperture (smaller number) 
would mean the person was sharp, but the field 
would drop out of focus. 

Lens types 

Most camera lenses have fixed focal lengths, 
typically measured in millimeters. A "normal" 
lens is considered to mimic the average field of 
view of the human eye, or 50 degrees of view if 
you are looking straight ahead. To mimic this field 
of view, a "normal" lens must be equal to the 
physical diagonal of the film format being used. 
In the case of 35-mm, this measurement equals 
approximately 50-mm. 

Short focal length lenses are any lenses that are 
shorter than normal focal length. A 28-mm lens 
would be considered a short focal length lens for 
35-mm format. The shorter the focal length of the 
lens, the wider angle of view it provides. A 28-mm 
offers a 75° field of view when on a 35-mm camera. 
For this reason, short focal length lenses are often 
known as wide-angle lenses. 

Long focal length lenses are any lenses that 
typically have an angle of view of 35° or less. In a 
35-mm, these would be any lenses that are 80-mm 
or more in focal length. Long focal length lenses 
enlarge the subject as they narrow the field of view. 
Within this category are telephoto lenses, which are 
specially designed long-focal length lenses that 



211 



CAMERA: 35 MM 



magnify the subject to a greater degree than the 
focal length would normally determine. 

Zoom lenses are lenses of varying focal length. 
They are labeled as a range, e.g., 28-80 mm. The 
purpose of the zoom lens is to replace multiple 
focal lengths with a single lens. However, visual 
quality will almost always fall short when com- 
pared to a fixed focal length lens. 

Macro lenses are lenses of normal or longer 
focal lengths that are designed to focus at a much 
closer range. This allows the lens to be within 
inches of the subject for much greater subject 
magnification than conventional lenses. Macro 
lenses are also optically corrected to focus criti- 
cally in high magnification. 

Exposure 

The shutter speed and aperture needed to cap- 
ture a given photographic image depend largely on 
the sensitivity of the film. In the earliest days of 
photography, film was considered to be "slow" — it 
was not unusual to have to make an exposure of 
several hours to get any kind of information on 
film. Modern films are now so efficient photogra- 
phers are able to capture images in fractions of a 
second, provided a properly sensitive film is used. 
Film sensitivity, or speed, is measured in terms of 
ISO (International Standards Organization). The 
higher the ISO, the more sensitive the film, where 
as lower numbers represent films that are not as 
sensitive, or "fast." 

Film speed will dictate the shutter speed and 
aperture needed to make a good exposure. The 
camera's internal light meter evaluates the amount 
of light in a scene. In a manual camera, it will then 
give the photographer its recommendation as to 
the shutter and aperture settings to use based on 
the film's ISO. Many modern cameras set the ISO 
automatically by scanning an electronic code 
located on the film canister. 

These settings, once determined by the meter, 
are interchangeable to a point. For example, if the 
camera recommends that the exposure should be 
Vw @ f/8, the photographer has several choices. 
Shutter speed and aperture share a reciprocal re- 
lationship. If the photographer wants more depth 
of field than f/8 will him, he could use f/11. 
However, since he has now cut the amount 
of light striking the film in half, he must compen- 
sate by lengthening the time. His final exposure 
could be I/30 @ f/11, which would produce exactly 
the same amount of density as his original light 
meter reading. 



Metering Systems 

Light meters in all cameras are based on an 
average. The light meter assumes that the scene 
will have equal light areas, dark areas, and mid- 
tones. This assumption averages out to a charac- 
teristic known as middle gray, or 18% gray. The 
light meter places anything the camera is aimed at 
in this value. The most common metering system 
is to simply average all of the subject reflectance 
that is inside the viewfinder. This system is known 
as averaging. 

However, since not all scenes can or should be 
averaged to 18% gray, more advanced 35-mm SLR 
systems allow metering choices. Center-weighted 
metering places the meter's emphasis in the center 
of the frame. Matrix metering is based on a grid 
that is based on a series of typical lighting situa- 
tions, such as a bright sky on the top of the frame, 
and darker land at the bottom. The camera then 
tries to automatically compensate among choices 
on the grid. Spot metering, the most precise 
method, allows the photographer to specify a 
point in the photograph that they would like to 
be 18% gray, or take readings off of a highlight 
and a shadow and average the two. 

Accessories 

Accessories for 35-mm are widely available 
because of the format's widespread popularity. In 
addition to interchangeable lenses, flashes, tripods, 
filters, motor drives, bellows, cable releases, a num- 
ber of other accessories are available for the novice 
all the way up to the advanced professional. 

Flashes 

Many 35-mm point-and-shoot cameras have 
built-in flashes, as do some 35-mm SLR cameras. 
SLR cameras also offer the choice of additional 
external flashes, usually connected to the camera 
via a top slot called a hot shoe, or into a plug via a 
synchronization cord. Depending on the camera, 
photographers can employ an additional electro- 
nic flash that has a light sensor located on the 
flash itself, or one that is more advanced and can 
work with the camera's meter to shut the built-in 
flash off at the proper time. These systems are 
dedicated and automatic, or TTL (through-the- 
lens) systems, respectively. 

Tripods 

A sturdy tripod allows a photographer greater 
freedom when using slower shutter speeds. Tripods 



212 



CAMERA: AN OVERVIEW 



can be made of wood, though most common com- 
mercial tripods are composed of lightweight metal. 

Filters 

Filters are used over the lens to either create or 
negate a particular visual effect. Filters can also be 
used to block out a particular color or wavelength 
of light, as in UV filters. Color correction filters 
can correct a colorcast in a scene, while specialized 
filters can create images with starbursts around 
lights or other specialized effects. 

Christye Sisson 

See also: Camera: An Overview; Camera: Pinhole 
Camera; Camera Obscura; Exposure; Film; Lens; 
Point-and-Shoot 



Further Reading 

Adams, Ansel. The Camera (Book I) . Boston: Little Brown & 

Co., 1995. 
Kemp, Gregg. The Pinhole FAQ. http://www.pinhole.com/ 

resources/FAQ/ (accessed 19 June 2001). 
Kingslake, Rudolf. Optics in Photography. SPIE (Interna- 
tional Society for Optical Engineers). © 2000 The Society 

of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. 
Langford, Michael. Basic Photography. New York: Focal 

Press, 2000. 
London, Barbara, and John Upton. Photography. (7th ed.) 

New York: Prentice Hall, 1998. 
Schaefer, John. An Ansel Adams Guide: Basic Techniques of 

Photography , Book 1. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1992. 
Stroebel, Leslie D., ed. Basic Photographic Materials and 

Processes. New York: Focal Press, 2000. 
Wilgus, Jack and Beverly Wilgus. The Magic Mirror of Life: 

a search for camera obscura rooms. http://brightbytes. 

com/cosite/collection.html (accessed May 5, 2005). 



CAMERA: AN OVERVIEW 



The camera is in large part responsible for shap- 
ing the cultural landscape of the past one hun- 
dred years. A camera enables its user to seize a 
moment in time and capture it on film or as 
digital information. The camera's final product, 
the photograph, allows anyone to become an eye- 
witness to these captured moments, whether 'real' 
or manufactured. The pervasiveness of photogra- 
phy in world culture is a direct result of advance- 
ment in camera technology and manufacture. 
Modern cameras are portable and precise, 
though their origins date back to ancient times. 

Camera Obscura 

The predecessor of the modern camera is the camera 
obscura ("dark room" in Latin). The camera obscura 
was often a darkened room, with a small hole in a 
window covering. Through the hole, an image of life 
outside the window was projected on to an opposite 
parallel wall, upside down. This principle had been 
known in early Chinese, Arabic, and Greek cultures. 
The basic concept behind the camera obscura, and 
all cameras, is that light travels in a straight line. 
When light rays reflected off of a subject pass 
through a hole, they cross and reform. The hole 
acts as a point of projection for the image. Any ray 



of light that passes through the hole will hit the focus 
plane (the wall) at a particular point. Any other ray 
of light, again being reflected off of the initial sub- 
ject, will intersect at a different point. These multiple 
points, when reassembled on the focus plane, form 
the image. The distance from the hole to the focus 
plane determines the final size of the image. 

The discovery of photography in 1827 by Joseph 
Niepce and his partner, Louis Daguerre, fostered 
the birth of the modern camera. In fact, Daguerre 
used camera obscura in many of his early photo- 
graphic attempts, but soon employed more portable 
cameras such as pinhole and simple lens cameras. 

Pinhole cameras 

Pinhole cameras consist of a light-tight box or con- 
tainer with at least two parallel surfaces, with a small 
hole in one of those surfaces. The primary difference 
between pinhole cameras and camera obscura is that 
pinhole cameras use some type of light-sensitive 
material (film or photographic paper) to capture 
the image and make it permanent. Pinhole cameras 
can be made out of almost any container that can be 
made to be light tight. 

Pinhole cameras, though still in use today, present 
some drawbacks, although some photographers 



213 



CAMERA: AN OVERVIEW 



exploit these characteristics for aesthetic ends. Im- 
ages generated by pinhole cameras are fuzzy and 
lack detail. Optics, and, finally, complex lenses 
began to be used in place of the hole in a pinhole 
camera, allowing an image to be focused on the 
image plane. 

The simple camera 

A simple camera consists of three basic parts: a 
light-tight container, or body, a lens, and an image 
plane, that is, a place for film or other light sensitive 
material to be placed to receive the projected image. 
Modern cameras also include viewfmders to aim 
and compose the image, a shutter and aperture to 
control the light reaching the film, and a light meter 
to determine the amount of light needed to create 
the image. Modern photography often integrates 
these systems so that the user is often not aware of 
the inner workings of the camera. 

Camera types can be divided into several cate- 
gories, most notably by their viewing/lens systems. 

View Cameras 

The earliest lens camera type, the view camera, is 
still used today. The view camera body consists of 
two standards (front and rear) that provide a sup- 
port system for a flexible length of bellows. The 
bellows are an accordion-folded length of stiff, 
light-tight material that extends between the stan- 
dards. The front standard of a view camera holds 
the lens board, which contains a view camera lens. 
A view camera lens contains all of the exposure 
controls for the camera, including the aperture 
and shutter speed. View cameras do not have light 
meters. The rear standard houses the ground glass, 
the image plane of the view camera. The image is 
focused on the ground glass with the help of a dark 
cloth draped over the back of the camera and the 
photographer. The film is then inserted in front of 
the ground glass before taking the photograph. 

Older view cameras used glass or metal plates 
coated with photographic emulsions as their light- 
sensitive material. Many early photographic pro- 
cesses, including Daguerrotypes and Tintypes were 
done with view cameras. Modern view cameras use 
sheet film, squares of film cut to fit the size format 
of the camera. The most popular view camera size 
today is 4 x 5, that is, utilizing film that is 4 x 5 
inches, though cameras utilizing 8x10 inch film are 
still used. Film sheets are loaded in complete dark- 
ness in sheet film holders specially designed to be 
light tight. Once inserted into the view camera, the 



dark slide protecting the film is removed so that the 
film can be exposed in the camera. Each film holder 
contains two sheets of film when loaded. View cam- 
eras can also use instant film, such as Polaroid, with 
a special film holder. 

Sheet film presents with the advantages of excel- 
lent clarity and resolution, but also is slow to load 
and inconvenient to shoot quickly. As technologi- 
cal advances in photographic materials allowed for 
shorter exposure times and flexible films, many 
photographers wished for cameras that could be 
used more quickly as well. Roll-film cameras were 
developed to support burgeoning fields such as 
photojournalism, allowing photographers to cap- 
ture images seconds apart. Film was made into 
long strips, or rolls, to allow for more speed and 
spontaneity in photography. 

Rangefinder Cameras 

The dilemma with view cameras is that the viewing 
system and the image capture system are one and 
the same. The rangefinder camera attempts to solve 
that problem by providing a separate "composi- 
tion" finder, either mounted on top or inside the 
camera, to allow the photographer to more spon- 
taneously choose and frame their subject. 

Many of the first consumer-level cameras were 
rangefinder cameras developed by George East- 
man of Eastman Kodak Company. The Kodak 
"Brownie," a box camera with roll film already 
loaded, had a viewfinder in the top corner of the 
box. No more than a channel blocked off by clear 
glass, the viewfinder nonetheless allowed users to 
"point and shoot." 

The rangefinder viewing system remains popular 
today. The advantage of rangefinder cameras is 
that they are among the quietest and smoothest 
systems available, with no mirror to jar the image 
upon exposure. Rangefinder cameras are what are 
commonly referred to as today's "point and 
shoot" cameras. 

Rangefinder cameras are made for both 35-mm 
roll film and medium format roll films. 



Twin Lens Reflex 

The term "reflex" in both twin lens reflex and 
single lens reflex cameras refers to the use of a 
mirror to reflect the composed image to the view- 
finder. The mirror in a twin lens reflex sits directly 
behind the upper viewing lens, while the lower lens 
of the camera is responsible for transmitting the 
image to film. 



214 



CAMERA: AN OVERVIEW 



The mirror sets the image right side-up, but like 
any mirrored image, the image is reversed left-to- 
right. The image is projected on a ground glass 
surface in the viewfinder for focusing and composi- 
tion. Since the two lenses are mounted as one piece, 
any focusing that takes place for the viewing lens is 
mimicked in the photographic lens. The viewfinder 
in a twin-lens reflex camera is most often a waist- 
level finder, meaning the image is projected to the 
ground glass mounted to the top of the camera. In 
order to easily see the image in the ground glass, 
the photographer must hold the camera at waist- 
level. The ground glass image is typically shielded 
for viewing by a set of metal leaves that form a box 
around the ground glass. 

Twin lens reflex cameras are typically made for 
medium format roll films. 

Single Lens Reflex 

The most common modern camera type is the sin- 
gle lens reflex camera. In a single lens reflex cam- 
era, both viewing and photography takes place 
through a single lens. A mirror deflects the image 
coming through the lens and sends it to the prism 
for viewing and composition. The prism of a single- 
lens reflex camera is made up of a series of mirrors 
and lenses to brighten the image and orient it prop- 
erly for the viewer. When the shutter button is 
depressed, the mirror swings out of the way to 
allow the image to travel back to the film. Al- 
though the most popular example of a single lens 
reflex camera is 35-mm roll film format, most pro- 
fessional grade medium format cameras today are 
also single lens reflex. 

Light Control 

Exposure 

Exposure is the amount of light needed to form 
an image on film or other light sensitive materials. 
In the early stages of photography, it was not 
uncommon to require several minutes of exposure 
to form an image. Technological advances in film 
sensitivity and characteristics have reduced this 
time to fractions of a second. 

There are many different levels of sensitivity 
available in today's modern films. Film sensitivity, 
often referred to as film speed, is measured in terms 
of ISO (International Standards Organization). 
The higher the ISO number, the more sensitive 
the film is, and the less light it will need to make a 
proper exposure. The lower the film speed, the 
more light it will need to obtain a proper exposure. 
For example, a film with an ISO of 800 will allow 



the photographer to capture images with shorter 
exposures than will a film with a speed of 400. ISO 
numbers correspond to their sensitivity; ISO 400 
film needs twice as much light to make the same 
exposure as ISO 800 film. 

Light Meters 

In order to determine how much light is needed 
for an exposure, a photographer must use a light 
meter. Light meters are most often integrated into 
the camera system, either informing the photogra- 
pher of the proper exposure for that film and 
scene, or setting that exposure automatically. In 
order for the light meter in the camera to function 
properly, the meter must know the sensitivity, or 
ISO, of the film being used. Many modern film 
manufacturers mark the film canister with an 
electronically read code, called a DX code, so 
that a DX-code enabled camera can automatically 
set the meter to the proper ISO. 

Shutter and Aperture 

Once the amount of exposure has been deter- 
mined, cameras employ two controls to obtain 
that exposure, shutter and aperture. The shutter is 
a device inside the camera that controls the amount 
of time that the film is exposed to light. Because of 
today's high film speeds, shutters must travel very 
quickly, exposing the film in fractions of a second. 
A typical shutter speed range could be from Viom of 
a second all the way up to one second. Many 
cameras set shutter speed in increments so that 
each speed is twice or half the one next to it. For 
example, the next speed up from Vm of a second 
would be Vvm (half the amount of time), and the 
next down would be Vim (twice the amount of time). 
These increments are commonly referred to as 
stops. Most commonly, shutters are located inside 
the camera body directly in front of the film. These 
types of shutters are called focal plane shutters, and 
are usually constructed of a series of cloth curtains 
or metal leaves. Less common is the leaf shutter, 
typically found in view cameras and professional 
grade medium format cameras. A leaf shutter is 
constructed of lightweight metal in a circular, iris- 
like fashion. 

The other camera control used to control expo- 
sure is the aperture. Located in the lens, the aperture 
is an iris-like device that is set to permit a certain 
amount of light. When the blades of the aperture are 
closed down, a very small hole is created for light to 
pass through. When the blades of the aperture are 
opened up, a larger hole is created, therefore allow- 
ing more light to pass through. Openings of aperture 



215 



CAMERA: AN OVERVIEW 



are measured in f/stops, which are based on the area 
of the opening. A typical range of f/stops on a lens 
may span from f/2 (wide opening) to f/22 (very small 
opening). Like shutter speeds, apertures are also 
most often set in increments to the power of two. 
For example, an aperture of f/8 lets in twice the 
amount of light as f/1 1 . 

Aperture and shutter speed share an inverse rela- 
tionship. Each controls a different aspect of the 
image. If the goal is to capture fast motion, a faster 
shutter speed is needed. In order to achieve that 
fast speed, it is usually necessary to open up the 
aperture to compensate for the short shutter speed. 
Likewise, smaller apertures allow for a great 
amount of depth of field. Depth of field is what 
allows the photographer to control the amount of 
focus in the image. For example, if someone is pho- 
tographing a flower with a mountain range for a 
background, they could have both in focus if they 
use a very small aperture, such as f/22 or f/32. 
However, since these f/stops constitute very small 
openings, a longer shutter speed is usually required 
to make up for the exposure lost by closing down 
the aperture. 

Christye Sisson 



See also: Brownie; Camera: 35 mm; Camera: Diana; 
Camera Obscura; Camera: Pinhole; Camera: Point- 
and-Shoot; Eastman Kodak Company; Exposure; 
Lens; Light Meter 

Further Reading 

Adams, Ansel. The Camera (Book 1). Boston: Little Brown 
& Co., 1995. 

Kemp, Gregg. The Pinhole FAQ. (Accessed 19 June 2001). 
http:/ jwww.pinhole.com/resources/FAQ/ . 

Kingslake, Rudolf. Optics in Photography. SPIE (Interna- 
tional Society for Optical Engineers). © 2000 The Society 
of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. 

Langford, Michael. Basic Photography. Boston: Focal 
Press, 2000. 

Leggat, Robert, Ph.D. A History of Photography: From its 
Beginnings until the 1920s, http://www.rleggat.com/ 
photohistory / index. html (accessed May 5, 2005). 

London, Barbara, and John Upton. Photography. (7th ed.) 
New York: Prentice Hall. 1998. 

Schaefer, John. An Ansel Adams Guide: Basic Techniques of 
Photography, Book 1. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1992. 

Stroebel, Leslie D., ed. Basic Photographic Materials and 
Processes. Boston: Focal Press, 2000. 

Wilgus, Jack and Beverly Wilgus. The Magic Mirror of Life: 
a search for camera obscura rooms, httpf/brighthytes. 
com/cosite/collection.html (accessed May 5, 2005). 



CAMERA: DIANA 



The Diana Camera is a plastic "toy" camera that 
contemporary photographers have embraced for its 
simplicity and unique quality of image. The camera 
was manufactured by the Great Wall Plastic Fac- 
tory of Kowloon, Hong Kong, beginning sometime 
in the early 1960s through reportedly the early 
1970s. It was imported to the United States by the 
Power Sales Company of Willow Grove, Pennsyl- 
vania, and only sold by the gross (twelve dozen), 
with a price ranging from one to three dollars each. 
Though Diana is the best known brand name, the 
camera was marketed under other names including 
Anny, Arrow, Arrow Flash, Asiana, Banier, Ban- 
ner, Colorflash Deluxe, Debonair, Diana Deluxe, 
Diane F, Dionne F2, Dories, Flocon RF, Hi-Flash, 
Justen, Lina, Lina S, Mark L, MegoMatic, Merit 
Mirage, Pnanx Photon 120, Pioneer, Raleigh, Reli- 
ance, Rosko, Rover, See, Shakeys, Stellar, Stellar 



Flash, Tina, Traceflex, Truview, Valiant, Windsor, 
Zip, and Zodiac. Two cameras that are currently 
being manufactured are popular successors to the 
Diana, the Chinese-made Holga and the Russian- 
made LOMO. 

Technically, the Diana camera has a plastic 
body, light blue and black, and a plastic lens. The 
standard model has a single shutter speed that, 
because of its inexpensive nature, varies in speed 
from I/30 to 5 /s of a second. Other models have a B 
(bulb) setting, and the F model even has a built-in 
flash. Included on all models are three aperture 
settings, illustrated by drawings: sunny (f-16), sun 
with clouds (f-6.3), and cloudy (f-4.5). The camera 
also allows for limited manual focusing with three 
settings: 4 to 6 feet, 6 to 12 feet, and 12 feet to in- 
finity. The camera uses 120 film, making sixteen 
exposures that are approximately 2x2 inches